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Barnes' Notes on the New Testament

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LUKE CHAPTER VI.

Verses 1-11. See this passage explained: See Barnes "Matthew 12:1", also Matthew 12:2-13.

1. Second sabbath after the first. See Barnes "Matthew 12:1". This phrase has given great perplexity to commentators. A literal translation would be,

"on the sabbath called second first,"

or second first Sabbath. The word occurs nowhere else. It is therefore exceedingly difficult of interpretation. The most natural and easy explanation is that proposed by Scaliger. The second day of the Passover was a great festival, on which the wave-sheaf was offered, Leviticus 23:11. From that day they reckoned seven weeks, or seven Sabbaths, to the day of Pentecost. The first Sabbath after that second day was called the second first, or the first from the second day of the feast. The second Sabbath was called the second second, or the second Sabbath from the second day of the feast; the third the third second, &c. This day, therefore, on which the Saviour went through the fields, was the first Sabbath that occurred after the second day of the feast.

Rubbing them in their hands. The word corn here means wheat or barley, and not maize, as in America. They rubbed it in their hands to separate the grain from the chaff. This was common and allowable. Dr. Thomson (The Land and the Book, vol. it. p. 510, 511) says:

"I have often seen my muleteers, as we passed along the wheat-fields, pluck off ears, rub them in their hands, and eat the grains, unroasted, just as the apostles are said to have done. This also is allowable. The Pharisees did not object to the thing itself, only to the time when it was done. They said it was not lawful to do this on the Sabbath-day. It was work forbidden by those who, through their traditions, had made man for the Sabbath, not the Sabbath for man."
So Professor Hackett (Illustrations of Scripture, p. 176, 177) says:
"The incident of plucking the ears of wheat, rubbing out the kernels in their hands, and eating them (Luke 6:1), is one which the traveller sees often at present who is in Palestine at the time of the gathering of the harvest. Dr. Robinson relates the following case: `Our Arabs were an hungered, and, going into the fields, they plucked the ears of corn and did eat, rubbing them in their hands. On being questioned, they said this was an old custom, and no one would speak against it; they were supposed to be hungry, and it was allowed as a charity.'*

The Pharisees complained of the disciples for violating the Sabbath and not any rights of property."

{*} Biblical Researches, vol. ii. p. 192.
{a} "And it came to pass" Matthew 12:1; Mark 2:23

Verse 2. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

{b} "that which is not lawful" Exodus 20:10; Isaiah 58:13

Verse 3. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

{c} "what David did" 1 Samuel 21:6.

Verse 4. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

{d} "which it is not lawful" Leviticus 24:9

Verse 5. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

Verse 6. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

{e} "And it came to pass" Matthew 12:10; Mark 3:1; Luke 13:14; 14:3

Verse 7. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

{f} "heal on the Sabbath day" John 9:16

Verse 8. But he knew their thoughts. He knew their thoughts--their dark, malicious designs--by the question which they proposed to him, whether it was lawful to heal on the Sabbath-days (Matthew). In reply to their question, Jesus asked them whether they would not release a sheep on the Sabbath-day if it was fallen into a pit, and also asked them whether it was better to do good than to do evil on that day, implying that to omit to do good was, in fact, doing evil.

{g} "But he knew their thoughts" Job 42:2

Verse 9. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

{h} "Is it lawful on the sabbath days" Exodus 20:10; Luke 14:3

Verse 10. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

Verse 11. Were filled with madness. Probably --

1st. Because he had shown his power to work a miracle.

2nd. Because he had shown his power to do it contrary to what they thought was right.

3rd. Because by doing it he had shown that he was from God, and that they were therefore wrong in their views of the Sabbath. And,

4th. Because he had shown no respect to their views of what the law of God demanded. Pride, obstinacy, malice, and disappointed self- confidence were all combined, therefore, in producing madness. Nor were they alone. Men are often enraged because others do good in a way which they do not approve of. God gives success to others; and because he has not accommodated himself to their views of what is right, and done it in the way which they would have prescribed, they are enraged, and filled with envy at men more successful than themselves.

Communed one with another. Spoke together, or laid a plan.

Verse 12. And it came to pass in those days. The designation of the time here is very general. It means about the time when the events occurred which had been just narrated.

He went out into a mountain. Jesus was accustomed to resort to such places to hold communion with God, Mark 6:46. He did it because it was retired, free from interruption, and fitted by impressiveness and grandeur to raise the thoughts to the God that had formed the high hills and the deep-shaded groves,

And continued all night in prayer to God. There has been a difference of opinion about this passage, whether it means that he spent the night in the act of praying to God, or in a place of prayer. The Jews had places of prayer, called oratories, built out of their cities or towns, where they could retire from the bustle of a city and hold communion with God. They were built on the banks of rivers (comp. Acts 16:13), in groves, or on hills. They were rude enclosures, made by building a rough wall of stone around a level piece of ground, and capable of accommodating a small number who might resort thither to pray. But the more probable opinion is that he spent the whole night in supplication; for --

1st. This is the obvious meaning of the passage.

2nd. The object for which he went out, was to pray.

3rd. It was an occasion of great importance. He was about to send out his apostles --to lay the foundation of his religion --and he therefore set apart this time specially to seek the divine blessing.

4th. It was no unusual thing for Jesus to spend much time in prayer, and we are not to wonder that he passed an entire night in supplication. If it be asked why Jesus should pray at all if he was divine, it may be replied that he was also a man -- a man subject to the same sufferings as others, and, as a man, needing the divine blessing. There was no more inconsistency in his praying than there was in his eating. Both were means employed for an end, and both were equally consistent with his being divine. But Jesus was also Mediator, and as such it was proper to seek the divine direction and blessing. In this case he has set us an example that we should follow. In great emergencies, when we have important duties, or are about to encounter special difficulties, we should seek the divine blessing and direction by prayer. We should set apart an unusual portion of time for supplication. Nay, if we pass the whole night in prayer, it should not be charged as enthusiasm. Our Saviour did it. Men of the world often pass whole nights in plans of gain or in dissipation, and shall it be esteemed strange that Christians should spend an equal portion of time in the far more important business of religion?

{l} "And it came to pass" Matthew 14:23
{m} "into a mountain to pray" Matthew 6:6

Verse 13. See Barnes "Matthew 10:1"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:2" See Barnes "Matthew 10:3"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:4"

Verse 14. See Barnes "Matthew 10:1"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:2" See Barnes "Matthew 10:3"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:4"

Verse 15. See Barnes "Matthew 10:1"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:2" See Barnes "Matthew 10:3"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:4"

Verse 16. See Barnes "Matthew 10:1"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:2" See Barnes "Matthew 10:3"; See Barnes "Matthew 10:4"

{p} "Judas, the brother" Jude 1:1

Verse 17. And stood in the plain. It is not affirmed, however, that he stood in the plain when he delivered the following discourse. There has been some doubt whether the following discourse is the same as that recorded in the 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters of Matthew, or whether the Saviour repeated the substance of that discourse, and that Luke recorded it as he repeated it. The reasons which have led many to sup- pose that they refer to the same are --

1st. That the beginning and the close are alike.

2nd. That the substance of each is the same. And,

3rd. That after the discourse was delivered, both affirm that Jesus went to Capernaum and healed the servant of the centurion, Matthew 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10. On the other hand, Matthew says that the sermon was delivered on the mountain (Matthew 5:1); it is thought to be implied that Luke affirms that it was in the plain. Matthew says that he sat; Luke, that he stood. Yet there is no reason to suppose that there is a difference in the evangelists. Jesus spent the night on the mountain in prayer. In the morning he descended into the open plain and healed many. While there, as Luke says, he "stood" and received those who came to him, and healed their diseases. There is no impropriety in supposing that, being pressed by multitudes, he retired into the mountain again, or to an eminence in the plain, or to the side of the mountain, where the people might be more conveniently arranged and seated to hear him. There he sat, as recorded by Matthew, and delivered the discourse; for it is to be observed that Luke does not say that he delivered the sermon on the plain, but only that he healed the sick there.

Tyre and Sidon. See Barnes "Matthew 11:21".

{q} "great multitude", Matthew 4:25; Mark 3:7
{r} "to be healed", Psalms 103:3; 107:17-20

Verse 18. Vexed. The word vex with us means to provoke, irritate, by petty provocations. Here it means, however, to afflict, to torment -- denoting deep and heavy trials.

Unclean spirits. Demons that Were impure and unholy, having a delight in tormenting, and in inflicting painful and loathsome diseases.

Verse 19. Virtue Healing power. See Barnes " :".

{s} "touch him", Numbers 21:8,9; Matthew 14:36; John 3:14,15
{t} "there went virtue out of him", Mark 5:30; Luke 8:46

Verses 20-49. See this passage fully illustrated in the sermon on the mount, in the 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters of Matthew.

{u} "he lifted up his eyes", Matthew 5:2
{v} "ye that weep", James 2:5

Verse 21. That hunger now. Matthew has it, "that hunger and thirst after righteousness." Matthew has expressed more fully what Luke has briefly, but there is no contradiction.

{w} "that hunger now", Isaiah 55:1
{x} "shall be filled", Psalms 107:9
{y} "that weep now", Isaiah 61:3; Revelation 21:4

Verse 22. No Barnes text for this verse.

{z} "hate you", John 17:14
{a} "separate you", 1 Peter 2:19,20; 3:14; 4:14

Verse 23. No Barnes text for this verse.

{b} "Rejoice ye in that day", Acts 5:41; Colossians 1:24; James 1:2
{c} "for in the like manner", Habakkuk 2:9; James 5:1

Verses 24-26. These verses have been omitted by Matthew. They seem to have been spoken to the Pharisees.

Verse 24. Who are rich. In this world's goods. They loved them; they had sought for them; they found their consolation in them. It implies, farther, that they would not seek or receive consolation from the gospel. They were proud, and would not seek it; satisfied, and did not desire it; filled with cares, and had no time or disposition to attend to it. All the consolation which they had reason to expect they had received. Alas! how poor and worthless is such consolation, compared with that which the gospel would give!

Woe unto you that are full! Not hungry. Satisfied with their wealth, and not feeling their need of anything better than earthly wealth can give. Many, alas! are thus full. They profess to be satisfied. They desire nothing but wealth, and a sufficiency to satisfy the wants of the body. They have no anxiety for the riches that shall endure for ever.

Ye shall hunger. Your property shall be taken away, or you shall see that it is of little value; and then you shall see the need of something better. You shall feel your want and wretchedness, and shall hunger for something to satisfy the desires of a dying, sinful soul.

That laugh now. Are happy, or thoughtless, or gay, or filled with levity.

Shall mourn and weep. The time is coming when you shall sorrow deeply. In sickness, in calamity, in the prospect of death, in the fear of eternity, your laughter shall be turned into sorrow. There is a place where you cannot laugh, and there you will see the folly of having passed the proper time of preparing for such scenes in levity and folly. Alas! how many thus spend their youth ! and how many weep when it is too late! God gives them over, and laughs at THEIR calamity, and mocks when their fear comes, Proverbs 1:26. To be happy in such scenes, it is necessary to be sober, humble, pious in early life. Then we need not weep in the day of calamity; then there will be no terror in death; then there will be nothing to fear in the grave.

{d} "you that are rich", Habakkuk 2.9; James 5:1
{e} "ye have received", Luke 16:25

Verse 25. No Barnes text for this verse.

{f} "you that are full", Isaiah 28:7; 65:13
{g} "laugh now", Proverbs 14:13; Ephesians 5:4

Verses 24-26. These verses have been omitted by Matthew. They seem to have been spoken to the Pharisees.

Who are rich. In this world's goods. They loved them; they had sought for them; they found their consolation in them. It implies, farther, that they would not seek or receive consolation from the gospel. They were proud, and would not seek it; satisfied, and did not desire it; filled with cares, and had no time or disposition to attend to it. All the consolation which they had reason to expect they had received. Alas! how poor and worthless is such consolation, compared with that which the gospel would give!

Woe unto you that are full! Not hungry. Satisfied with their wealth, and not feeling their need of anything better than earthly wealth can give. Many, alas! are thus full. They profess to be satisfied. They desire nothing but wealth, and a sufficiency to satisfy the wants of the body. They have no anxiety for the riches that shall endure for ever.

Ye shall hunger. Your property shall be taken away, or you shall see that it is of little value; and then you shall see the need of something better. You shall feel your want and wretchedness, and shall hunger for something to satisfy the desires of a dying, sinful soul.

That laugh now. Are happy, or thoughtless, or gay, or filled with levity.

Shall mourn and weep. The time is coming when you shall sorrow deeply. In sickness, in calamity, in the prospect of death, in the fear of eternity, your laughter shall be turned into sorrow. There is a place where you cannot laugh, and there you will see the folly of having passed the proper time of preparing for such scenes in levity and folly. Alas! how many thus spend their youth! and how many weep when it is too late! God gives them over, and laughs at THEIR calamity, and mocks when their fear comes, Proverbs 1:26. To be happy in such scenes, it is necessary to be sober, humble, pious in early life. Then we need not weep in the day of calamity; then there will be no terror in death; then there will be nothing to fear in the grave.

{d} "you that are rich", Habakkuk 2.9; James 5:1
{e} "ye have received", Luke 16:25

Verse 27. See Barnes "Matthew 5:44,45"

{i} "Love you enemies", John 4:5

Verse 28. See Barnes "Matthew 5:44,45"

{k} "pray for them" Exodus 23:4,5; Proverbs 25:21; Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:35; Romans 12:20

Verse 29. See Barnes "Matthew 5:39"

{l} "and unto him that smiteth thee on one cheek" Matthew 5:39
{m} "And him that taketh away thy cloak" 1 Corinthians 6:7

Verse 30. See Barnes "Matthew 5:42"

{n} "Give to every man" Deuteronomy 15:7,8,10; Proverbs 19:17; 21:26; Matthew 5:42

Verse 31. See Barnes " :"

{o} "And as you would that men" Matthew 7:12

Verses 32-36. See Barnes "Matthew 5:46-48"

{p} "love ye your enemies" Luke 6:37
{q} "lend" Psalms 37:26; 112:5
{r} "ye shall be the children" Matthew 5:45

Verse 33. See Barnes "Matthew 5:46-48"

Verse 34. See Barnes "Matthew 5:46-48"

Verse 35. See Barnes "Matthew 5:46-48"

{p} "love ye your enemies" Luke 6:27
{q} "lend" Psalms 37:26; 112:5
{r} "ye shall be the children" Matthew 5:45

Verse 36. See Barnes "Matthew 5:46-48"

Verses 37-42. See Barnes "Matthew 7:1-9"

{s} "judge not" Matthew 7:1

Verse 38. Good measure. They shall give you good measure, or full measure.

Pressed down. As figs or grapes might be, and thus many more might be put into the measure.

Shaken together. To make it more compact, and thus to give more.

Running over. So full that the measure would overflow.

Shall men give. This is said to be the reward of giving to the poor and needy; and the meaning is that the man who is liberal will find others liberal to him in dealing with them, and when he is also in circumstances of want. A man who is himself kind to the poor--who has that character established--will find many who are ready to help him abundantly when he is in want. He that is parsimonious, close, niggardly, will find few or none who will aid him.

Into your bosom. That is, to you. The word bosom here has reference to a custom among Oriental nations of making the bosom or front part of their garments large, so that articles could be carried in them, answering the purpose of our pockets. Comp. Exodus 4:6,7; Proverbs 6:27; Ruth 3:15.

{t} "and it shall be given unto you" Proverbs 19:17; Matthew 10:42
{u} "shall men give into your bosom" Psalms 79:12
{v} "for with the same measure" Matthew 7:2; Mark 4:24; James 2:13

Verse 39. A parable. A proverb or similitude.

Can the blind lead the blind? See Barnes " :".

{w} "Can the blind" Matthew 15:14.

Verse 40. The disciple is not, &c. The learner is not above his teacher, does not know more, and must expect to fare no better. This seems to have been spoken to show them that they were not to expect that their disciples would go beyond them in attainments; that if they were blind, their followers would be also; and that therefore it was important for them to understand fully the doctrines of the gospel, and not to be blind leaders of the blind.

Every one that is perfect. The word rendered is perfect means sometimes to repair or mend, and is thus applied to mending nets, Matthew 4:21; Mark 1:19. Hence it means to repair or amend in a moral sense, or to make whole or complete. Here it means, evidently, thoroughly instructed or informed. The Christian should be like his master --holy, harmless, and undefiled, and separate from sinners. He should copy his example, and grow into the likeness of his Redeemer. Nor can any other be a Christian.

{x} "The disciple" Matthew 10:24; John 13:16; 15:20
{1} "that is perfect" \\or shall be perfected as his master\\.

Verses 41, 42. See Barnes "Matthew 7:3", See Barnes "Matthew 7:4" See Barnes "Matthew 7:5".

Verse 42. See Barnes "Matthew 7:3"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:4"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:5".

{y} "cast out", Proverbs 18:17; Romans 2:1,21

Verse 43. See Barnes "Matthew 7:16"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:17"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:18".

{z} "a good tree" Matthew 7:16,17

Verse 44. See Barnes " :"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:17"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:18".

{a} "every tree" Matthew 12:33
{2} "grapes" or, "a grape"

Verse 45. This verse is not found in the sermon on the mount as recorded by Matthew, but is recorded by him in Matthew 12:35. See Barnes "Matthew 12:35".

{b} "A good man" Matthew 12:35.

Verse 46. See Barnes "Matthew 7:21"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:22"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:23"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:24"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:25"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:26"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:27".

{c} "call ye me good" Malachi 1:6; Matthew 7:21; 25:11; Luke 13:25; Galatians 6:7

Verse 47. See Barnes "Matthew 7:21"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:22"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:23"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:24"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:25"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:26"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:27".

Verse 48. See Barnes "Matthew 7:21"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:22"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:23"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:24"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:25"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:26"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:27".

{d} "is like a man" Matthew 7:25,26
{e} "could not shake it" 2 Peter 1:10; Jude 1:24
{f} "founded upon a rock" Psalms 46:1-3; 62:2

Verse 49. See Barnes "Matthew 7:21"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:22"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:23"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:24"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:25"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:26"; See Barnes "Matthew 7:27".

{g} "heareth" James 1:24-26
{h} "it fell" Proverbs 28:18; Hosea 4:14


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 6". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". <http://classic.studylight.org/com/bnn/view.cgi?book=lu&chapter=006>.  

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