Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New TestamentRevelation 21
And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth are passed away; and the sea is no more.
A new heaven and a new earth ...
"What is promised here is the fulfillment of Isa. 65:17; 66:22, passages strongly ascribed by millennarians to the thousand years." F1 One of the unsolvable mysteries in this is just what is meant by "new." Paul wrote, "If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature" (2 Corinthians 5:17) and yet the "new" man, in some sense, is the same as the old, the "newness" being in the vital change. From this, some have supposed that a similar thing could be meant by the "new" heaven and earth. Ladd wrote that, "Biblical thought always places man on a redeemed earth, not in a heavenly realm removed from earthly existence." F2 However, we are by no means sure that such a conclusion is correct. Zerr thought the new earth here "is the one Jesus meant," F3 when he said, "The meek shall inherit the earth." Isaiah's prophecy was understood by some among the Jews as a figure, and others understood it literally. F4 The same element of uncertainty prevails now. It is not really necessary for us to know exactly what may be meant by this promise.
The first heaven and the first earth are passed away ...
This sheds no light on the problem noted above. Peter described the destruction of the heavens and the earth by fire (2 Peter 3:10) in language that seems to say they will utterly perish; but he compares it with the "destruction" of the earth by water in flood during the times of Noah (2 Peter 3:5). Throughout Revelation, the fleeing of the earth from God's presence, and the removal of the islands, etc., suggest a literal destruction of the planet, as does Heb. 12:27,28. We confess our inability to find any certainty on this question.
And the sea is no more ...
The same problem persists here. "The three-fold division of heaven, earth, and sea represents the whole of this world"; F5 but some very perceptive writers interpret "sea" here as did Cox, "The sea of unrest, the sea of anxiety is no more." F6 It has also been noted that "the sea" at the time of this writing separated John from his beloved Christians in Asia Minor, and that the absence of it in the vision would mean "there will be no more separation, from loved ones." The meaning is rich, however interpreted.
And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband.
The holy city, new Jerusalem ...
The writer of this prophecy gave no hint, whatever, of exactly when the appearance of this holy city would occur; and it is therefore a gratuitous amendment of the holy Scriptures for scholars to assert that, "The writers of the New Testament ... expected his second coming ... in their own day." F7 How could such a remark be true in the light of the "one thousand years" which John had just mentioned as leading up to the judgment day? See further comment on this particular misunderstanding of many scholars in my Commentary on 1 Thessalonians, pp. 18-20.
The holy city ...
"This is the church of God, now glorified and prepared for perfect communion with her Redeemer." F8 "The old Jerusalem became one with Babylon the great harlot; but the new Jerusalem is the city which Paul calls 'The Jerusalem that is above' (Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 12:22)." F9 See more on this under verse 9, below. "The text does not say the church will become the Lamb's bride at that time"; F10 she is already the Lord's wife (Ephesians 5:25ff). See discussion, "Regarding the Marriage Metaphor," under Rev. 19:7.
Coming down out of heaven ...
When humanity's long and pitiful dream of some golden age, some fair Utopia, is finally realized, it will not come through man's devices, but "down out of heaven from God"; and only the redeemed shall participate in it. "People may vainly imagine that by better education, better environment, disarmament conferences, share-the-wealth programs, etc., they can bring forth a new order"; F11 but it is only a fool's dream. "It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps." See James 1:17 and my Commentary on James, p. 30. To the extent that people or nations may walk after God's commandments now, some little likeness to the ultimate happiness may be achieved, but in no other way.
And I heard a great voice out of the throne saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he shall dwell with them, and they shall be his peoples, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God:
This suggests Ezek. 37:28. God will make his abode in the glorified Israel, the spiritual Israel, inclusive of all the redeemed of all ages. The great goal, or objective, of all salvation is that of "unmarred fellowship between God and his people." F12
A great voice from the throne ...
This is the voice of authority that again and again has echoed in this prophecy.
The tabernacle of God is with men ...
Note the bypassing of the temple. More and more, right through the end of the New Testament, it is clear that the vaunted temple of the Jews was their idea, not God's, and that, as in the monarchy, God accommodated with it, despite its not being his will from the first. See article on "The True Temple," in my Commentary on James, pp. 192-199.
and he shall wipe away every tear from their eyes; and death shall be no more; neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more: the first things are passed away.
And he shall wipe away every tear from their eyes ...
The highly symbolical nature of this language is evident in the truth that if "literally" there is no more crying, then there would also be no tears. It is so easy to fall into literalism, like the little girl who heard this read and exclaimed, "God certainly must have a big handkerchief!" Of course, what is meant is that there will be no causes of tears. "Descriptions of eternal blessedness are often figurative or couched in negatives because the realities are inconceivable to us in our present state." F13 Compare this with Isa. 25:8; 65:19. The long agony of mankind shall at last be resolved in the blissful joy of eternal life with God.
Death ... mourning ... pain ...
How can we imagine a life which bears none of the marks so indelibly stamped upon it here? The "first things" are passed away indeed!
And he that sitteth on the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he saith: Write: for these words are faithful and true.
He that sitteth on the throne said ...
God himself is the speaker here, somewhat of a rarity in Revelation.
Behold, I make all things new ...
Only God can create anew. "This is a hard blow to proud, humanistic, naturalistic man who believes that he is capable of building a better tomorrow through research, applied technology, etc." F14 Leagues of Nations, United Nations, conferences on human rights, five-year plans, or hundred-year programs are all foredoomed to defeat and frustration. Only God can make new.
And he saith ...
Apparently, God also said this.
Write, for the words are faithful and true ...
The making of all things new is such a super-colossal conception that John seems to have been completely astounded by it, and needed to be prompted to keep on writing. "The words are faithful and true" seems to carry the thought that no matter how stupendous and impossible such things may appear to people, God will nevertheless certainly create all things new!
And he said unto me, They are come to pass I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.
And he said unto me ...
God continues to speak. Dummelow understood this as a reference to Rev. 21:5. F15 The creation of all things new is here referred to as a past event, by the prophetic tense, showing that it is as certain to happen as if it had already occurred.
I am the Alpha and the Omega, ...
"As the book opens, so it closes, with the solemn assurance of the certainty and unchangeableness of God's eternal promises (Revelation 1:8)." F16
I will give ... of the water of life ...
Roberson compiled a list of the promises in Revelation to those who overcome: F17
To eat of the tree of life (Revelation 2:7).
Not to be hurt of the second death (Revelation 2:11).
To eat of the hidden manna (Revelation 2:17).
To receive a white stone with a new name (Revelation 2:17).
To have authority over the nations (Revelation 2:26).
To receive the morning star (Revelation 2:26).
To be arrayed in white garments (Revelation 3:5).
Not to have his name blotted out of the book of life (Revelation 3:5).
To have his name confessed before God and the angels (Revelation 3:5).
To be made a pillar in the temple of God (Revelation 3:12).
To have a new name written upon him (Revelation 3:12).
To sit down with God in his throne (Revelation 3:21).
To drink the water of life freely (Revelation 21:7).
To be God's son and to have God for his God (Revelation 21:7).
He that overcometh shall inherit these things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.
He that overcometh shall inherit these things ...
See under verse 6, above, for a list of the fourteen promises in Revelation to those who overcome, of which this is the last one. Collectively, they show how rich indeed are the wonderful promises of God for his children. "This amazing paragraph, through Rev. 21:8, is distinctive in that here alone in Revelation, God is represented as the speaker." F18 This is most appropriate, as it deals with a "new creation," something that only God can do.
But for the fearful, and unbelieving, and abominable, and murderers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, their part shall be in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death.
The fearful ...
Who are the fearful, if not all men? "But it is not of natural fear and timidity that John speaks; it is that cowardice which in the last resort chooses self and safety before Christ." F19 "It is not fear which is condemned. The highest courage is to be desperately afraid and in spite of that to do the right thing and to hold fast to loyalty." F20
And unbelieving ...
Unbelief is a gross, unpardonable sin, unless repented of. Unbelief is never a consequence of knowledge, education, intelligence, or "honesty." It is always a child of wickedness. See John 3:19, also article on "The Marvel of Unbelief," my Commentary on John, pp. 176-177, also in my Commentary on Matthew, pp. 207-209.
And abominable ...
This is probably a reference, primarily, to participants in the rites of paganism and the unmentionable perversions and debaucheries that attended them. By extension, it also includes all sensualists of all ages.
Murderers ... fornicators ... sorcerers ...
These sins have often been commented upon in this series; the principal significance of their appearance here lies in the fact that "God is the speaker!" These are not merely the preacher-prejudices of current religion, but the eternal laws of God against such things.
Idolaters ... and liars ...
Idolatry, whether the worship of pagan gods, as in the days of John, or the worship and adoration of self above the God of heaven, can never be pleasing to God. No lie, however small, is a light thing in the eyes of God; and those whose lives are founded upon deceit and falsehood are indeed proscribed.
Fire and brimstone ... the second death ...
This refers to the place of consignment for all those things for which God cannot allow any place in heaven.
And there came one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls, who were laden with the seven last plagues; and he spake with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the wife of the Lamb.
Some have tried to separate this description of the new Jerusalem by an artificial division between Rev. 21:1-8, and the rest of the prophecy. However, Wilcock demonstrated that the balance of this prophecy is a close-up elaboration of exactly what is included in Rev. 1-8: F21
Rev. 21:2 = Rev. 21:10-12, the revelation of God's city.
Rev. 21:3 = Rev. 21:22-27, the revelation of God's dwelling.
Rev. 21:4,5a = Rev. 21:1-5, the revelation of God's world renewed.
Rev. 21:5b = Rev. 22:6-10, the revelation of God's word validated.
Rev. 21:6a = Rev. 22:11-15, the revelation of God's work completed.
Rev. 21:6b,7 = Rev. 22:16,17, the revelation of God's final blessing.
Rev. 21:8 = Rev. 22:18,19, the revelation of God's final curse.
In the light of this very logical analysis, we must reject the view of Morris that, "John rounds off his book with a series of somewhat miscellaneous observations," F22 as well as the interpretation which sees, "Two descents of the city, the first in relation to eternity, the second in relation to the millennium. F23 "It is therefore natural to assume with the vast majority of commentators that Rev. 21:9 to Rev. 22:5 supplies an extended exposition of that paragraph (Revelation 21:1-8). F24
One of the seven angels ...
"We should not overlook the fact that this angel is exactly the one who showed John the judgment of the great whore (Revelation 17:11)." F25 It is probable that this truth, in some way, is important. "It may be that John wishes us to see that the servant of God does not choose his task, but must do whatever God sends him to do." F26
I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife ...
This word makes it mandatory to interpret the new Jerusalem as representing the glorified church of Christ.
And he carried me away in the Spirit to a mountain great and high, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God,
A mountain, great and high ...
John had needed no such vantage point as this for viewing the great whore (Revelation 17:3); but it was only from such a lofty pinnacle as this that he could behold the glory of the Lamb's wife. "The heavenly city is to be described only from an exalted viewpoint, perhaps the high point of faith." F27
Coming down out of heaven from God ...
What an incredibly wonderful thought is this! That the church, which is made of ordinary mortals who came through the toils, struggles, temptations, and sorrows of life shall at last possess and exhibit the very glory of God himself - this indeed is the reward of the saints. "Till the dawn of eternity itself, this holy Jerusalem can never appear any other way than as 'coming down out of heaven from God'; for it owes its total existence to the condescension of God, and not to the works of men." F28
having the glory of God: her light was like unto a stone most precious, as it were a jasper stone, clear as crystal:
A jasper ... clear as crystal ...
See more on this stone under Rev. 4:3, above. "The jasper, which probably represents the modern diamond, is the characteristic of him who sat on the throne (Revelation 4:3)." F29 Thus, the redeemed church will have the same appearance as that of the Lord himself.
having a wall great and high; having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels; and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:
A wall ... gates ...
These coincide with the description of any city at the time when John lived. Walls and gates were for safety and security. See under Rev. 21:17, below. "In Ezek. 38:11, Gog and Magog preyed upon the unwalled cities." F30 Here, the vulnerability of those contrasts with the safety of this.
Having twelve gates ...
Certainly not too many, as the size of the city would place even these at a distance of 500 miles apart! Of all the outlandish notions ever advocated from the basis of these twelve gates, the most bizarre is that which concludes that, "A man can come by many roads into the kingdom, for there are as many ways to the stars as there are men to climb them." F31 There are not many ways into the kingdom; Christ alone is the way (John 14:6); and it is the abuse of literalism to conclude otherwise on the basis of there being twelve gates mentioned here.
Twelve angels ...
Apparently this is an inert element in the vision, the gates of all ancient cities being presided over by some powerful representative of the central government.
And names ... of the twelve tribes ... of Israel ...
This shows "the continuity of the family of God in the New Covenant with that of the Old." F32
on the east were three gates; and on the north three gates; and on the south three gates; and on the west three gates.
East ... north ... south ... west ...
The order of the mention of these is intriguing:
In Num. 2:3ff, the tribes are arranged
in a square, the sides of which look
ESWN, in Ezekiel NESW, in Revelation
ENSW, a change that seems
"Both John and Ezekiel seem deliberately to have avoided having the gates in the order observed in the astrology of the day." F34
And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
Twelve foundations ...
"This is an obvious allusion to the theology of the church, which is built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets (Ephesians 2:20)." F35
On them twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb ...
"The apostles are mentioned here in their collective and official, not in their individual, character." F36 It is pointless to ask if Matthew or Paul is included or left out. Just as "Roman terms decemviri and centumviri came to be official terms without regard to the precise numbers," F37 the term "apostles" came to be used in the same way.
Despite this, we still think it pertinent to ask if Peter's name had 265 successors engraved after it.
And he that spake with me had for a measure a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof.
A golden reed to measure the city ...
"The intent of the measuring would seem to be to heighten the enormity, the symmetry and beauty of the holy city." F38 It is interesting that although the gates are mentioned as going to be measured, their dimensions are never given. Only a "golden reed" was used here, whereas, a "reed like unto a rod" was used to measure the world city. That reed seems to have been an ordinary stick!
And the city lieth foursquare, and the length thereof is as great as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs: the length and the breadth and the height thereof are equal.
Twelve thousand furlongs ...
"This is roughly fifteen hundred miles!" F39 The astounding thing about this is that it is the height also, as well as the length and the breadth. See sermon on "Heaven" in chapter introduction.
And the city lieth foursquare ...
When the measurements are considered, it appears that the external shape of the city is that of a perfect regular hexahedron. From the standpoint of the length and breadth it lay "foursquare." "Both Plato and Aristotle refer to the fact that in Greece the good man was called foursquare." F40 There might be the spiritual application that this is the city of the "good."
We believe, however, that it is the "bigness" of heaven that is symbolized by these dimensions; although, of course, they also show the symmetry, perfection, and completeness of God's eternal designs as well. The view of scholars, generally, who follow this thought, usually resembles this from Hendriksen:
Twelve thousand is the product of
three (for the trinity) times four
(for the universe) times ten times ten
times ten (for reduplicated, ultimate
completeness and perfection). Hence
this number expresses the complete and
perfect result of the saving power of
the Triune God operating in the
For this writer, such numerological exercises raise more questions than they answer. We might also arrive at the number 12,000 by dividing 26 by two, subtracting two from the remainder, adding one, and multiplying by (30 x 30 + 100)! This is not intended to deny the mystical use of numbers by the Jews and others of antiquity, a usage that does appear extensively in the sacred Scriptures.
Many have also pointed out that this cubical shape of the city was like that of the Holy of Holies (1 Kings 6:20).
And he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of an angel.
One hundred and forty and four cubits ...
The problem here is that a wall 266 feet high seems totally out of proportion for a city more than 30,000 times that high! Beckwith applied the dimension only to the thickness of the wall. "The height of it is included in the height of the city in Rev. 21:16." F42 This, however, helps very little, because a wall of such thickness could not sustain itself at a height of 30,000 times its thickness, except in the event of the wall being a shield affixed to and part of the city itself. Perhaps that is the way we should view it, the fact of its being made of jasper (the diamond, which is the hardest of all material substances) adding some logic to such an interpretation.
According to the measure of a man ...
This just means that John was not referring here to any trick measurements.
And the building of the wall thereof was jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto pure glass.
See under above verse. This is the appearance of the whole city (Revelation 21:11), again suggesting that the wall is a solid diamond 266 feet thick encompassing the entire city in all dimensions as a protective shield or armor-plate. At least, this interpretation of it gives effective imagery. In that case, it would not need to be any thicker than 266 feet.
Pure gold, like unto pure glass ...
The exceeding preciousness, beauty, purity, holiness, and glory of the city are indicated by this.
Verses 19, 20
The foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprase; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst.
These twelve precious stones making up the foundations of the wall are:
JASPER, usually thought to be the
SAPPHIRE, or "lapis lazula" (ASV
CHALCEDONY, "a green silicate of
copper found in mines near
EMERALD, the same as our modern gem.
SARDONYX, "an onyx in which white was
broken by layers of red and
SARDIUS, The name of this was derived
from Sardis; it was also called a
carnelian. "It was blood red, and the
commonest of all stones used for
CHRYSOLITE, "Its Hebrew name means the
Stone of Tarshish, described by Pliny
as shining with a golden
BERYL, "a variety of emerald, though
not as green." F47
TOPAZ, This was a stone of a greenish
gold color, highly valued by the
CHRYSOPRASE, "the equivalent of our
aquamarine, another variety of
JACINTH, the modern sapphire (ASV,
AMETHYST, the same as the common
What can be the meaning of all these precious stones? Certainly, one of the legitimate meanings is that of the eternal beauty and value of the church of the living God; but there is another very curious and intriguing possibility. Charles pointed out that the twelve signs of the zodiac are represented by these same stones: F49
The Ram -- Amethyst
The Bull -- Hyacinth
The Twins -- Chrysoprase
The Crab -- Topaz
The Lion -- Beryl
The Virgin -- Chrysolite
The Balances -- Sardius
The Scorpion -- Sardonyx
The Archer -- Emerald
The Goat -- Chalcedon
Water-carrier -- Sapphire
The Fish -- Jasper
Now the original order of these, that given above, is the order in which the sun passes through the constellations indicated. The apostle John exactly reversed that order! "He is repudiating all heathen concepts; he is expressing the thought that in the end God reverses human judgments." F50 This says in tones of thunder that there is absolutely nothing to astrology, a lesson that currently needs emphasis.
And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the several gates was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass.
Twelve gates were twelve pearls ...
The gates of admittance are all one, as far as their character is concerned; one is not of lead, another of brass, etc. All who enter must meet the same requirements and enter by the gate of pearl, a symbol of the Christian's "overcoming." See sermon on "Heaven" in chapter introduction.
And the street ... was pure gold ...
It is said also that this was, as it were, "transparent glass." What kind of gold is that? Roberts thought that, "These symbols have no special significance"; F51 but it seems important that the very thing people worship on earth should at last have found its place under foot instead of upon the throne. "The street," as used here, does not mean that there was only one street. "The street here is not one street, but all streets." F52
And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God the Almighty, and the Lamb, are the temple thereof.
No temple ...
All devices for communicating with God will be unnecessary in the glorified state. In a sense, the entire eternal city will be the dwelling place of God (Revelation 21:3). A very interesting fact revealed from the Dead Sea Scrolls is that, "A prominent Jewish sect rejected the established temple," F53 a position fully in harmony with the view we have taken of it throughout this series.
The Lord God the Almighty, and the Lamb ...
These are the temple thereof. Christ is the only true temple of God that this earth ever saw; and it includes also his spiritual body the church. This is the temple which God promised David that "his seed" would build (2 Samuel 7:12,13).
And the city hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine upon it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the lamp thereof is the Lamb.
No need of sun ... nor moon ...
Note the powerful emphasis upon the Lamb throughout. "The lamp thereof is the Lamb." "The Lamb is at the center of things throughout this book." F54
And the nations shall walk amidst the light thereof: and the kings of the earth bring their glory into it.
The nations shall walk amidst the light thereof ...
"These words deal with the present order." F55 They are somewhat parenthetical in this vision of the eternal state. "The history of man has verified John's prophecy, and its fulfillment continues till this day." F56 Of course, "Many feel that the time referred to here is the millennium"; F57 but such views come of a failure to observe John's method. In this great vision of the ultimate glory of the church, the apostle injected these words to show that some of the glories will also pertain to the church's present existence. Upon the coronation of George VI of England, the magnificent folio published for the occasion praised the king and his dynasty as being "Among those kings who brought their glory into God's kingdom." Their interpretation of this passage was correct, whether or not their application of it is allowed. At the post-resurrection time symbolized by this vision, "there are no literal kings remaining on earth," F58 any more than there are "dogs and sorcerers" on the outside trying to get in, as in 22:15. The words of this verse are both retrospective and prophetic.
And the gates thereof shall in no wise be shut by day (for there shall be no night there):
"The perpetually open gates symbolize perfect safety." F59 "And there shall be no night there ..." These precious words have been sung by the saints of all ages. Darkness is a time of danger, fear, and the works of darkness; but no such things shall any longer exist at the time foretold here.
and they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it:
See under Rev. 21:24 for comment on the same thought expressed again here.
and there shall in no wise enter into it anything unclean, or he that maketh an abomination and a lie: but only they that are written in the Lamb's book of life.
Ladd's comment on this verse also illuminates Rev. 21:24,26.
The flexibility of apocalyptic
language allows John to use
contemporary earthly idiom to describe
future eschatological situations.
Those who now are unclean and practice
abominations or falsehood will have no
access into the heavenly city. F60
The abominations spoken of here are probably the unspeakable perversions and sensualities practiced in the rites of heathendom; but, of course, they are not limited to that.
The chapter division here is capricious, for the next chapter is a continuation of exactly the same line of thought as here. The glory of the eternal state is the subject.
Footnotes for Revelation 21
1: Albertus Pieters, Studies in the Revelation of St. John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1954), p. 330.
2: George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1972), p. 275.
3: E. M. Zerr, Bible Commentary, Vol. 6 (Marion, Indiana: Cogdill Foundation, 1954), p. 346.
4: G. R. Beasley-Murray, The Book of Revelation (Greenwood, South Carolina: The Attic Press, 1974), p. 306.
5: A. Plummer, The Pulpit Commentary, Vol. 22, Revelation (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1950), p. 509.
6: Frank L. Cox. Revelation in 26 Lessons (Nashville: Gospel Advocate Company, 1956), p. 119.
7: Ray Summers. Worthy is the Lamb (Nashville: Broadman Press. 1961), p. 209.
8: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 510.
9: James William Russell. Compact Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. 1964). p. 652.
10: John T. Hinds. A Commentary on the Book of Revelation (Nashville: Gospel Advocate, 1962,. p. 297.
11: William Hendriksen, More than Conquerors (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1956), p. 241.
12: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 277.
13: R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of St. John's Revelation (Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Publishing House, 1943), p. 620.
14: James D. Strauss, The Seer, the Saviour, and the Saved (Jopkin, Missouri: College Press, 1972), p. 276.
15: J. R. Dummelow, Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), p. 1090.
16: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 510.
17: Charles H. Roberson. Studies in Revelation (Tyler, Texas: P.D. Wilmeth, P.O. Box 3305, 1957), p. 200.
18: G. R. Beasley-Murray, op. cit., p. 312.
19: Leon Morris, Tyndale Bible Commentaries. New Testament, Vol. 20, Revelation (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1969), p. 246.
20: William Barclay, The Revelation of John (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976), p. 206.
21: Michael Wilcock, I Saw Heaven Opened (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1975), p. 199.
22: Leon Morris, op. cit., p. 257.
23: Charles Caldwell Ryrie, Revelation (Chicago: Moody Press, 1968), p. 120.
24: G. R. Beasley-Murray, op. cit., p. 315.
25: Leon Morris, op. cit., p. 248.
26: William Barclay, op. cit., p. 208.
27: Leon Morris, op. cit., p. 249.
28: G. B. Caird, The Revelation of St. John the Divine (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 271.
29: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 511.
31: William Barclay, op. cit., p. 210.
32: Charles H. Roberson, op. cit., p. 179.
34: J. W. Roberts, The Revelation of John (Austin, Texas: R. B. Sweet Company, 1974), p. 187.
35: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 281.
36: Charles H. Roberson, op. cit., p. 180.
37: Isbon T. Beckwith, The Apocalypse of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1919), p. 759.
38: J. W. Roberts, op. cit., p. 188.
39: William Barclay, op. cit., p. 211.
40: J. W. Roberts, op. cit., p. 188.
41: William Hendriksen, op. cit., p. 244.
42: Isbon T. Beckwith, op. cit., p. 760.
43: William Barclay, op. cit., p. 213.
44: Ibid., p. 214.
47: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 512.
49: Charles as quoted by Leon Morris, op. cit., p. 252.
51: J. W. Roberts, op. cit., p. 190.
53: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 283.
54: Leon Morris. op. cit., p. 254
55: Charles H. Roberson. op. cit., p. 184.
57: Charles Caldwell Ryrie, op. cit., p. 122.
58: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 513.
59: James William Russell, op. cit., p. 654.
60: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 285.
61: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 563.
62: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 450.
63: Ibid. SECTION VII
64: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 530.
65: Frank L. Cox, op. cit., p. 109.
66: Michael Wilcock, I Saw Heaven Opened (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1975), p. 66.
67: Michael Wilcock, op. cit., p. 150.
68: Ibid., p. 141.
69: Ibid., p. 150.
71: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 397.
72: J. W. Roberts, op. cit., p. 132.
73: Robert H. Mounce, op. cit., p. 304.
74: G. B. Caird, The Revelation of St. John the Divine (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 209.
75: W. Boyd Carpenter, op. cit., p. 610.
76: Charles H. Roberson, op. cit., p. 125.
77: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 484.
78: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 397.
79: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 218.
80: Frank L. Cox, op. cit., p. 92.
81: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 201.
82: James D. Strauss, op. cit., p. 190.
83: R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 452.
85: A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 351.
86: Leon Morris, op. cit., p. 186.
87: George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 202.
88: Charles H. Roberson, op. cit., p. 108.
89: Albertus Pieters, Studies in the Revelation of St. John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1954), p. 240.
90: G. B. Caird, op. cit., p. 195.
91: G. R. Beasley-Murray, op. cit., p. 230. SECTION IV
92: G. B. Caird, op. cit., p. 174.
94: F. F. Bruce, op. cit., p. 653.
95: J. R. Dummelow, op. cit., p. 1084.
96: Frank L. Cox, op. cit., p. 87.
97: Stauffer as quoted by Caird, op. cit., p. 175.
98: Ray Summers, op. cit., p. 176.
99: John T. Hinds, op. cit., p. 204.
100: Ray Summers, op. cit., p. 176.
101: Martin Rist, op. cit., p. 466.