The seven angels with the seven last plagues, 1. The sea of glass, and those who had a victory over the beast, 2. The song of Moses and the Lamb, 3,4. The temple in heaven opened, 5. Seven angels come out of the temple, who receive from one of the four living creatures seven golden vials full of the wrath of God, 6-8.
Notes on Chapter 15
Seven angels having the seven last plagues
Under the emblems of harvest and vintage God's judgments on the enemies of his Church have already been pointed out: but these are farther signified by the seven vials, which are called the seven last plagues of God. The seven last plagues appear to fall under the seventh and last trumpet. As the seventh seal contained the seven trumpets, so the seventh trumpet contains the seven vials. And as seven angels sounded the seven trumpets, so seven angels are appointed to pour out the seven vials, angels being always the ministers of Providence. This chapter contains the opening vision which is preparatory to the pouring out of the vials.
The Targum of Jonathan on Isaiah 51:17, Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem, which hast drunk at the hand of the Lord the cup of his fury, uses the same words employed by the evangelist here: "Jerusalem, thou hast received from the face of the Lord the cup of his wrath; yath pailey casa dilvata, "the PHIALS of the cup of malediction " find again on Isaiah 51:22: I will take out of thy hand the cup of malediction; yath PAILEY casa dechemti, "the PHIALS of the cup of my indignation."
A sea of glass
A spacious lucid plain around the throne, from which fiery coruscations were continually emitted: or, the reflection of the light upon this lucid plain produced the prismatic colours of the most vivid rainbow.
Over the beast, and over his image
See the notes on Revelation 13:1-18.
They sing the song of Moses
That which Moses sang, Exodus 15:1, when he and the Israelites, by the miraculous power of God, had got safely through the Red Sea, and saw their enemies all destroyed.
And the song of the Lamb
The same song adapted to the state of the suffering, but now delivered Christians.
Great and marvellous are thy works
God's works are descriptive of his infinite power and wisdom.
Lord God Almighty
Nearly the same as Jehovah, God of hosts.
Just and true are thy ways
Every step God takes in grace or providence is according to justice, and he carefully accomplishes all his threatenings and all his promises; to this he is bound by his truth.
Who shall not fear thee
That is, All should fear and worship this true God, because he is just and true and holy; and his saints should love and obey him, because he is their King; and they and all men should acknowledge his judgments, because they are made manifest.
The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony
The temple which succeeded the tabernacle, in which was the testimony, viz., the two tables, Aaron's rod, pot of manna, holy anointing oil, testimony to the truth of God and his miraculous interposition in their behalf.
The seven angels came out of the temple
To show that they were sent from God himself.
Clothed in pure and white linen
Habited as priests. For these habits see Exodus 28:6,8; and See Clarke on Revelation ; 1:13.
The temple was filled with smoke
So was the tabernacle when consecrated by Moses, Exodus 40:34,35, and the temple when consecrated by Solomon, 1 Kings 8:10,11; ; 2 Chronicles 5:14. See ; Isaiah 6:4. This account seems at least partly copied from those above.
When the high priest entered into the holy of holies, and the ordinary priest into the holy place, they always carried with them a great deal of smoking incense, which filled those places with smoke and darkness, which prevented them from considering too attentively the parts and ornaments of those holy places, and thus served to produce an air of majesty in the temple, which none dared to approach without the deepest reverence. To this Calmet thinks the allusion may be here.