Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New TestamentActs 12
Now about that time Herod the king put forth his hands to afflict certain of the church.
About that time ...
means about the time of Saul and Barnabas' journey to Jerusalem with relief for the victims of the famine.
Stretched forth his hands to afflict ...
This vigorous and fatal movement of the supreme authority in the land against the young church was exceedingly serious. The motivation was clearly that of pleasing the Jews (Acts 12:3); and, if Herod Agrippa had proceeded indefinitely with that policy, there could never have been any end of it except the total destruction of Christianity.
For a discussion of the ten Herod's mentioned in the New Testament, see my Commentary on Mark, under Mark 6:17.
Verses 2, 3
And he killed James the brother of John with the sword. And when he saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded to seize Peter also. And those were the days of unleavened bread.
Only seven words in the Greek, translated by eleven in English, recount the martyrdom of the first apostle; and such restraint by the sacred historian shows how different are the words of inspiration from those of ordinary writers. It should be noted that the New Testament records no appointment of a successor to James. Why? He is still an apostle, still "reigning over the twelve tribes of (spiritual) Israel" as Jesus promised (Matthew 19:28). Death never removed an apostle. It was not death but transgression that removed Judas (Acts 1:25).
As Wesley said, "So one of the brothers went to God the first, the other the last, of the apostles." F2 This has been viewed by some as a kind of mystical fulfillment of the desire of James and John to sit "one on the right hand, the other on the left" of the Lord in his kingdom.
Days of unleavened bread ...
This refers to the great annual Passover feast of the Jews; and, as it was at Passover that our Lord suffered, Peter must have associated his own imprisonment and impending death with the events of our Lord's Passion.
And when he had taken him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four quaternions of soldiers to guard him; intending after the Passover to bring him forth to the people.
This was the name of a group of four soldiers, and four quarternions would be sixteen men appointed to guard Peter.
After the Passover ...
This refers not to Passover day, but to the whole celebration of Passover which lasted eight days.
Intending to bring him forth ...
Herod planned a public execution of Peter, an event which the Jewish hierarchy and the Jerusalem rabble would have celebrated with the utmost enthusiasm. Things looked very bleak for the Christian faith at that moment.
Peter therefore was kept in prison: but prayer was made earnestly of the church unto God for him.
Prayer ... for him ...
Webster and Wilkinson's Greek Testament declares that "The Greek intimates that it was incessantly kept up, always going on." F3 Thus it was a kind of perpetual prayer meeting that the church organized on behalf of Peter. If it is wondered why this was not done for James, answer probably lies in the suddenness with which he was executed almost as soon as he was apprehended, giving no time for such an effort as this on behalf of Peter.
With regard to all the snide remarks commentators have made about the church's praying for Peter's release and their total surprise when it occurred, two things are pertinent: (1) It is not declared that they prayed for Peter's release. It could be that they were praying that Peter's faith would not fail, as it had so conspicuously failed when he denied the Lord. (2) If they were praying for his release, this being not at all unlikely, then the surprise would have been at the dramatic suddenness and manner of it.
And when Herod was about to bring him forth, the same night Peter was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains: and the guards before the door kept the prison.
PETER'S CONDITION WAS A TYPE OF SIN
Many of the old commentators allegorized this remarkable episode; and despite the fact that the New Testament does not refer to it as an allegory, there are undeniably elements of an astounding allegory in this event. Just as Paul allegorized the history of Abraham and his two wives in Galatians, we shall allege an allegory here, but at the same time receiving the episode as history. The visit of the wisemen to the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:1) has been allegorized for ages, as more particularly noted in my Commentary on Matthew, Matt. 2:1. The deliverance of Peter in this chapter was declared by Matthew Henry to "represent our redemption by Christ, which is not only the proclaiming of liberty to the captives, but the bringing them out of the prison house. F4
Of course, this making of Peter's condition a fitting allegory, or illustration, of the terror, helplessness, and shame of man's condition in sin, should not be read as applicable to Peter's character. He was not only free from any unusual degree of sin, but he was a worthy member of the sacred Twelve, one of the most glorious characters earth ever knew. It was his condition in Herod's prison that is referred to here. Note the following:
Peter was a captive ... all sinners
are captives of Satan
(2 Timothy 2:24-26).
He was guarded ... Satan likes to
stand watch over his victims to
prevent their escape. Every Bible
teacher knows that as soon as some
young person has learned enough to
obey the gospel and is ready to be
baptized, someone over in another part
of town will elect him president of a
Sunday school class he hasn't attended
in a year. It is the old strategy of
Satan to post a guard and set a watch
to keep a man from obeying the gospel
even when he has already made up his
mind to do it.
He was bound with two chains ...
Everyone in sin is bound with chains,
even if they are nothing but the
chains of habit. Procrastination from
day to day becomes at last a chain
stronger than iron.
He was asleep ... Sleep is a state of
insensitivity, inactivity, insecurity,
and illusion. In the spiritual sense,
every sinner is asleep (Rom. 13:11;
1 Thess. 5:6).
He was in darkness ... Like the night
of sin, the blackness of midnight had
settled over Herod's prison.
He was naked ... Peter had cast off
his garment in order to be relieved of
the suffocating heat of the dungeon.
All sin and spiritual deficiency are
nakedness (Revelation 3:17,18).
He was condemned to death ... This is
the state of every unredeemed sinner
on earth (John 3:18).
Thus, Peter's condition in that dungeon of Herod is remarkably suggestive of the sin-condition of every unredeemed person on earth. It is likewise true that his deliverance had overtones of applicability to the soul's conversion from sin.
And behold an angel of the Lord stood by him, and a light shined in the cell: and he smote Peter on the side, and awoke him, saying, Rise up quickly. And his chains fell off from his hands.
Several things entered into Peter's deliverance.
- There was a prayer meeting, mentioned later in Luke's narrative here, but already going on, and for days previously.
- There was a messenger, in this case an angel of the Lord; but always there is a messenger when people are to be saved. "How shall they hear without a preacher?" (Romans 10:14).
- There was light in that prison. The angel delivered the word of God to Peter; but the word of God is always light (Psalms 119:105); and like the "light" delivered to every sinner by faithful preachers of the word of God, it consisted of a command to arise and act. "Why tarriest thou? Arise and be baptized and wash away thy sins" (Acts 22:16).
- Here the angel commanded Peter to get up and put on his sandals, and follow.
He smote Peter on the side ...
Older readers of these lines will recall the manner of Pullman porters on passenger trains who always awakened their charges in exactly the same manner as here, striking them gently on the side, through the curtains, there never having been devised a better way of doing it without startling or frightening the sleeper. Thus, in an infinitesimal detail such as this, one sees the glorious truth of the word of God.
And the angel said unto him, Gird thyself, and bind on thy sandals. And he did so. And he saith unto him, Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me.
And he did so ...
Peter's response to God's message was exactly what it should have been. If the apostle had been like many today who are commanded to obey the word of God, he might have said, "Sh-sh-sh, Angel, don't wake up the guard!" Or he might have said, "Well, thanks, Angel, I'll think about it! Some other time, I just might do what you say." Still another possible response was, "Well, Angel, I won't promise you anything. You know how it is. I'd like to get out of here all right; but you know we might wake somebody up, and that would be bad. The jailer would not like that!" Are not the excuses which men make ridiculous?
- The fifth thing that entered into Peter's deliverance was the falling off of his chains. They fell off when he rose to obey the word of the angel. The application is in this, that men's chains of sin will fall off when they arise and are baptized into Christ; and they will never fall off until this is done.
- Then Peter followed the angel. See next verse.
And he went out, and followed; and he knew not that it was true which was done by the angel, but thought he saw a vision.
Think of the importance of following. Peter's chains had fallen off, but he was still in Herod's dungeon; and his deliverance would be meaningful only when the iron gates closed behind him as he went out.
And when they were past the first and the second guard, they came unto the iron gate that leadeth into the city; which opened to them of its own accord: and they went out, and passed on through one street; and straightway the angel departed from him.
That great iron gate stands for death in this allegory. No man is safe from the fury of the evil one until death has ended his probation. To leave off following the Lord before death is to die in Satan's dominion and under his control. That is why an apostle said, "Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord" (Revelation 14:13). Peter did not leave off following the angel until the iron gate opened and closed behind him. That gate took twenty-five men to open and close it. It was the gate of a fortress so impregnable that soldiers were not even stationed to guard it. It did not need it. They just locked it and left it, unlocking it only as needed, and leaving it unattended the rest of the time.
Which opened unto them of its own accord ...
The gate of death opened for Stephen who saw Jesus standing on the right hand of God (Acts 7:56); and every true Christian may expect the Lord to bless him in the hour of death. Its iron gates will open of their own accord (Psa. 23).
It should be noted that Peter was destined to go through that iron gate in one of two ways. Had he passed through it the next morning it would have been in custody of Herod's soldiers on the way to his execution; but to go through it with an angel of God was a far different thing. So also, every Christian and every man will pass through the iron gate of death; but for some, alas, it will be the gate to everlasting sorrow; and for others it will be the gate of everlasting joy.
And when Peter was come to himself, he said, Now I know of a truth, that the Lord hath sent forth his angel and delivered me out of the hand of Herod, and all the expectation of the people of the Jews.
As in the sacred records throughout the New Testament, God left here a nail where the unbeliever can hang his hat. "When Peter was come to himself ..." Ah, does not that mean that this event never really happened, but that Peter dreamed it? Not at all; but what is meant is that Peter's deliverance was so fantastic and contrary to all natural things that he found it nearly impossible to believe it himself until the press of events brought him to the full realization of what had happened, yes, HAPPENED. Profane history records Peter's deliverance thus:
Herod Agrippa I was popular with his
subjects, and his brief reign marked
the peak of their material felicity.
He did all in his power to crush the
nascent Christian church, and after
executing James the son of Zebedee, he
arrested Peter, WHO ESCAPED FROM
The only explanation of that escape from prison is that of Luke in this chapter. The stupid and unreasonable conclusion by Herod that his own soldiers had released Peter was the only alternative to such a supernatural deliverance as actually occurred; and Herod's execution of his own guard proves only how determined that evil ruler was to deny the true explanation of Peter's escape. Not very long after this, God would deliver another message to Herod which he would find no way to deny.
And when he had considered the thing, he came to the house of Mary the mother of John whose surname was Mark; where many were gathered together and were praying.
When he had considered the thing ...
Peter no doubt recalled that when the angel had released him and the other apostles, he was commanded, not to leave Jerusalem, but to continue preaching in the temple. Peter honored that instruction here by not fleeing for safety, but by taking his place with the praying disciples.
Where many were gathered ...
This cannot mean that the entire church were gathered in a single residence, but that the place mentioned was one among many such gatherings throughout the city. The church at this time numbered many thousands of faithful Christians. The choice of Mary's residence as the place where Peter went might have turned on the deep personal attachment of the apostle to John Mark, who in time, after a long companionship with Peter, would write the apostle's gospel under the title of MARK.
And when he knocked at the door of the gate, a maid came to answer, named Rhoda.
The scene that emerges here is one of affluence, if not wealth. Mary's was a house large enough to contain a gathering for prayer meeting, having a courtyard and a gate attended by a servant. From Mary's example, we may conclude that there were many who had not sold all their possessions during those occasions mentioned earlier in Acts.
And when she knew Peter's voice, she opened not the gate for joy, but ran in and told that Peter stood before the gate.
It is of interest that class distinctions did not exist in the primitive church. This serving girl was as happy to see Peter as were any the others; and, in her joy, she forgot to open the gate.
And they said unto her, Thou art mad. But she confidently affirmed that it was even so. And they said, It is his angel.
For reasons underlying the surprise of the church that their prayers had been answered, see under Acts 12:5.
It is his angel ...
This verse proves that in the apostolic church the Christians believed that every person has a guardian angel; but it is uncertain what deductions should be made from this fact. Jesus apparently justified such a view by his reference to the angels of little children in Matthew 18:10, as being angels of the highest rank. See in my Commentary on Matthew, under Matt. 18:10 , and in my Commentary on Hebrews, Heb. 1:14. The thinking of those who said this seems to be that "Since Herod has already killed Peter, it must be his personal angel who is knocking at the gate."
Peter kept on knocking, however; and the stunned hearers finally let him in.
But Peter continued knocking: and when they had opened, they saw him, and were amazed.
This verse reveals emphatically that there had been no plot by the Christians to aid Peter in a prison break; for they were astounded by his appearance and unwilling, at first, to believe it.
But he, beckoning unto them with the hand to hold their peace, declared unto them how the Lord had brought him forth out of the prison. And he said, Tell these things unto James, and to the brethren. And he departed, and went to another place.
The Lord had brought him forth ...
An angel, actually, had done this, but he had acted as God's servant; hence it was altogether correct to say that the Lord had done it.
Unto James and the brethren ...
This is not James the son of Zebedee, already slain by Herod (Acts 12:2), but James the Lord's brother, one of the church leaders in Jerusalem, and the author of the book of James.
The brethren ...
has reference to the Christians throughout the city, assembled in just such places as that in view here, and who were also praying for Peter.
Went to another place ...
The instructions just given by Peter regarding informing James and the brethren seems to indicate that Peter did not himself undertake such a task, but that he went to a place of greater security.
Verses 18, 19
Now as soon as it was day, there was no small stir among the soldiers, what was become of Peter. And when Herod had sought for him, and found him not, he examined the guards, and commanded that they should be put to death. And he went down from Judaea to Caesarea, and tarried there.
Examined the guards ...
Anyone familiar with how such examinations were conducted must know that if any of those men had really been involved in Peter's escape, there could have been no way for them to conceal it. That sixteen men died to cover the blame of a few of these is incredible, as is also the monstrous notion that all sixteen were involved in it. No! The Lord delivered Peter, as Luke related.
To Caesarea ...
There at Caesarea, God would terminate the ability of Herod to harass and persecute the church. Claudius the emperor of Rome and personal friend of Herod had just returned from a journey to Britain, an event celebrated widely throughout the ancient empire, Herod presiding over extensive games and ceremonies honoring the emperor at Caesarea in 44 A.D. In the midst of those festivities, Herod was cut down, as revealed in the next paragraph.
Now he was highly displeased with them of Tyre and Sidon: and they came with one accord to him, and, having made Blastus the king's chamberlain their friend, they asked for peace, because their country was fed by the king's country. And upon a set day, Herod arrayed himself in royal apparel, and sat on his throne, and made an oration unto them. And the people shouted, saying, The voice of a god, and not of a man. And immediately an angel of the Lord smote him, because he gave not God the glory: and he was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost.
This judgment of Herod is confirmed in its entirety by Josephus, although Luke needs no corroboration from him. The following is taken from Josephus:
When Agrippa had reigned three years
over Judaea, he exhibited shows in
honor of Caesar; on the second day of
which shows he put on a garment made
wholly of silver, truly wonderful, and
came into the theater early in the
morning, the silver of his garment
reflecting the sun's rays, spreading a
horror over those that looked ....
His flatterers cried, from one place,
and another, that he was a god,
adding, Be merciful to us; for,
although we have hitherto reverenced
thee only as a man, yet shall we
henceforth own thee as superior to
mortal nature .... Presently a severe
pain arose in his belly, and began in
a most violent manner .... Herod
said, "I whom you call a god am
presently commanded to depart this
life .... I am bound to accept what
Providence allots." F6
If we may depend on what Josephus says, to the effect that Herod disapproved of the blasphemous compliments of his flatterers, then we have new light on what Luke means by:
He gave not God the glory ...
This means that he would not give God the glory for releasing Peter, a refusal that could have originated in nothing else than his pride and stubbornness. Given the nature of the prison and the extent of Peter's guard, Herod knew that God had delivered him; but he would not give God the glory, putting sixteen innocent men to death in order to emphasize his denial. This was exactly the same kind of conduct as that of the Pharisees who decided to kill Lazarus to prevent people from believing in Jesus who had raised him from the dead.
But the word of God grew and multiplied.
This wonderful verse was a favorite of the late R.B. Sweet who preached a great sermon from it. Over against all human interference, infidelity, unbelief, and opposition, there is opposed this divine "BUT." But the word of God grew and multiplied. The success of God's plans is never in question. All that God intended shall surely come to pass.
And Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their ministrations, taking with them John whose surname was Mark.
This is a reference to the same journey mentioned in Acts 11:30; but here is the additional word that John Mark accompanied them. See under Acts 11:30.
Fulfilled their ministration ...
This means that they accomplished the purpose of their journey, delivering to the elders in Jerusalem the bounty provided by the generosity of the Christians to relieve the victims of that famine in the reign of Claudius. The year 44 A.D. was the time of these events, this being one of the points at which Acts touches firm dates in the secular history of the first century.
John whose surname was Mark ...
Just as Stephen's martyrdom was made the occasion, by Luke, of mentioning Saul of Tarsus, here is the introduction of another character who would figure prominently in Luke's subsequent chapters of Acts, John Mark. If Luke had ever seen Mark's gospel, this would have been a "must" occasion for his mentioning it; and therefore the silence of Luke here concerning the gospel of Mark is a strong suggestion that he knew nothing of it.
With the conclusion of this chapter, Luke had set the stage for the world-wide program of evangelism among the Gentiles; and he would at once move to the narrative of Paul's first missionary journey.
Footnotes for Acts 12
1: Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 11, p. 512.
2: John Wesley, New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House), in loco.
5: Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 11, p. 512.
6: Flavius Josephus, Antiquities and Wars of the Jews, translated by William Whiston (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston), p. 582.
7: Alexander Campbell, op. cit., p. 76.
8: John Wesley, One Volume New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1972), in loco.
9: F. F. Bruce, The Book of Acts (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, Publishers, 1954), p. 234.
10: E. H. Plumptre, Elliott's Commentary on the Holy Bible (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1959), p. 72.
11: F. F. Bruce, op. cit., p. 235.
12: B. W. Johnson, The New Testament with Explanatory Notes (Delight, Arkansas: Gospel Light Publishing Company), p. 464.
13: Alexander Campbell, op. cit., p. 78.
16: G. H. C. MacGreggor, The Interpreter's Bible (New York: Abingdon Press, 1954), Vol. IX, p. 144.
17: J. W. McGarvey, Commentary on Acts (Cincinnati: Standard Publishing Company), p. 220.
18: E. H. Plumptre, op. cit., p. 73.
19: Cambridge Bible, One Volume New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1972), in loco.
20: Alexander Campbell, op. cit., p. 78.
21: A. C. Hervey, The Pulpit Commentary, Acts (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, Publishers, 1950), p. 358.
22: J. R. Dummelow, Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), p. 833.
23: Don DeWelt, Acts Made Actual (Joplin, Missouri: College Press, 1958), p. 151.
24: F. N. Peloubet, Bible Dictionary (Chicago: The John C. Winston Company, 1925), p. 36.
25: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 2, p. 70.
26: Farrar, as quoted by W. J. McGarvey, op. cit., p. 226.
27: E. H. Plumptre, op. cit., p. 73.
28: Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopaedia, Vol. 2, p. 149.
29: E. H. Plumptre, op. cit., p. 73.
30: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 2, p. 149.
31: The Interlinear Greek-English New Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1958), p. 516.
32: J. W. McGarvey, op. cit., p. 224.
33: A. S. Hervey, op. cit., p. 358.
34: Kenneth Hoover, Minister, Church of Christ, Benton, Kentucky, a private manuscript, 1975.
36: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 2, p. 149.
37: A. C. Hervey, op. cit., p. 359.
38: Jack P. Lewis, Historical Backgrounds of Bible History (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1971), p. 144.
40: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 5, p. 781.
41: Jack P. Lewis, op. cit., p. 144.
42: A. C. Hervey, op. cit., p. 360.
43: E. H. Plumptre, op. cit., p. 53.
44: A. C. Hervey, op. cit., p. 162.
45: John Peter Lange, op. cit., p. 101.
46: J. R. Dummelow, op. cit., p. 825.
47: John William Russell, op. cit. p. 295.
48: Alexander Campbell, op. cit., p. 18.
49: As quoted by Campbell, ibid.
50: E. H. Plumptre, The Acts of Apostles (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1959), p. 15.