Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New TestamentLuke 22
Verses 1, 2
Now the feast of the unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover. And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death; for they feared the people.
Feast of unleavened bread ... the Passover ...
The terminology used here is strictly in keeping with the common usage of those times; but it is nevertheless rather loosely used. As Boles said:
The Passover, as used here, means
either the meal, the feast day, or the
whole period of time. "Eat the
passover" refers to the meal, as here,
or to the whole period of celebration
in John 18:28. F1
Furthermore, "the feast of unleavened bread" was used in several senses:
The feast of unleavened bread was the
day the Passover lamb was slain.
According to Mosaic law, this was
called the Passover and was followed
by seven days of the Feast of
Unleavened Bread (Leviticus 23:5,6). But
at this time the whole period was
known by this name. Josephus says:
"We keep a feast for eight days, which
is called the feast of unleavened
Gilmour, referring to the latter seven days of the feast said:
The feast of unleavened bread at
sundown on Nisan 14 (which was) the
beginning of the fifteenth day by
Jewish reckoning, and lasted for a
period of seven days (Leviticus 23:5,6).
The Passover coincided only with its
first day. The Paschal lambs were
slaughtered on the afternoon of Nisan
14, and the solemn meal itself was
eaten during the evening that
constituted the beginning of the
fifteenth day. F3
The following chronological arrangement of the events of this exceedingly important week is adapted from J. R. Dummelow, with the changes required by understanding the crucifixion to have been on the 14th of Nisan, the same day the Paschal lambs were slain, and the same day when the Passover meal was eaten after sundown (technically the fifteenth of Nisan), that fourteenth of Nisan having been a Thursday. See my article, "What Day Was Jesus Crucified?" in my Commentary on Mark, under Mark 15:42.
- Sabbath, Nisan 9th ...
- Jesus arrived at Bethany (John 12:1), supper in the evening (John 12:2-8; Matthew 26:6-13).
- Sunday, Nisan 10th ...
- triumphal entry (Matthew 21:1), children's Hosannas, healings in temple (Matthew 21:14-16), return to Bethany (Matthew 21:17).
- Monday, Nisan 11th ...
- return from Bethany (Matthew 21:18), withering fig tree (Matthew 21:19), cleansing temple (Matthew 21:12), retires to Bethany (Mark 11:19), conspiracy of his enemies (Luke 19:47).
- Tuesday, Nisan 12th ...
- they find fig tree withered (Mark 11:20), his authority challenged, tribute to Caesar, brother's wife, first commandment of all, and "What think ye of Christ?" (Matt. 21-22). Woes on Pharisees (Matt. 23), Jesus in treasury, the widow's mite (Mark 12:41), visit of Greeks (John 12:20), final rejection (John 12:37), triple prophecy of fall of Jerusalem, Second Advent and final judgment (Matt. 24-25), Counsel of Caiaphas (Matthew 26:3).
- Wednesday, Nisan 13th ...
- in the afternoon preparations for the last supper (Matthew 26:17), that night (technically the 14th of Nisan), the last supper with the Twelve in the upper room (Matthew 26:20), the foot washing (John 13:2), departure of Judas, institution of the Lord's Supper (Matthew 26:26), farewell discourses, the true vine, Comforter promised, intercessory prayer (John 13:31 through John 17), Gethsemane and the one-hour agony (Matt. 26:27; Mark 14:87).
- Thursday, Nisan 14th ...
- midnight arrest (Matthew 26:47), before Annas (John 18:18), Peter's denials about 3:00 A.M. (John 18:27), before Caiphas (John 18:24), before Sanhedrin about 4:00 A.M. (Matthew 27:1), sent to Pilate at 6:00 A.M. (Matthew 27:2), from Pilate to Herod, and back to Pilate (Luke 28:7,11), delivered to be crucified (John 19:16) Jesus crucified at 9:00 A.M. (Mark 15:25), darkness from 12:00 to 3:00 P.M. (Matthew 27:45), death of Jesus at 3:00 P.M. (Matthew 27:50).
The paschal lambs were being sacrificed at this hour (John 19:36). Jesus was buried about sundown. That night was the Jewish Passover meal, Jesus having eaten it by anticipation 24 hours earlier. Burial of Jesus (Matthew 27:57).
- Friday, Nisan 15th ...
- Jesus was in the tomb.
- Saturday, Nisan 16th ...
- Jesus was in the tomb.
- Sunday, Nisan 17th ...
- Jesus rose from the dead. F4
In the above understanding of the day our Lord was crucified, it is not necessary to suppose Wednesday as having been "a day of retirement," F5 or that Wednesday, a day of rest, was apparently spent with the disciples at Bethany." F6 The New Testament says nothing of any day of rest or retirement; but, on the contrary, it is repeatedly stated that he was "daily in the temple" (Luke 22:53). "Every day he was teaching in the temple" (Luke 21:87); and there is no way such expressions can mean that Jesus ran off and hid for a whole day.
The following diagram will reveal the reason why "the third day" is frequently used by sacred authors to designate the day our Lord rose from the dead. Jesus' own promise that he would be in the heart of the earth "three days and three nights" (Matthew 12:40) could not have been fulfilled in its entirety except by his resurrection at sunset on Sunday, which would have given three full days and three full nights in the grave; however, Jesus said that he would rise "the third day," meaning that he would not be in the grave but two days. Now look at the chart. He was buried at sunset on Thursday and rose very early on Sunday, the first day of the week.
|Thursday Night||Friday Night||Saturday Night||Sunday|
|period in the tomb ->||1st day||2nd day||3rd day begins|
The arguments in favor of viewing Friday as the day our Lord suffered have been thoroughly studied by this writer; and there seems to be no way that they can harmonize with "what is written" in the word of God. We believe that Jesus was in the heart of the earth "three days and three nights," rising on the third day.
Sought how they might put him to death ...
The death of Jesus had long ago been determined by the hierarchy, and the thing in view here was merely the manner of their bringing it about. From Matt. 26:1-5 it is learned that they actually preferred to kill him secretly, because of their fear of the people, as mentioned here. However, the treachery of Judas induced them to change their plans.
And Satan, entered into Judas who was called Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve. And he went away and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might deliver him unto them. And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money. And he consented, and sought opportunity to deliver him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
What probably triggered Judas' treachery was the rebuke administered to him by the Lord during the incident of the anointing in the house of Simon the leper (Matthew 26:6ff).
With Judas on their side, as they supposed, the chief priests then thought that they would procure ample evidence to warrant a public trial and judicial execution. As it turned out, Judas returned the money in bitterness and remorse, refusing to have any further part with the religious leaders; but it was too late for them, as well as for Judas. The whole shameful episode would be spread upon the public record of the ages.
And the day of unleavened bread came, on which the passover must be sacrificed.
This "day of unleavened bread" was Nisan 13th; and the preparations here mentioned took place in the afternoon, just prior to the beginning of Nissan 14th, at sunset. The supper was held after sundown and technically on the 14th by Jewish reckoning.
And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go make ready for us the passover, that we may eat.
It is not actually the Passover meal that Jesus ate, but a similar meal in anticipation of it. Jesus was on the cross when the paschal lambs were slain, and in his tomb when Israel ate the Passover the following night (see under John 18:28; 18:28 in my Commentary on ).
And they say unto him, Where wilt thou that we make ready? And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house whereinto he goeth. And ye shall say unto the master of the house, The Teacher saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? And he will show you a large upper room furnished: there make ready. And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
Harrison saw in this the likelihood that Jesus had "made previous arrangements for a contact by means of a secret signal," F7 but such a view is refuted by a circumstance noted by Bliss. He said:
There was a custom that the head of
each family should bring water from a
certain spring, which was to wet up
the unleavened bread for the Passover.
But this man was not head of the
house; nor does it appear how, among
the thousands that would be carrying
water at the same time, that the
incident could have served as a
If Bliss' reckoning of this occasion of the last supper as the Passover should be allowed, then it would nullify, absolutely the kind of sign Jesus mentioned, because tens of thousands would have been doing the same thing. Obviously, this was not the Passover evening. This leaves the alternative that a servant was carrying the pitcher of water in a certain direction at a certain time of day, and that his master was one who honored the Teacher and would provide the guest-chamber. The answer to this is not some "secret-signal," set up by Jesus in advance, but the omniscience of the Lord.
Mark 14:12-17 is parallel to this portion of Luke, and more extended remarks on this passage will be found in my Commentary on Mark under those references.
Verses 14, 15, 16
And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer; for I say unto you, I shall not eat it until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
I shall not eat it ...
Brook and Burkitt (Journal of
Theological Studies, July, 1908, pp.
569ff) have maintained, and others
have oft-repeated it since, that these
words indicate that the Saviour did
not celebrate the Passover and only
had a strong desire to do so. F9
Of course, this is not the Passover; and the opinions of Brook and Burkitt were correct. Jesus here spoke of the Passover which would be eaten the following night at a time when he was in the tomb. This is another roadblock to the Friday crucifixion theory. It is most likely, however, in view of what Luke immediately stated, that this meal was very similar to the Passover, in fact following the pattern closely, and yet not actually the Passover because it was a day earlier. For cause, such arrangements were allowed.
Verses 17, 18
And he received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, Take this and divide it among yourselves: for I say unto you, I shall not drink from henceforth of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.
The cup here in view was not the cup of the Lord's Supper, but the cup of the simulated Jewish Passover, being observed by Jesus' disciples a day earlier than the stated time, but which Jesus did not observe. This understanding is clear from the following summary of the pattern for the Passover meal, described by Farrar:
- Each drank a cup of wine, "the cup of consecration," followed by a blessing.
- Hands were washed, a table carried in, on which were bitter herbs, unleavened bread, the paschal lamb, dates and vinegar.
- The father dipped a morsel of unleavened bread and bitter herbs, about the size of an olive (the sop), in the vinegar, giving it to each in turn.
- A second cup of wine was poured, and the passover story was rehearsed.
- The first part of a special song, the Hallel, was sung.
- Grace was said and a benediction pronounced, after which the food, as in (3), was further distributed to all.
- The paschal lamb was eaten and a third cup of wine was had.
- After another thanksgiving, a fourth cup, the cup of "joy," was drunk.
- The rest of the Hallel was sung. F10
Now it was after this supper that the Lord instituted the Lord's Supper. "After supper" is specifically designated as the time (1 Corinthians 11:25). No lamb of any kind was in evidence at this supper.
The cup in view in this verse was connected with the simulated passover and not the Lord's Supper. As John Wesley put it:
"And he took the cup -" the cup that
was used to be brought at the
beginning of the paschal solemnity.
"And said, Take this, and divide it
among yourselves; for I will not drink
..." As if he had said, Do not expect
me to drink it: I will drink no more
before I die. F11
And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and gave to them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
This was the beginning of the institution of the Lord's Supper, the same being after the last meal they had just shared was concluded, placing it after (8) and before (9) in the above pattern.
For full comment on "transubstantiation" and other questions, see parallel with comments in my Commentary on Matthew. Here the eternal commandment of remembering the Saviour was uttered. The vast difference in Judaism and Christianity is in this very thing. Under the Law of Moses, there was a "remembrance" made of sin upon every solemn occasion of worship, even upon the day of Atonement; but in Christianity, there is no more a remembrance of sin, but of the Lamb of God who took away the sins of the world. See elaboration of this in my Commentary on Hebrews, Heb. 10:3-4.
And the cup in like manner after supper, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood, even that which is poured out for you.
In like manner after supper ...
means that the cup, just like the bread, that is BOTH ELEMENTS of the Lord's Supper, were taken AFTER SUPPER. It is regrettable that some have failed to make the distinction noted here, even going so far as to suppose that the cup may precede in observing the Supper; but a true understanding of what is here stated refutes such error.
Which is poured out for you ...
What a glimpse of the power and Godhead of Jesus is in this. In a few short hours, he would be arrested, and on the morrow he would be crucified; but here, he calmly announced that his blood was to be poured out for the sins of men, setting up a memorial of it unto all generations. Evidently, the reason for Luke's introduction of that first cup of the simulated passover into the record here was for the purpose of dissociating the two events.
Parallel references on Luke 22:18-20 are Matthew 26:26-28 and Mark 14:22-24, which see, along with comments, in my Commentary on Matthew and my Commentary on Mark.
Verses 21, 22, 23
But behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. For the Son of man indeed goeth, as it hath been determined: but woe unto that man through whom he is betrayed! And they began to question among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.
This passage has parallels in John 13:21-30, Matthew 26:21-25, and Mark 14:18-21, which see, along with comments in my Commentary on Matthew, my Commentary on Mark, and my Commentary on John.
The hand of him that betrayeth me ...
As Dummelow observed, "This verse is a strong support of the view that Judas received the sacrament, but it is not conclusive. See John 13:30." F12
And there arose also a contention among them, which of them was accounted to be greatest.
The measure of agreement between
Matt. 20:25-28, Mark 10:42-45 and
this paragraph in Luke, is no proof
that Luke describes the same
occurrence as Matthew and Mark. Such
disputes frequently occurred, and why
could not the Saviour have answered
their arguments in words more or less
What a shame it was that in the very act of the Lord's giving the memorial supper, the apostles should still have been concerned over places of rank in the kingdom!
And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles have lordship over them; and they that have authority over them are called Benefactors.
The kings of the Gentiles ...
Here, just as in the similar passages from Matthew and Mark, cited above, the Lord was condemning the pyramidal type of government so characteristic of all nations. He forbade such systems in his kingdom.
This was "a title carried by the Greek kings of Egypt and Syria," F14 which was about as incongruous a designation as could be imagined. In all ages, usurpers have loved to call themselves by titles which denied their essential character; nor has the device perished from the earth. Are not such titles as Innocent, Pius, and Boniface exactly of the same quality?
But ye shall not be so: but he that is greater among you, let him become as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
This is the prohibition of such tiers of rank and authority as those in vogue among earthly governments. "Ye shall not be so!"
For which is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am in the midst of you as he that serveth.
As Barnes properly noted, "This was said in connection with his washing their feet (John 13:12-15)"; F15 and again one of the synoptics touches and corroborates the gospel of John.
Verses 28, 29, 30
But ye are they that have continued with me in my temptations; and I appoint unto you a kingdom, even as my Father appointed unto me, that ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom; and ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
This promise refers to earth and this
life ... His kingdom would be
administered by them ... For
centuries, the story of civilization
has been the story of this
At my table in my kingdom ...
This identifies the church, wherein the Lord's Table is ever found, to be the kingdom in view here. That man who is not eating and drinking at the Lord's Table is not in the kingdom of God.
Twelve thrones ...
These are to be understood spiritually, as are the "twelve tribes of Israel." This refers to the word of the holy apostles as the supreme authority in the Lord's church. Also, it should be noted that death would not remove them from office, no successors to the Twelve being envisioned by the Lord. See the comments in my Commentary on Matthew, Matt. 19:28. Luke did not mention "twelve" thrones, but Matthew did (Matthew 19:28). "These expressions are applicable primarily to the Twelve apostles." F17
My kingdom ...
As Bliss said, "This is the only instance in which Jesus calls the kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven `my kingdom'." The kingdom of God is the kingdom of Christ.
Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat: but I made supplication for thee, that thy faith fail not; and do thou, when thou hast turned again, establish thy brethren. And he said unto him, Lord, with thee I am ready to go both to prison and to death. And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.
The episode of Peter's denial was fully treated in my Commentary on Matthew, Matt. 26:31-35 and Matt. 26:69-75, and likewise in the parallels in Mark 14:30ff and in John 13:36-38; John 18:15-27.
Satan asked to have you ...
Christ here spoke of the kingdom of evil as a domain ruled over by an intelligent, personal head. Peter's defection was not due so much to his personal weakness as it was to the weakness of all men without the Saviour. The Great Sacrifice had not yet been offered. For a few hours, the Prince of Life would be under the dominion of the powers of darkness; and it was impossible that under those conditions Peter could make good his boast. Besides, his heart, even then was not completely in tune with the will of God.
Geldenhuys observed that "The inclusion of this prediction and its subsequent fulfillment is a testimony to the historical truth" F18 of the gospels. It is impossible to believe that the primitive church would have invented, or circulated, such a story, about such an apostle as Peter, if, in fact, it had been anything other than historical truth.
THE CHANGED STATUS OF THE APOSTLES
Upon the eve of his death, the Lord called attention to a dramatic change in the status of the apostles. Until that time, there had been no need for them to be concerned in any manner with worldly needs and provisions, the Lord having taken care of everything; but, with his death, resurrection, and ascension to the other world, all that was to be changed. Prudence, foresight, even means for self-defense, would be needed: and so he instructed them.
And he said unto them, When I sent you forth without purse, and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye anything? And they say, Nothing.
This called attention to the fact of their earthly needs having been so long provided for them without care or exertion on their part.
And he said unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet; and he that hath none, let him sell his cloak, and buy a sword.
The absolute pacifist tradition among Christians of all ages and the acceptance of it by many commentators make this verse "a real problem" for many. Most commentators view the passage as figurative, as did Geldenhuys, who said, "The Lord intended (these words) in a figurative sense." F19 But if the sword is figurative, what about the purse, the wallet, and the cloak?
As Hobbs said, "It is impossible to tone down this statement; neither can we dismiss it as not being a genuine saying of Jesus." F20 The clear meaning of the passage is that "a sword" is the one thing needful, even surpassing in priority such an important item as a cloak. The two errors to be avoided here are (1) the supposition that the gospel should be spread by the sword, and (2) the notion that a sword should ever be employed against lawful authority. Before the evening was over, the Lord would have further occasion to demonstrate the proper and improper uses of the sword. Barnes was certainly correct in his view that "These directions (concerning the sword) were not made with reference to his being taken in the garden but to their future lives." F21
J. S. Lamar, an eminent Restoration scholar, expressed surprise "to find several of the ablest Protestant expositors interpreting (this passage) as a warrant for self-defense." F22 Nevertheless, the view maintained here is that self-defense is exactly what Jesus taught. Self-defense is a basic, natural right of all men, and there is no lawful government on earth that denies it. Just why should it be supposed that Jesus denied to Christians such a basic right has never been explained. "Resist not evil ... go the second mile ... turn the other cheek... give thy cloak also, etc." are not applicable to situations in which one's life is threatened, or endangered.
Verses 37, 38
For I say unto you, that this which is written must be fulfilled in me, And he was reckoned with transgressors: for that which concerneth me hath fulfillment. And they said, Lord, behold here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.
That which is written must be fulfilled ...
The avowed intention of the Pharisees was to kill Jesus by assassination (Matthew 26:1-5); and despite their change of strategy due to the treachery of Judas, many of them doubtless preferred the method of killing Jesus they had already agreed upon; and the view here is that Christ would have ordered the apostles to resist any effort to assassinate him. The sword in view here, therefore, was an assurance that his purpose of witnessing his godhead before the Sanhedrin would not be thwarted by an untimely assassination.
When the time came, of course, Jesus would submit to arrest by lawful authority; and the possession by his apostles of swords, coupled with his prohibition of their use against such lawful authority, emphatically dramatized the willingness of his submission. Barnes' note that "the apostles followed the customs of the country, and had with them some means of defense" F23 is doubtless true.
It is enough ...
It is customary to interpret this expression as an assertion that the disciples were missing his point altogether, as if he had said, "Enough of this!" But there is no valid reason for supposing that these words mean anything other than "two swords are enough." As a matter of fact, the swords were a necessary part of the drama of the Lords arrest. Jesus used the excision of Malchus' ear as an occasion to command Peter to put up his sword into "its place," a powerful endorsement of the premise that such a sword of self-defense HAS its place (see my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 26:52). Significantly, even then, Jesus neither commanded Peter to throw his sword away or surrender it.
Verses 39, 40
And he came out, and went, as his custom was, unto the mount of Olives; and the disciples also followed him. And when he was at the place, he said unto them. Pray that ye enter not into temptation.
THE AGONY IN THE GARDEN
Unto the mount of Olives ...
This was to a place called Gethsemane in the valley of the Kidron. For a discussion of this location, see in my Commentary on John, under John 18:1. The material in Luke here and through Luke 22:62 is paralleled in John 18:1-27, Matthew 26:36-75, and Mark 14:32-42. Even on that tragic night, the Saviour was more concerned for the spiritual welfare of his apostles than for himself.
Verses 41, 42
And he was parted from them about a stone's cast; and he kneeled down and prayed, saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.
The taking of Peter, James and John to a position nearer to himself, the triple repetition of the prayer, and other important details were omitted in Luke's account; and for a discussion of those things, reference is made to the comments under the parallels in this series.
Remove this cup ...
The ascendancy of our Lord's human nature is evident in this scene. The utter repugnance of so horrible a death as Jesus confronted sent the Saviour to his knees; and there, wrestling with God in prayer, he brought his human nature into submissive compliance with the Father's will.
The implications here are profound. There was no way God could remove the cup of suffering from Jesus without abandoning the purpose of human redemption. Some have interpreted the "cup" as agony itself, so great that Jesus was in imminent danger of dying before he ever came to the cross. Whether this was truly the "cup" or not is uncertain, but the appearance of an angel to strengthen the Lord in that agony surely suggests that it was at least an element in it.
And there appeared unto him an angel from heaven, strengthening him.
This marvelous detail which explains so much which would be otherwise unknown was supplied only by Luke. Commentators have attempted to make a great point out of the contrast in Jesus' demeanor in the Johannine account and that of the synoptics. In John, the Lord's majestic appearance prostrated a whole company of soldiers on their faces; in the synoptics, he appears in utter weakness, agony, and even fear. This verse harmonizes both pictures of our Lord, the synoptics giving his state BEFORE the strengthening of the angel, and John giving it AFTER the angel's mission was completed.
Strengthening him ...
Hobbs noted that "this has primary reference to physical strength." F24 Just as angels came and strengthened Jesus following his temptation in the wilderness, an angel was ready here to provide that physical strength without which Jesus might have died before the time. "A divine refreshing pervaded him, body and soul; and thus he received strength to continue to the last in the struggle." F25
And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became as it were great drops of blood falling down upon the ground.
The Greek word for "drops of blood" is [thromboi], used only here in the New Testament. "It means clots of blood" F26 and was used by the physician Luke in the same manner as was common in ancient medical works. The spiritual overtones of this were noted by Henry, thus:
Sweat came in with sin, and was a
branch of the curse (Genesis 3:19). When
Christ was made sin and a curse for
us, he underwent a grievous sweat,
that in the sweat of his face we might
eat the bread of life. F27
Regarding this blood-sweat, it is a mistake to suppose any exaggeration here.
Aristotle (Hist. Anita. iii:19) said
that in certain extraordinary states
the blood becomes very liquified and
flows in such a manner that some have
perspired blood. F28
Moreover, the phenomena is not unknown to modern physicians. Dummelow said that "Great mental agony has been known to produce this phenomenon." F29 The fact that death usually followed very quickly after such a blood-sweat suggests the necessity of the angel's mission to strengthen Jesus, who himself described his condition as being "exceedingly sorrowful, even unto death" (Matthew 26:38).
Verses 45, 46
And when he rose up from his prayer, he came unto his disciples, and found them sleeping for sorrow, and said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, that ye enter not into temptation.
Mortal men are incapable of knowing fully the nature and extent of the saviour's awful agony; but it was there in Gethsemane that our Lord made the final, irrevocable decision to bear our sins on the tree. Morgan said:
All I can say is that as I ponder it,
through the darkened window there is a
mystic light shining, showing me the
terrors of the cross more clearly than
I see them even when I come to
Sleeping for sorrow ...
Only Luke the physician connected the sorrows of the apostles with their sleeping contrary to Jesus instructions; but surely that was a very important element in it.
Regarding this event in the garden, Geldenhuys quoted the Jewish scholar, Montifiore, as saying:
One cannot help but marvel at the
wonderful grace and beauty, the
exquisite tact and discretion, which
the narrative displays. There is not
a word too little; there is not a word
too much. F31
While he yet spake, behold, a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them; and he drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.
Tinsley's seeing this verse as "a suggestion that Judas did not actually kiss Jesus (Mark and Matthew both say that he did)" F32 is a perfect example of the type of irresponsible criticism so often indulged in by radical critics. There is no suggestion at all in this place that Judas did not kiss Jesus; but rather a statement that just before he did so, the Lord addressed him as in the next verse.
But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?
There is no vocabulary sufficiently extensive to describe the dastardly act of Judas Iscariot. The rationalistic devices of some who would extenuate his treachery, the "explanations" of those who exhibit some diabolical affinity with the traitor himself, together with all the brilliant and clever imaginations set to work out some justification of the traitor's deed - all of these have utterly failed to redeem Judas in the thinking of upright men from the shame of this betrayal.
Son of man ...
By such a word, Jesus reminded Judas that it was no mere human teacher that he was betraying. The divine Messiah was the one whom he betrayed with a kiss; and such an act was so unbelievable that it called forth the Saviour's exclamation here. There is a further glimpse of the Lord's omniscience here. Before Judas profaned the Lord's cheek with his kiss, Jesus exposed his intention.
Verses 49, 50
And when they that were about him saw what would follow, they said, Lord, shall we smite with the sword? And a certain one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and struck off his right ear.
The apostles had misunderstood the Lord's mention of the sword, and that misunderstanding led to the incident here. The sword was a proper weapon of self-defense against brigands, but not against the lawful authority. Such was the Saviour's respect for the legal government that he willingly submitted to it, even when it was controlled by evil men engaged in an illegal and shameful project.
And a certain one of them smote ...
Peter was not named here as the one who used the sword; and from this it must be assumed that when Luke wrote this gospel, Peter was still alive, discretion demanding that his name be withheld. Tertullian stated that Peter was crucified by Nero (37-68 A.D.); and here is a telling argument for the early date of the gospel of Luke. Whether or not Tertullian's statement is received as true, there is no reasonable way to date Peter's death after the reign of Nero. John, writing long afterward, did not hesitate to name Peter, and from this is it certain that considerations of Peter's safety required the omission of his name here.
But Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye them thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him.
The servant who lost his ear was Malchus (John 18:10); and Luke, with a physician's characteristic observance, noted that it was his right ear.
Suffer ye them thus far ...
The word THEM is not in the Greek, and some question exists as to the exact meaning. Geldenhuys understood it as "Let events take their course, even to my arrest," F33 thus seeing the remark as addressed to the Lord's disciples with the meaning that they should not interfere any further with the arrest.
And healed him ...
Like all of the miracles of Jesus, this one had definite and necessary utility. One great purpose of the Lord in the arrest was to procure the exemption of the apostles from custody, as particularly evident in John; but, with Peter's rash act, such would have been far more difficult except for the timely healing of the excised ear.
Verses 52, 53
And Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and elders, that were come out against him, Are ye come out, as against a robber, with swords and staves? When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched not forth your hand against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
As Hobbs said, "swords and staves" indicate that "both Roman soldiers and temple police" F34 were used in the arrest. Only Luke, however, spelled out the presence of the chief priests who had come along to make sure the mission succeeded.
Daily in the temple ...
This is a reference to the extensive ministry of Christ in Jerusalem in the final weeks following the long "journey" to the Holy City emphasized throughout by Luke. Also, this is another bit of evidence that Wednesday of this final week was not a day of retirement.
The power of darkness ...
This is another echo of the great truth so strongly stressed in John, further evidence that the Christ of the synoptics is one with the Christ of John.
It has been frequently observed that if this night arrest of Jesus had truly been the Passover, none of the chief priests, nor the temple guards, would have been permitted to bear arms after sundown of Nisan 14. It was therefore the night before, on Nisan 13 (technically the 14th) that this arrest occurred. Had it been Nisan 14th after sundown, it would have been technically Nisan 15th, the night of the Passover meal. See chronology under Luke 22:2.
And they seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed afar off.
The legal high priest was Caiaphas, but Annas his father-in-law was held to be the rightful high priest deposed by Rome; both of them occupied the same palace; and Peter's denial occurred in the courtyard where both Annas and Caiaphas lived. Luke very briefly mentioned the two arraignments, or trials, before Annas and Caiaphas. For article on the "Six Trials of Jesus," see my Commentary on Matthew, Matt. 26:57ff.
Peter followed afar off ...
Peter's failure was partially due to some things he did, such as following "afar off," warming himself at the fire kindled by Jesus' enemies, his rash resort to carnal weapons, his boastful promise to go to prison and death with Jesus, etc. See my Commentary on Matthew, Matt. 26:58,70-75.
And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the court, and had sat down together, Peter sat in the midst of them.
Psychologically, Peter placed himself at a disadvantage by "warming himself by the devil's fire." Accepting favors of enemies of the truth is just as dangerous now as it was when Peter sat in the firelight so long ago.
It is refreshing indeed to recall that, a few days later, there was another fire by the seaside, kindled by the Lord himself, and like this one blazing forth at a very early hour in the morning: and by that other fire Peter confessed three times that he loved the Lord! (John 21:9).
And a certain maid seeing him as he sat in the light of the fire, and looking stedfastly upon him, said, This man also was with him. But he denied, saying, Woman, I know him not. And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou also art one of them. But Peter said, Man, I am not, And after the space of about one hour another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this man also was with him; for he is a Galilaean. But Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. And the Lord turned and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how that he said unto him, Before the cock crow this day thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out and wept bitterly.
One of those who accosted Peter was a kinsman of Malchus whose ear Peter had cut off; and, if Peter recognized the connection, this would have increased his apprehension (John 18:26).
This incident has been thoroughly commented upon in all of the parallels. See under Luke 22:40 for a list of these.
Luke omitted any reference to Peter's cursing and swearing, but like all the gospel writers, did not fail to spell out completely the act of denial itself. Is this not another example of the prophetic power of Jesus, or his omniscience? Of course it is. No one but God could spell out exactly what will happen by three o'clock tomorrow morning, as Jesus did here. There is a weariness in the continual carping of critics that the omniscience of Jesus is found principally in John.
Cock crow ...
"The cock crow was a Roman division of time, marking the close of the third watch, about three o'clock in the morning." F35
Wept bitterly ...
One's heart cannot fail to be touched by the grief of this robust outdoorsman sobbing out his remorse for his impulsive denial of the Lord whom he loved. Sin had taken him unawares, when his defenses were down, when the powers of darkness were ascendant; but none of the extenuating circumstances removed the sting from his heart, nor could a flood of tears wash it away.
And Peter remembered ...
The only trouble with this was that it came a bit late to prevent Peter's denial. If only he could have remembered what Jesus had prophesied somewhat earlier, he might have found in that remembrance some means of averting failure.
Verses 63, 64, 65
And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and beat him. And they blindfolded him, and asked him, saying Prophesy; who is he that struck thee? And many other things spake they against him, reviling him.
There were six mockeries of Jesus in all. See under Mark 15:16 in my Commentary on Mark for a list of these. All of the mockeries were due to the instinctive hatred of carnal and unregenerated men for holiness and truth. Especially reprehensible in this glimpse of the mockeries provided by Luke, since it took place in the court of the high priests of Israel, was the fact of its being promulgated, or at least allowed, by the religious leaders of the Jews. It might have been expected at the hands of the Roman soldiery, long accustomed to deeds of blood and violence; but it was especially shameful that the priests would have condoned such a thing.
And as soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes; and led him away into their council, saying.
THE SANHEDRIN GIVES THE DEATH VERDICT
The night trials of Jesus were illegal; but so also was this gathering of the Sanhedrin on Nisan 14th, a high festival upon which no trial of any kind whatever was legal. Of course, the purpose of this assembly, the third in the six trials of Jesus, was to lend some semblance of legality to the preliminary trials held the night before.
Verses 67, 68, 69
If thou art the Christ, tell us, But he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe; and if I ask you, ye will not answer. But from henceforth shall the Son of man be seated at the right hand of the power of God.
This ten-second summary of the three trials of Jesus which occupied the whole of a long night and a full-dress rehearsal after daylight does not give a hundredth of all that was said and done. There were many, many questions, and answers, and adjurations, and restatements, and recapitulations throughout the long trials Jesus endured at the hands of the chosen people. One of the gospel's giving a question or an answer in slightly different form from that in another gospel may not be intelligently advocated as a contradiction or discrepancy. All that is written in all of the gospels is totally and unequivocally true, there being no honest way to deny a word of it.
If thou art the Christ, tell us ...
At one point during the trials the high priest phrased the question thus: "Art thou the Christ the Son of the Blessed?" And to this, Jesus replied, "I am, and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power and coming with the clouds of heaven" (Mark 14:61,62). Christ preferred to answer the question which permitted the imperial "I AM" reply, rather than the type mentioned here, to which he replied differently.
If I tell you, ye will not believe ...
Jesus had indeed told them hundreds of times, but they would not believe.
If I ask you, ye will not answer ...
There are a number of examples of this in the gospels. See Luke 14:6; 20:5; Matthew 22:46, etc. Those evil rulers were not able to answer Jesus' questions; they could not stand against him in open discussion; and, even in this trial, they refused to answer his arguments.
Henceforth ye shall see the Son of man seated at the right hand of the power of God ...
This is an emphatic declaration from the lips of Jesus that he was indeed the divine Messiah, a supernatural person, in possession (ultimately) of the very power of God; and it must be pointed out that the Sanhedrin fully understood it as such, thus making them much more perceptive than those who blindly ignore the impact of this declaration.
And they all said, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.
The phrasing of the question, "Art thou then the Son of God?" is proof that the Sanhedrin understood the meaning of Jesus' reply.
Ye say that I am ...
has the weight of "Yes, at last you have seen the point of what I am saying!" It is a gross error to hail these words as anything except the most positive affirmation of Jesus that he was, is and ever will be, the Son of God, "The expression is equivalent to "YES." F36
And they said, What further need have we of witness? for we ourselves have heard from his own mouth.
By the sheer power of morality and intellect, Jesus at last forced the officialdom of the Hebrews into using the only charge that he would permit them to use, namely, his claim to be the divine Messiah. All of the other charges which they had so maliciously advocated against him for so long, such as sabbath breaking, casting out demons by the power of the devil, etc., all dropped out of sight here, even that garbled quote about destroying the temple; and the only reason the leaders had for demanding Jesus' death came into view, not merely here, but in every one of the four gospels, that being that "he made himself the Son of God" (John 19:7). That was the issue that Jesus chose to seal with the blood of the cross; and the fury of the Sanhedrin at being forced to face the issue became apparent in their deceitful conduct before Pilate.
This, of course, was the death penalty, pronounced by the sacred court of the Jews; but the fact of the death penalty having been removed from their jurisdiction sent the next phase of the trials into the courts of the Gentiles. Wonderful, wonderful was the appearance of Jesus in these fantastic trials, wherein he so gloriously attested his eternal power and Godhead.
Footnotes for Luke 22
1: H. Leo Boles, Commentary on Luke (Nashville: Gospel Advocate Company, 1940), p. 411.
2: Charles L. Childers, Beacon Bible Commentary (Kansas City, Missouri: Beacon Hill Press, 1964), Matthew, p. 233.
3: S. MacLean Gilmour, The Interpreter's Bible (New York: Abingdon Press, 1952), Vol. VIII, Luke, p. 373.
4: J. R. Dummelow, Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), p. 692.
6: A. T. Robertson, A Harmony of the Gospels (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1922), p. 189.
7: Everett F. Harrison, Wycliffe Bible Commentary (Chicago: Moody Press, 1971), p. 263.
8: George R. Bliss, An American Commentary on the New Testament (Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: The Judson Press), Vol. II, Luke, p. 312.
9: Norval Geldenhuys, Commentary on the Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1951), p. 557.
10: George R. Bliss, op. cit., pp. 313-314.
11: John Wesley, Notes on the New Testament (Naperville, Illinois: Alec. R. Allenson, Inc., 1950), p. 286.
12: J. R. Dummelow, op. cit., p. 767.
13: Norval Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 563.
14: Everett F. Harrison, op. cit., p. 264.
15: Albert Barnes, Notes on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1954), p. 148.
16: H. D. M. Spence, The Pulpit Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1952), Vol. 16, Luke, p. 200.
17: John Wesley, op. cit., p. 287.
18: Norval Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 569.
19: Ibid., p. 672.
20: Herschel H. Hobbs, An Exposition of the Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1966), p. 307.
21: Albert Barnes, op. cit., p. 150.
22: J. S. Lamar, The New Testament Commentary, Vol. II (Cincinnati, Ohio: Chase and Hall, 1877), p. 260.
23: Albert Barnes, op. cit., p. 150.
24: Herschel H. Hobbs, op. cit., p. 312.
25: H. D. M. Spence, op. cit., p. 203.
26: Herschel H. Hobbs, op. cit., p. 312.
27: Matthew Henry and Thomas Scott, Commentary on the Holy Bible (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1960), p. 309.
28: George R. Bliss, op. cit., p. 323.
29: J. R. Dummelow, op. cit., p. 767.
30: G. Campbell Morgan, The Gospel of Luke (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1931), en loco.
31: Norval Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 578.
32: E. J. Tinsley, The Gospel according to Luke (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1969), p. 195.
33: Norvel Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 582.
34: Herschel H. Hobbs, op. cit., p. 315.
35: Everett F. Harrison, op. cit., p. 266.
36: Ibid, p. 267.
37: Anthony Lee Ash, op. cit., p. 118.
38: H. D. M. Spence, op. cit., p. 187.
39: A. T. Robertson, A Harmony of the Gospels (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1922), pp. 189-190.
40: Charles L. Childers, op. cit., p. 593.
41: E. J. Tinsley, The Gospel according to Luke (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), p. 186.
42: Anthony Lee Ash, op. cit., p. 98.
43: Donald G. Miller, op. cit., p. 135.
44: Anthony Lee Ash, op. cit., p. 98.
45: Norval Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 483.
46: H. D. M. Spence, op. cit., p. 139
47: J. C. Ryle, op. cit., p. 311.
48: Herschel H. Hobbs, op. cit., p. 278.
49: William Barclay, op. cit., p. 249.
50: Anthony Lee Ash, op. cit., p. 100.
51: J. S. Lamar, op. cit., p. 238.
52: Anthony Lee Ash, op. cit., p. 101.
53: William Barclay, op. cit., p. 251.
54: Norval Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 484.
55: Charles L. Childers, op. cit., p. 588.
56: Norval Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 464.
57: Ibid., pp. 484-485.
58: Ibid, p. 199.