Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New TestamentRevelation 7
After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that no wind should blow on the earth, or on the sea, or upon any tree.
After this I saw ...
"It is dangerous to assume that the order in which John writes is the order in which the things he describes will happen." F20 The exact chronology of Revelation is the great unresolved problem with the whole prophecy. In Rev. 6:8, the ravaging horsemen had authority to destroy the fourth part of the earth; but in this chapter (Revelation 7:1,3), the destructive forces are restrained from hurting the earth. "After this," therefore means merely that John saw this vision at a later time than when he saw the ones already described.
Four angels standing at the four corners of the earth ...
These are God's angels, not demons, or the devil's angels. "The unmodified term angels is never used to indicate devils." F21
The four corners of the earth ...
There is no need to dwell upon the alleged ignorance of the sacred writers concerning the shape of the earth. Nothing that John either knew or did not know had anything to do with what he saw. We who know all about the globe still speak of the four corners of the earth and the ends of the earth; and "North, south, east and west make exactly four and will continue to do so." F22 We have no patience with those writers who can find nothing in this except, "the cosmology of the Babylonians, the influence of the Syriac Apocalypse of Peter, or of Pseudo-John, or of the Questions of Bartholomew." F23 The blessed apostle himself gave us his source; namely, God himself through Jesus Christ.
Holding the four winds of the earth ...
The function of these angels was that of restraining the destructive forces represented by the winds. The thought is parallel with that of the limitations imposed upon the horsemen of the seals, who could hurt only one fourth of the earth.
No wind shall blow ...
The prohibition here is not total, but the restraint of destructive forces. The thought is parallel with the Saviour's promise that a sparrow may not fall without God's knowledge and concern (Matthew 10:29). The total restraint of all atmospheric motion would not be a blessing, but a disaster. The restriction of destructive forces in these verses primarily teaches that the present order of creation shall be providentially preserved until the complete fulfillment of God's redemptive purpose on earth. The thought is parallel with the following from the Old Testament:
While the earth remaineth, cold and
heat, and seedtime and harvest, and
summer and winter, and day and night,
shall not cease (Genesis 8:22).
Plummer understood this whole chapter as the logical answer to the closing words of Rev. 6, "Who shall be able to stand?" thus connecting Rev. 7 with the final judgment scene there related. F24 This is correct and has the effect of applying Rev. 7, not to some specific event of history, but to the whole earthly probation of the saints. "The sealing extends throughout the whole New Testament era." F25 Here is the prophetic equivalent of Jesus' promise to be with his church "even unto the end of the world" (Matthew 28:20), and of Paul's, "all things work together for good to them that are called according to his purpose" (Romans 8:25). The immense comfort of persecuted saints in such glorious promises is exactly the comfort graphically pictured in these two magnificent visions of Rev. 7.
Roberts identified the four angels here with the four horsemen of Rev. 6, F26 but we refrain from doing this for two reasons: (1) they were already holding, or restraining the winds, before the great angel appeared and (2) the "we" used by the other angel seems also to include the four.
And I saw another angel ascend from the sunrising, having the seal of the living God: and he cried with a great voice to the four angels to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea.
Another angel ... from the sunrising ...
The east is often mentioned in Revelation, and "from the sunrising" seems to mean "from that direction," the source of earth's light. Certainly, for one of God's messengers, it is more appropriate that he should come from the sunrising, than from the sunset. Who this mighty angel was we have no certain way of knowing. Beeson thought, "This refers to Christ's coming in the Holy Spirit to his apostles on Pentecost"; F27 and despite Beeson's being correct in seeing the connection between the sealing and the giving of the Holy Spirit, it is not necessary to impose any specific identity upon this mighty angel. He stands in the vision as an executor of the will of God, the big thought of the passage relating not to his identity but to his great authority to control nature itself in order to prevent any frustration of God's plans to seal his servants.
Having the seal of the living God ...
"Here we have an instance of words used both figuratively and literally in one passage." F28 Seal is figurative, and living God is literal. For what the seal is, see under (2) in the chapter heading, above. Of course, the angel did not carry the Holy Spirit, but the imagery is aided by the picture of his carrying God's seal.
Cried with a loud voice to the four angels ...
This mighty angel clearly had more authority than the four; nevertheless, the four were angels and were already restraining the destructive forces when the mighty angel delivered his order. There is no New Testament criteria for identifying this mighty angel, unless he is understood as Michael the archangel; but there is no certainty of this. See in my Commentary on Jude, p. 534, for more on the archangel.
saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, until we shall have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads.
Hurt not the earth ... sea ... trees ...
The four angels who had such power are not depicted as having done any hurt at all, nor as ever having had either any intention or any desire to hurt anything. There was an extensive angelology among the Jews; but the mention in this prophecy of angels of the winds (as here), the angel of fire (Revelation 14:18), and the angel of the waters (Revelation 16:5), is not sufficient grounds for receiving the speculative Hebrew angelology as dependable. The New Testament purposely left us in the dark concerning any definitive teaching regarding the work of angels. Some of their functions may be inferred from various Old Testament and New Testament texts; and, for a glance at these, see in my Commentary on Hebrews, p. 31, and under Rev. 10:7.
Till we shall have sealed the servants of our God ...
The future perfect tense, as well as the "till," suggests that the restraining of the destructive forces shall be continued throughout the Christian dispensation until the Second Advent, until all of God's servants are sealed.
We ... our ...
These are not merely editorial expressions, but have the meaning that the work of all the angels in view here is one work; all are concerned with both the restraining and the sealing. Therefore, this would seem to be a reference to the work of angels who do service for them that are the heirs of salvation, as in Heb. 1:14.
God's servants ...
To the generation which first read Revelation, this expression could have had only one meaning, Christians. That is what it meant then, and what it still means. God has no bondservants who are not Christians. Furthermore, it is not merely some fraction of these, or some limited group, or class, such as martyrs, who are to be sealed. All are sealed; and not even any destructive natural force shall be allowed to impede or interfere with this sealing until it is totally accomplished.
In their foreheads ...
Such a designated place for the sealing suggests that the countenances of the sealed will bear eloquent witness of their having been sealed, a truth exemplified by the radiant countenances of Christians all over the world. When the rich young ruler went away from Jesus, it is recorded that "his countenance fell" (Mark 10:22); and God's sealing of his servants gives the opposite of a fallen countenance. As Lenski put it, "The countenance identifies the person ... what the heart is, the face and eyes reveal." F29
And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty and four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel: Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Reuben twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Gad twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Asher twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Naphtali twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Simeon twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Levi twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Issachar twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Zebulun twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Joseph twelve thousand; Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand.
Who are these 144,000? They are the saved of earth, servants of God just mentioned by the angel, particularly the Christians of all ages until the end of time. This meaning alone could have had any comfort at all for the suffering saints who first received this prophecy. The idea that John here comforted the Christians who were in the throes of a great tribulation brought upon them by the fleshly Jews who had murdered the Messiah and hindered the truth all over the world, with a vision of such a vast company of saved and redeemed Jews (literally) is absolutely preposterous. See chapter introduction, above, under (1).
Theories which would read these 144,000 as, "the total number of the martyrs that must be completed before the prayers of those in heaven (Revelation 6:11) could be answered," F30 are equally preposterous and are founded upon an inadequate conception of God who simply cannot be properly viewed as approving any specified number of martyrs. It is not martyrs that God desires, but Christians. Furthermore, the sealed here are not called martyrs.
The theory that these 144,000 are literal Jews from racial Israel is attractive to some, and was ably advocated by Seiss:
When God says "children of Israel," I
do not understand him to mean any but
people of Jewish blood, be they
Christians or not. And when he speaks
of the twelve sons of Jacob, and gives
the names of the tribes, it is
impossible for me to believe that he
means Gentiles in any sense or degree,
whether they be believers or not. F31
The blindness of this view is identical with that of the Pharisees who claimed to be sons of Abraham (and, literally, they were); but Jesus said, "If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham" (John 8:39). John's .calling the church the twelve tribes of Israel came directly from the lips of Jesus (Matthew 19:28); and therefore "fleshly Israel," called by Jesus himself "the children of the devil" (John 8:44), simply cannot fit into this passage in any way. That our interpretation entails come difficulty is freely admitted. Smith called this, "a passage of unusual difficulty"; F32 but the difficulty of trying to make the tribes of literal Israel fit the meaning here is far more difficult.
The 144,000 ...
This is a number made up of 12 x 12 x 1,000. Earlier in Revelation we had a number made up of 12 + 12, that of the "four and twenty elders" (Revelation 4:4); but here the "twelve" is multiplied by itself, and then again by a thousand, indicating completeness and perfection in the ultimate degree. What is meant? "That not one of those who are worthy shall be overlooked or forgotten." F33 It also carries the thought that the natural universe, the powers of evil, and the ravages of time shall not interfere with God's plans until all are accomplished. Therefore, the 144,000 are a symbol of the total number of the redeemed, a definite number, unknown to us, but surely known by God. It is the same as "the innumerable company" of Rev. 7:9.
Twelve tribes ...
Why are they listed? First, the number "twelve" is a sacred number. There were twelve tribes of Israel, twelve apostles, twelve foundations of the eternal city, twelve gates, twelve angels at the gates, twelve manner of fruits on the tree of life, twelve seasons in the year when the fruits were yielded, and twelve stars in the crown of the glorious woman arrayed with the sun! Are these literally the twelve sons of Jacob? How could they be? The ten northern tribes had already been lost for centuries when John wrote. Dan is not mentioned here, nor is Ephraim; but Joseph which includes both Ephraim and Manessah is listed. As Beckwith said, "Nineteen different arrangements of these names are found in the Old Testament, with none of which does this list agree." F34 If these are understood as literal tribes, it would mean that exactly the same number would be saved from each one; and what kind of a straitjacket is that? It would also have to mean that none will be saved from the tribe of Dan. Thus we are driven to the conclusion reached by Roberts: "The 144,000 must represent the whole church of the New Testament as spiritual Israel." F35 No satisfactory explanation of this irregular list has ever been offered, unless it is this, "John intends to say that the twelve tribes of Israel are not literal Israel, but the true spiritual Israel, which is the church." F36 Foy E. Wallace, Jr., also agreed that, "They signify the whole faithful church, the total number of the redeemed." F37 Regarding the question of why, then, should John have broken the 144,000 into twelve tribes, Bruce thought he did so in order, "to emphasize that the church is the true Israel of God, and that the number represents the sum total of the faithful." F38 "The reference to the twelve tribes is therefore accommodative, as in James 1:1." F39 Besides all this, to bring racial considerations into the interpretation of this prophecy "seriously complicates the book of Revelation by bringing in racial considerations that no longer exist." F40
Bruce, Caird, and others apply the sealing of the 144,000 to martyrs only, but there is no way we could agree with this. (See discussion in the chapter introduction.) The placement of Judah at the head of the list of twelve tribes was thought by McDowell to be due to the fact that Christ was of the tribe of Judah; F41 but since all Christians, being "in Christ" would thus belong to that tribe, it would have to imply that only twelve thousand could be saved from the tribe of Judah, including all the Christians who ever lived! These, and many other considerations, demand a spiritual interpretation of these twelve tribes.
Still another question regards the purpose of the sealing, whether it was to exempt the sealed from tribulation, or to preserve the saved safely through tribulation. Since there is not a line in the New Testament, nor in the experience of any Christian through out history, of any exemption of the Lord's people from tribulation, the conclusion is mandatory that the safety of the soul through tribulation is meant. See more on this in the chapter introduction under (3). As McGuiggan said:
Does this sealing assure saints of
physical preservation? No! In the
Old Testament vision of Ezek. 9, we
read of others who were sealed, but
many of them died. Both Lindsay and
Walvoord say that this means the
144,000 are physically preserved; but
it did not mean that in Ezekiel; then
why should it mean that here? Where
is the proof? F42
After these things I saw, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, arrayed in white robes, and palms in their hands;
After these things ...
See under Rev. 7:1. The logic of the first vision of this chapter (Revelation 7:1-8) coming first is inherent in the fact that two different states of Christians are in view: (1) their state on earth suffering persecutions and martyrdom, and (2) their state in heaven where they are eternally safe. The saints on earth are sealed with the Holy Spirit as a pledge of their ultimately receiving their inheritance; but the saints in heaven are not said to be sealed, for they have already received the great inheritance. The first vision (Revelation 7:1-8) symbolized by the old Israel's embattled condition during the wilderness wanderings suggests the similar condition of God's church throughout the ages; and the second vision (Revelation 7:9-17) shows them finally triumphant and redeemed. The imagery borrowed from the old Israel applies here to the new.
A great number which no man could number ...
This is the same group as that of the 144,000 (Revelation 7:1-8). This is not contradicted by the number 144,000 being given there and the "innumerable" group here. The 144,000 is also an "innumerable" throng. "If they had been different groups, both would have been sealed," F43 for both are servants of God. Those in heaven had already been sealed while upon earth. "This innumerable company are the whole church of God." F44 However, this vision of them is not a view of them at a time when they are suffering persecutions, but a view of them as they appear eternally after the Second Advent of Christ. "The interpretation of most of Revelation pivots upon the proper identification of these two groups as one and the same." F45 "This vision shows how the saints (the 144,000) are preserved, not delivered from death, but delivered by death." F46
The premillennial proposition that the sealing in this chapter can not be "fulfilled before the rapture of the church," F47 has no support from the New Testament. We take the view of Strauss to be correct: "This picture is the church triumphant in heaven; they have prevailed over persecution and death because of the blood of the Lamb." F48 The time of their sealing, not mentioned here, was that during their sojourn on earth after they obeyed the gospel.
Out of every nation ... tribes ... peoples ... tongues ...
The worldwide, universal nature of the church is seen in this.
Standing before the throne and before the Lamb ...
This is in heaven and justifies the view that here we have a glimpse of the Church Triumphant. What better comfort could be provided for those who were confronted with suffering and martyrdom?
Arrayed in white robes ...
"Trench stated that no symbol of heathen origin is used in the Apocalypse." F49 Therefore, we do not need to look to Babylon, Greece, or Rome for the origin of the "palms" carried by these white-robed saints. The citizens of Jerusalem spread the branches of palms before the Saviour upon his triumphal entry (John 12:13), a fact recorded by the author of this Apocalypse.
and they cry with a great voice, saying, Salvation unto our God who sitteth on the throne, and unto the Lamb.
They cry with a great voice ...
The present tense indicates the constant and unceasing nature of this adoration.
Salvation unto our God ... and unto the Lamb ...
The identification of the Lamb with God upon the throne is invariable throughout Revelation. The presence of Christ at the very center of universal power and authority is an essential Christian conception. The meaning of this first clause is that God has given salvation and is therefore praised for it. "It is characteristic of John to announce the final victory before it has occurred," F50 his purpose, of course, being that of maintaining a high level of hope and encouragement among those who were suffering and facing a prospect of martyrdom. Such anticipations are called "proleptic visions." F51
And all the angels were standing round about the throne, and about the elders and the four living creatures; and they fell down before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God,
All the angels ... round about the throne ...
All things in heaven and upon earth shall at last join in the hymn of universal praise to God in Christ, summing up all things in Christ, "the things in the heavens, and the things upon the earth" (Ephesians 1:10).
Elders and the four living creatures ...
What is said above regarding the angels applies equally to these beings also.
saying, Amen: Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honor, and power, and might, be unto our God, for ever and ever. Amen.
Amen ... Amen ...
This usage of such an expression both to introduce and to close this sevenfold doxology is most impressive. See further comment on the use of "Amen" in this prophecy under Rev. 5:12f, above. The great doxology here is similar to the one recorded there.
Unto our God ...
does not exclude either Christ or the Holy Spirit, but is inclusive of the entire Godhead.
And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, These that are arrayed in white robes, who are they, and whence came they?
One of the elders ...
This was one of the four and twenty elders mentioned in Rev. 4:4.
These in white robes ...
With such an appearance, these could hardly have been unrecognized by John as the saved of earth; but he did not offer his own opinion on the question, as evidenced in the next verse.
And I say unto him, My lord, thou knowest. And he said unto me, These are they that came out of the great tribulation, and they washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
Lord, thou knowest ...
The very fact of the elder's asking John of their identity suggests that John probably understood who they were and whence they came; but, as being appropriate for one still under probation, the apostle refrained from saying so, his response, "Lord, thou knowest," being noncommittal. It is a gross misunderstanding to make John's respectful reply here the basis of denying that one of the Twelve is the author through whom this prophecy came.
These are they that came out of the great tribulation ...
This verse is the principal proof-text for sponsors of the Great Tribulation theory; but the words "they that came are translated from the present middle participle, meaning they continue to come." F52 Bruce translated this, "These are the comers. F53 This positively identifies the "coming" of these white-robed saints w dispensation. "The whole history of the church is a time of tribulation. F54 "The Great Ordeal (tribulation) is a prolonged process, which from John's temporal standpoint was partly past and partly future." F55 Right here is the key to Rev. 1:19. Many of the scenes in Revelation mingle visions of things past, present, and future simultaneously. Any neat little scheme of making one section of Revelation past, another present, and yet another future, collapses in a careful understanding of the text. We agree with Beckwith that, "There is nothing here which points to any one particular distress." F56
And they washed their robes ...
The undeniable reference in this is to the conversion of the saints at the time of their residence upon the earth. Thompson stated that, "The understanding of this passage derives from such Scriptures as Acts 22:16; Rom. 6:3-5; Gal. 3:27; and Titus 3:5, F57 all of which refer to primary obedience to the gospel, the unique manner by which anyone since Pentecost was ever able, in any sense, to "wash" his robes in the blood of Christ. This is a metaphor, but it surely stresses the part which sinners themselves have in their own salvation. They must obey the gospel. Note that it is said, "They washed," a reference to what one must do to be saved. Christ provides the means of our redemption, but he requires of people that they appropriate the blessings of it through obedience. All of the apostles taught this same truth. Peter, on Pentecost, commanded those who wished to be saved to "Repent and have yourselves baptized ... save yourselves from this crooked generation" (Acts 2:38,40). "Save yourselves ... wash your robes," etc., all such passages stress the human response in salvation.
Again, note the doxology of Rev. 7:12, which was being spoken by this white-robed throng. When they praised the Lord for salvation, they spoke not of what they had done (though they could not have been saved without it), but of the blood of the Lamb.
"The great tribulation of this passage is the persecution of the followers of Christ which broke in such intense malignity in John's day and continues until the ultimate triumph of Christ. F58 The following verses, designed to comfort and encourage the suffering church, must be understood with reference to the dark background of persecutions.
Therefore are they before the throne of God; and they serve him day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall spread his tabernacle over them.
Suffering Christians who overcome the sorrows and tribulations of life will ultimately be with God, in his very presence, and shall participate in the joys of heaven forever. "Only the Bloodwashed throng can stand before the throne of God and enjoy his presence forever." F59
Spread his tabernacle over them ...
This is a reference to the special love and care which God spreads like a mantle over his beloved children. This great love and protection is not withheld until we reach heaven, but it belongs to God's people now, and is instantly available for all who truly seek to know God and to follow him "in Christ."
They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; neither shall the sun strike upon them, nor any heat:
The background of this verse is the hunger and privation suffered by the apostolic church. The savage hatred of the whole pagan world motivated ten great persecutions against the Christians. Not only were the Christians often cold, and tired, and hungry, and naked, they were also murdered for sport in the Roman Coliseum, and some of them were drenched in flammables and elevated as torches to illuminate the night time games and orgies of the emperor's gardens in Rome. Saints suffering such indignities and terrors needed such comforting words as those provided in this verse.
Neither shall the sun strike on them, nor any heat ...
This continues in the same line of thought. During the persecutions, the church often found that its members did not have even the basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter; and from this we should learn that, "The church should never expect to be preserved from the basic ills of mankind." F60
for the Lamb that is in the midst of the throne shall be their shepherd, and shall guide them unto fountains of waters of life: and God shall wipe away every tear from their eyes. "Lamb in the midst of the throne ...
Here is the great consolation. "As long as this earth endures, Christ is still at the center of things; and his people are indestructible." F61 Furthermore, as seen above (Revelation 7:1-4), the mighty angels of God preserve the earth itself until God's great purpose is fully accomplished.
Shall be their shepherd ...
This is strongly suggestive of John 10, where Jesus revealed himself as the "Good Shepherd." One does not ordinarily think of a lamb as a shepherd, but with this Lamb it is true. Pack pointed out that all of the language of these final two verses draws upon the language of Isa. 49:10; F62 and Bruce found an echo of Isa. 26:8, making the whole passage applicable to the new age, "when God will swallow up death forever." F63 Only then shall the redeemed find the fountains of living waters and have all tears wiped away. Even more obvious is the fact of these sentiments being fully in harmony with the great description of the final abode of the saints in the last two chapters of this prophecy. Rist's suggestion that, "John is here indoctrinating prospective martyrs by quoting a hymn" F64 cannot be correct, nor can Moffatt's notion that, "The Apocalypse confines Christ's shepherding to the future life." F65 As a matter of fact, it is only because Christ shepherds his people in the present life that John envisioned his also doing so eternally.
Shall wipe away every tear ...
The repetition of this precious promise in Rev. 21:4, where it concerns the eternal state, makes it mandatory to see these verses as a description of the same state in heaven. This final heavenly vision describing the eternal bliss of the redeemed is most appropriate as a sequel to the terrors of the wicked in the final judgment at the end of chapter 6, strongly indicating that it is the final judgment depicted here, but with the destiny of the righteous in focus, instead of the destiny of the wicked.
It will be noticed that the heavenly scene here follows the scene of the overthrow of the wicked in the final judgment at the end of Rev. 6; and this is exactly the order in which John will give the great white throne judgment of Rev. 20, followed by the heavenly scene greatly elaborated in the final two chapters of the prophecy. Ezell was correct in connecting Rev. 8:1 with this paragraph, F66 and understanding the half hour of silence which follows the opening of the seventh seal "as the full content of that seal." F67 Thus, this whole chapter is intimately related to the sixth seal; and the seventh seal merely shows that God has not revealed anything at all of what will happen after the final judgment. That half hour of silence really rings down the curtain and draws a dramatic line under all that is written through Rev. 7:17, effecting a complete separation of it from what is afterwards written in the prophecy, and compelling us to look for a new beginning in Rev. 8:2.
Footnotes for Revelation 7
1: Albertus Pieters, Studies in the Revelation of St. John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1954), p. 125.
2: Ray Summers, Worthy is the Lamb (Nashville: The Broadman Press, 1961), pp. 147-149.
3: Donald W. Richardson, The Revelation of Jesus Christ (New York: Pillar Books, 1964), p. 88.
4: David Smith, The Disciples Commentary on the New Testament, Vol. V (New York: Rav Long and Richard R. Smith, Inc., 1932), p. 632.
5: H. B. Swete, The Apocalypse of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1951), p. 99.
6: Isbon T. Beckwith, The Apocalypse of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1919), pp. 535, 539.
7: R. H. Charles, Revelation of St. John, Vol. II, International Critical Commentary (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920), pp. 206, 209.
8: Ray Summers, op. cit., p. 147.
9: James Moffatt, Expositor's Greek New Testament, Vol. V (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1967), p. 397.
10: Jim McGuiggan, The Book of Revelation (West Monroe, Louisiana: William C. Johnson, 1976), p. 112.
11: G. B. Caird, The Revelation of St. John the Divine (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 97.
12: Joseph M. Gettys, How to Study the Revelation (Philadelphia: The John Knox Press, 1955), p. 55.
13: William Hendriksen, More Than Conquerors (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1956), p. 133.
14: R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of St. John's Revelation (Minneapolis, Minnesota: Augsburg Publishing House, 1943), p. 250.
15: George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1972), p. 112.
16: J. W. Roberts, The Revelation of John (Austin, Texas: R.B. Sweet Company, 1974), p. 69.
17: John T. Hinds, A Commentary on Revelation (Nashville: Gospel Advocate Company, 1962), p. 110.
18: Charles M. Laymon, The Book of Revelation (New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1960), p. 94.
19: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 245.
20: Michael Wilcock, I Saw Heaven Opened (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1975), p. 78.
21: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 245.
22: Ibid., p. 246.
23: Martin Rist, The Interpreter's Bible, Vol. XII (New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1957), p. 417.
24: A. Plummer, The Pulpit Commentary, Vol. 22, Revelation (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1950), pp. 205, 206.
25: R. C. H. Lenskin, op. cit., p. 249.
26: J. W. Roberts, op. cit., p. 70.
27: Ulrich R. Beeson, The Revelation (Little Rock, Arkansas: Ulrich R. Beeson, 1956), p. 69.
28: John T. Hinds, op. cit., p. 111.
29: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 250.
30: Martin Rist, op. cit., p. 419.
31: J. A. Seiss, The Apocalypse Lectures on the Book of Revelation (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1900), pp. 405,406.
32: Wilbur M. Smith, Wycliffe Bible Commentary, New Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1971), p. 1070.
33: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 207.
34: Isbon T. Beckwith, op. cit., p. 542.
35: J. W. Roberts, op. cit., p. 71.
36: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 114.
37: Foy E. Wallace, Jr. The Book of Revelation (Nashville: Foy E. Wallace, Jr., Publications, 1966), p. 100.
38: F. F. Bruce, A New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1969), p. 645.
39: E. M. Zerr, Bible Commentary, Vol. 6 (Marion, Indiana: Cogdill Foundation, 1954), p. 311.
40: Robert H. Mounce, The Book of Revelation (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1977), p. 168.
41: Edward A. McDowell, The Meaning and Message of the Book of Revelation (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1951), p. 97.
42: Jim McGuiggan, op. cit., p. 112.
43: Leon Morris, Tyndale Commentaries, Vol. 20, the Revelation of St. John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1969). p. 114.
44: Isbon T. Beckwith, op. cit., p. 542.
45: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 257.
46: J. R. Dummelow, Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), p. 1079.
47: Finis Jennings Dake, Revelation Expounded (Lawrenceville, Georgia: Finis Jennings Dake, 1950), p. 56.
48: James D. Strauss, The Seer, the Saviour, and the Saved (Joplin, Missouri: College Press, 1972), p. 125.
49: Trench as quoted by Plummer, op. cit., p. 209.
50: Charles M. Laymon, op. cit., p. 105.
52: James D. Strauss, op. cit., p. 126.
53: F. F. Bruce, op. cit., p. 646.
54: James William Russell, Compact Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1964), p. 631.
55: G. B. Caird, op. cit., p. 102.
56: Isbon T. Beckwith, op. cit., p. 545.
57: W. S. Thompson, Comments on Revelation (Memphis, Tennessee: Southern Church Publications, 1957), p. 85.
58: F. F. Bruce, op. cit., p. 646.
59: Ralph Earle, Beacon Bible Commentary, Vol. 10 (Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1967), p. 550.
60: Michael Wilcock, op. cit., p. 84.
62: Frank Pack, Revelation (Austin, Texas: The R. B. Sweet Company, 1965), Part 1, p. 72.
63: F. F. Bruce, op. cit., p. 646.
64: Martin Rist, op. cit., p. 424.
65: James Moffatt, op. cit., p. 401.
66: Douglas Ezell, Revelations on Revelation (Waco: Word Books, Inc., 1977), p. 45.
68: R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of St. John's Revelation (Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Publishing House, 1943), p. 158.
69: Merrill C. Tenney, Interpreting Revelation (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1957), p. 67.
70: G. Campbell Morgan, The Letters of Our Lord (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, n.d.), p. 104.
71: G. B. Caird, op. cit., p. 58.
72: Ralph Earle, op. cit., p. 527.
73: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 118.
74: James Moffatt, op. cit., p. 373.
75: G. B. Caird, op. cit., p. 58.
76: W. Boyd Carpenter, op. cit., p. 551.
77: G. T. Howard, Revelation (Dallas: Christian Publishing Company, 1966), p. 28.
78: John T. Hinds, op. cit., p. 65.
79: Robert H. Mounce, op. cit., p. 130.
80: Beeson, Ulrich R., The Revelation (Little Rock, Arkansas: Ulrich R. Beeson, 1956), p. 42.
82: Charles M. Laymon, The Book of Revelation (New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1960), p. 72.
83: Merrill C. Tenney, op. cit., p. 68.
84: Wilbur M. Smith, Wycliffe Bible Commentary, New Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1971), p. 1063. SECTION I
85: W. Boyd Carpenter, op. cit., p. 545.
86: G. R. Beasley-Murray, op. cit., p. 1285.
87: Charles H. Roberson, op. cit., p. 24.
88: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 66.
89: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 120.
90: F. F. Bruce, op. cit., p. 639.
91: James Moffatt, op. cit., p. 362.
92: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 121.
93: J. W. Roberts, op. cit., p. 46.
94: Foy E. Wallace, Jr., op. cit., p. 96.
95: James Moffatt, op. cit., p. 363.
96: G. B. Caird, op. cit., p. 46.
98: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 25.
99: Billy Graham, op. cit., p. 21.
100: Merrill C. Tenney, op. cit., p. 63.