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About that time ...
Stretched forth his hands to afflict ...
This vigorous and fatal movement of the supreme authority in the land against the young church was exceedingly serious. The motivation was clearly that of pleasing the Jews (Acts 12:3); and, if Herod Agrippa had proceeded indefinitely with that policy, there could never have been any end of it except the total destruction of Christianity.
For a discussion of the ten Herod's mentioned in the New Testament, see my Commentary on Mark, under Mark 6:17.
Only seven words in the Greek, translated by eleven in English, recount the martyrdom of the first apostle; and such restraint by the sacred historian shows how different are the words of inspiration from those of ordinary writers. It should be noted that the New Testament records no appointment of a successor to James. Why? He is still an apostle, still "reigning over the twelve tribes of (spiritual) Israel" as Jesus promised (Matthew 19:28). Death never removed an apostle. It was not death but transgression that removed Judas (Acts 1:25).
As Wesley said, "So one of the brothers went to God the first, the other the last, of the apostles." F2 This has been viewed by some as a kind of mystical fulfillment of the desire of James and John to sit "one on the right hand, the other on the left" of the Lord in his kingdom.
Days of unleavened bread ...
This refers to the great annual Passover feast of the Jews; and, as it was at Passover that our Lord suffered, Peter must have associated his own imprisonment and impending death with the events of our Lord's Passion.
This was the name of a group of four soldiers, and four quarternions would be sixteen men appointed to guard Peter.
After the Passover ...
This refers not to Passover day, but to the whole celebration of Passover which lasted eight days.
Intending to bring him forth ...
Herod planned a public execution of Peter, an event which the Jewish hierarchy and the Jerusalem rabble would have celebrated with the utmost enthusiasm. Things looked very bleak for the Christian faith at that moment.
Prayer ... for him ...
Webster and Wilkinson's Greek Testament declares that "The Greek intimates that it was incessantly kept up, always going on." F3 Thus it was a kind of perpetual prayer meeting that the church organized on behalf of Peter. If it is wondered why this was not done for James, answer probably lies in the suddenness with which he was executed almost as soon as he was apprehended, giving no time for such an effort as this on behalf of Peter.
With regard to all the snide remarks commentators have made about the church's praying for Peter's release and their total surprise when it occurred, two things are pertinent: (1) It is not declared that they prayed for Peter's release. It could be that they were praying that Peter's faith would not fail, as it had so conspicuously failed when he denied the Lord. (2) If they were praying for his release, this being not at all unlikely, then the surprise would have been at the dramatic suddenness and manner of it.
PETER'S CONDITION WAS A TYPE OF SIN
Many of the old commentators allegorized this remarkable episode; and despite the fact that the New Testament does not refer to it as an allegory, there are undeniably elements of an astounding allegory in this event. Just as Paul allegorized the history of Abraham and his two wives in Galatians, we shall allege an allegory here, but at the same time receiving the episode as history. The visit of the wisemen to the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:1) has been allegorized for ages, as more particularly noted in my Commentary on Matthew, Matt. 2:1. The deliverance of Peter in this chapter was declared by Matthew Henry to "represent our redemption by Christ, which is not only the proclaiming of liberty to the captives, but the bringing them out of the prison house. F4
Of course, this making of Peter's condition a fitting allegory, or illustration, of the terror, helplessness, and shame of man's condition in sin, should not be read as applicable to Peter's character. He was not only free from any unusual degree of sin, but he was a worthy member of the sacred Twelve, one of the most glorious characters earth ever knew. It was his condition in Herod's prison that is referred to here. Note the following:
Peter was a captive ... all sinners are captives of Satan (2 Timothy 2:24-26).
He was guarded ... Satan likes to stand watch over his victims to prevent their escape. Every Bible teacher knows that as soon as some young person has learned enough to obey the gospel and is ready to be baptized, someone over in another part of town will elect him president of a Sunday school class he hasn't attended in a year. It is the old strategy of Satan to post a guard and set a watch to keep a man from obeying the gospel even when he has already made up his mind to do it.
He was bound with two chains ... Everyone in sin is bound with chains, even if they are nothing but the chains of habit. Procrastination from day to day becomes at last a chain stronger than iron.
He was asleep ... Sleep is a state of insensitivity, inactivity, insecurity, and illusion. In the spiritual sense, every sinner is asleep (Rom. 13:11; 1 Thess. 5:6).
He was in darkness ... Like the night of sin, the blackness of midnight had settled over Herod's prison.
He was naked ... Peter had cast off his garment in order to be relieved of the suffocating heat of the dungeon. All sin and spiritual deficiency are nakedness (Revelation 3:17,18).
He was condemned to death ... This is the state of every unredeemed sinner on earth (John 3:18).
Thus, Peter's condition in that dungeon of Herod is remarkably suggestive of the sin-condition of every unredeemed person on earth. It is likewise true that his deliverance had overtones of applicability to the soul's conversion from sin.
Several things entered into Peter's deliverance.
He smote Peter on the side ...
Older readers of these lines will recall the manner of Pullman porters on passenger trains who always awakened their charges in exactly the same manner as here, striking them gently on the side, through the curtains, there never having been devised a better way of doing it without startling or frightening the sleeper. Thus, in an infinitesimal detail such as this, one sees the glorious truth of the word of God.
And he did so ...
Peter's response to God's message was exactly what it should have been. If the apostle had been like many today who are commanded to obey the word of God, he might have said, "Sh-sh-sh, Angel, don't wake up the guard!" Or he might have said, "Well, thanks, Angel, I'll think about it! Some other time, I just might do what you say." Still another possible response was, "Well, Angel, I won't promise you anything. You know how it is. I'd like to get out of here all right; but you know we might wake somebody up, and that would be bad. The jailer would not like that!" Are not the excuses which men make ridiculous?
Think of the importance of following. Peter's chains had fallen off, but he was still in Herod's dungeon; and his deliverance would be meaningful only when the iron gates closed behind him as he went out.
That great iron gate stands for death in this allegory. No man is safe from the fury of the evil one until death has ended his probation. To leave off following the Lord before death is to die in Satan's dominion and under his control. That is why an apostle said, "Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord" (Revelation 14:13). Peter did not leave off following the angel until the iron gate opened and closed behind him. That gate took twenty-five men to open and close it. It was the gate of a fortress so impregnable that soldiers were not even stationed to guard it. It did not need it. They just locked it and left it, unlocking it only as needed, and leaving it unattended the rest of the time.
Which opened unto them of its own accord ...
The gate of death opened for Stephen who saw Jesus standing on the right hand of God (Acts 7:56); and every true Christian may expect the Lord to bless him in the hour of death. Its iron gates will open of their own accord (Psa. 23).
It should be noted that Peter was destined to go through that iron gate in one of two ways. Had he passed through it the next morning it would have been in custody of Herod's soldiers on the way to his execution; but to go through it with an angel of God was a far different thing. So also, every Christian and every man will pass through the iron gate of death; but for some, alas, it will be the gate to everlasting sorrow; and for others it will be the gate of everlasting joy.
As in the sacred records throughout the New Testament, God left here a nail where the unbeliever can hang his hat. "When Peter was come to himself ..." Ah, does not that mean that this event never really happened, but that Peter dreamed it? Not at all; but what is meant is that Peter's deliverance was so fantastic and contrary to all natural things that he found it nearly impossible to believe it himself until the press of events brought him to the full realization of what had happened, yes, HAPPENED. Profane history records Peter's deliverance thus:
Herod Agrippa I was popular with his subjects, and his brief reign marked the peak of their material felicity. He did all in his power to crush the nascent Christian church, and after executing James the son of Zebedee, he arrested Peter, WHO ESCAPED FROM PRISON! F5
The only explanation of that escape from prison is that of Luke in this chapter. The stupid and unreasonable conclusion by Herod that his own soldiers had released Peter was the only alternative to such a supernatural deliverance as actually occurred; and Herod's execution of his own guard proves only how determined that evil ruler was to deny the true explanation of Peter's escape. Not very long after this, God would deliver another message to Herod which he would find no way to deny.
When he had considered the thing ...
Peter no doubt recalled that when the angel had released him and the other apostles, he was commanded, not to leave Jerusalem, but to continue preaching in the temple. Peter honored that instruction here by not fleeing for safety, but by taking his place with the praying disciples.
Where many were gathered ...
This cannot mean that the entire church were gathered in a single residence, but that the place mentioned was one among many such gatherings throughout the city. The church at this time numbered many thousands of faithful Christians. The choice of Mary's residence as the place where Peter went might have turned on the deep personal attachment of the apostle to John Mark, who in time, after a long companionship with Peter, would write the apostle's gospel under the title of MARK.
The scene that emerges here is one of affluence, if not wealth. Mary's was a house large enough to contain a gathering for prayer meeting, having a courtyard and a gate attended by a servant. From Mary's example, we may conclude that there were many who had not sold all their possessions during those occasions mentioned earlier in Acts.
It is of interest that class distinctions did not exist in the primitive church. This serving girl was as happy to see Peter as were any the others; and, in her joy, she forgot to open the gate.
For reasons underlying the surprise of the church that their prayers had been answered, see under Acts 12:5.
It is his angel ...
This verse proves that in the apostolic church the Christians believed that every person has a guardian angel; but it is uncertain what deductions should be made from this fact. Jesus apparently justified such a view by his reference to the angels of little children in Matthew 18:10, as being angels of the highest rank. See in my Commentary on Matthew, under Matt. 18:10 , and in my Commentary on Hebrews, Heb. 1:14. The thinking of those who said this seems to be that "Since Herod has already killed Peter, it must be his personal angel who is knocking at the gate."
Peter kept on knocking, however; and the stunned hearers finally let him in.
This verse reveals emphatically that there had been no plot by the Christians to aid Peter in a prison break; for they were astounded by his appearance and unwilling, at first, to believe it.
The Lord had brought him forth ...
An angel, actually, had done this, but he had acted as God's servant; hence it was altogether correct to say that the Lord had done it.
Unto James and the brethren ...
This is not James the son of Zebedee, already slain by Herod (Acts 12:2), but James the Lord's brother, one of the church leaders in Jerusalem, and the author of the book of James.
The brethren ...
has reference to the Christians throughout the city, assembled in just such places as that in view here, and who were also praying for Peter.
Went to another place ...
The instructions just given by Peter regarding informing James and the brethren seems to indicate that Peter did not himself undertake such a task, but that he went to a place of greater security.
Examined the guards ...
Anyone familiar with how such examinations were conducted must know that if any of those men had really been involved in Peter's escape, there could have been no way for them to conceal it. That sixteen men died to cover the blame of a few of these is incredible, as is also the monstrous notion that all sixteen were involved in it. No! The Lord delivered Peter, as Luke related.
To Caesarea ...
There at Caesarea, God would terminate the ability of Herod to harass and persecute the church. Claudius the emperor of Rome and personal friend of Herod had just returned from a journey to Britain, an event celebrated widely throughout the ancient empire, Herod presiding over extensive games and ceremonies honoring the emperor at Caesarea in 44 A.D. In the midst of those festivities, Herod was cut down, as revealed in the next paragraph.
This judgment of Herod is confirmed in its entirety by Josephus, although Luke needs no corroboration from him. The following is taken from Josephus:
When Agrippa had reigned three years over Judaea, he exhibited shows in honor of Caesar; on the second day of which shows he put on a garment made wholly of silver, truly wonderful, and came into the theater early in the morning, the silver of his garment reflecting the sun's rays, spreading a horror over those that looked .... His flatterers cried, from one place, and another, that he was a god, adding, Be merciful to us; for, although we have hitherto reverenced thee only as a man, yet shall we henceforth own thee as superior to mortal nature .... Presently a severe pain arose in his belly, and began in a most violent manner .... Herod said, "I whom you call a god am presently commanded to depart this life .... I am bound to accept what Providence allots." F6
If we may depend on what Josephus says, to the effect that Herod disapproved of the blasphemous compliments of his flatterers, then we have new light on what Luke means by:
He gave not God the glory ...
This means that he would not give God the glory for releasing Peter, a refusal that could have originated in nothing else than his pride and stubbornness. Given the nature of the prison and the extent of Peter's guard, Herod knew that God had delivered him; but he would not give God the glory, putting sixteen innocent men to death in order to emphasize his denial. This was exactly the same kind of conduct as that of the Pharisees who decided to kill Lazarus to prevent people from believing in Jesus who had raised him from the dead.
This wonderful verse was a favorite of the late R.B. Sweet who preached a great sermon from it. Over against all human interference, infidelity, unbelief, and opposition, there is opposed this divine "BUT." But the word of God grew and multiplied. The success of God's plans is never in question. All that God intended shall surely come to pass.
This is a reference to the same journey mentioned in Acts 11:30; but here is the additional word that John Mark accompanied them. See under Acts 11:30.
Fulfilled their ministration ...
This means that they accomplished the purpose of their journey, delivering to the elders in Jerusalem the bounty provided by the generosity of the Christians to relieve the victims of that famine in the reign of Claudius. The year 44 A.D. was the time of these events, this being one of the points at which Acts touches firm dates in the secular history of the first century.
John whose surname was Mark ...
Just as Stephen's martyrdom was made the occasion, by Luke, of mentioning Saul of Tarsus, here is the introduction of another character who would figure prominently in Luke's subsequent chapters of Acts, John Mark. If Luke had ever seen Mark's gospel, this would have been a "must" occasion for his mentioning it; and therefore the silence of Luke here concerning the gospel of Mark is a strong suggestion that he knew nothing of it.
With the conclusion of this chapter, Luke had set the stage for the world-wide program of evangelism among the Gentiles; and he would at once move to the narrative of Paul's first missionary journey.
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.