The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire BibleMatthew 3:7
But when he saw many of the Pharisees…
This being the
first place in which mention is made of the Pharisees and Sadducees, it
may not be amiss to give some account of them once for all, and to
begin with the Pharisees, and first with their name. Some derive this
word from (Urp) pharatz to "divide", to "make a breach", from whence
Phares had his name (Genesis 38:29) so Jerom F21, who observes, that
``the Pharisees, who separated themselves from the people as
righteous persons, were called "divisi, the divided."''
And in F23 another place,
``because the Pharisees were "divided" from the Jews on account
of some superfluous observations, they also took their name
from their disagreement.''
Origen F24 seems to refer to this etymology of the word, when he says,
``the Pharisees, according to their name, were (dihrhmenoi)
(tinev kai stasiwdeiv) , certain divided and seditious
And true it is, that this sect often meddled with the affairs of the
government, and were very ambitious of being concerned therein.
Josephus F25 observes of queen Alexandra, that she governed others, and
the Pharisees governed her; hence, though they were in great esteem
with the people, they were rather dreaded than loved by the government.
Others derive this name from (vrp) "Pharas" to "expand", or "stretch
out"; either because they made broad their phylacteries, and enlarged the
borders of their garments; or because they exposed themselves to public
notice, did all they could to be seen of men, prayed in the corners of
the streets, had a trumpet blown before them when they gave alms, chose
the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues,
greetings in the markets, and to be called of men "Rabbi": all which to
be sure are their just characters. Others derive it from the same word,
as signifying to "explain" or "expound"; because it was one part of
their work, and in which they excelled, to expound the law; but this
cannot be the reason of their general name, because there were women
Pharisees as well as men, who cannot be thought to be employed in that
work. The more generally received opinion is, that this name is taken
from the above word, as signifying to "separate"; because they separated
themselves from the men and manners of the world, to the study of
the law, and to a greater degree of holiness, at least in pretence,
than other persons. They were strict observers of the traditions of the
elders; are said, to hold both fate and free will; they owned the
resurrection of the dead, and that there were angels and spirits, in
which they differed from the Sadducees. Or rather they have their name
from (orp) , which signifies "a reward"; they being stiff defenders of
the doctrine of rewards and punishments in a future state, which the
Sadducees denied. The Talmudic writers F26 say, there were "seven"
sorts of them, and if it would not be too tedious to the reader, I
would give the names of them; and the rather, because some of them seem
to tally with the complexion and conduct of the Pharisees mentioned in
the scriptures. There were then,
1. (ymkyv vwrp) the "Shechemite Pharisee", who does as Shechem
did; is circumcised, not on God's account, or for his glory, or
because circumcision is a command of his, but for his own profit
and advantage, and that he may get honour from men.
2. (ypqyn vwrp) "the dashing Pharisee"; who walks gently, the heel
of one foot touching the great toe of the other; and scarce lifts
up his feet from the earth, so that he dashes them against the
stones, and would be thought hereby to be in deep meditation.
3. (yazyq vwrp) the "Pharisee letting blood"; who makes as if he
shut his eyes, that he may not look upon women, and so runs and
dashes his head against the wall, till the blood gushes out, as
though a vein was opened.
4. (aykwdm vwrp) the "depressed Pharisee"; who went double, or
bowed down, or as others render the phrase, "the mortar
Pharisee"; either because he wore a garment like a mortar, with
the mouth turned downwards; or a hat resembling such a vessel; so
that he could not look upward, nor on either side, only downward,
or right forward.
5. (hnveaw ytbwx hm vwrp) the Pharisee, that said, what is my duty
and I will do it? the gloss upon it is, teach me what is my duty,
and I will do it: Lo! this is his excellency, if he is not expert
in the prohibitions and niceties of the commands, and comes to
learn; or thus, what is more to be done and I have not done it?
so that he shows himself, or would appear as if he had performed
6. (hary vwrp) "the Pharisee of fear"; who does what he does from
fear of punishment.
7. (hbha vwrp) "the Pharisee of love"; who does what he does from
love; which the gloss explains thus: for the love of the reward
of the commandment, and not for the love of the commandment of
his Creator; though they say of all these there is none to be
beloved, but the Pharisee of love.
When this sect first began, and who was the first author of it, is not
easy to say; it is certain there were great numbers of them in the times
of John the Baptist, and of Christ, and for some time after. The Jews
say F1, that when the temple was destroyed the second time, the
Pharisees increased in Israel.
Next let us consider the Sadducees, who they were, and from whence
they sprung. These have their name not from (qydu) "Saddik
righteous" F2, or (qdu) "Sedek righteousness", being self
justitiaries; for though they were, yet this would not have
distinguished them from the Pharisees, who were likewise such; but
from (qwdu) Sadok or Saduk, a disciple of Antigonus, a man of
Socho F3. The occasion of this new sect was this; Antigonus, among
the instructions he gave to his scholars, had this saying;
``be not as servants who serve their master for the sake of
reward; but be ye as servants that serve their master not for
the sake of reward, and let the fear of God be upon you.''
Which, when Sadok and a fellow scholar, whose name was Baithos, or
Baithus, heard, not rightly understanding him, concluded that there was
no future state of rewards and punishments; which notion they broached
and had their followers, who from the one were called Sadducees, and
sometimes from the other Baithuseans: these men held the Scriptures
only, rejecting the traditions of the elders; they denied fate, and
ascribed all to free will; they affirmed that there is no resurrection
of the dead; that the soul dies with the body; that there is no future
state after this life, and that there are neither angels nor spirits.
Now when "John saw" or observed "many" of both these sects "come to his
baptism"; not merely to see it administered, led thither by the novelty
of the thing; but to submit to it, to which they might be induced by
that very great character of a very holy good man, which John had got
among the people; and they were desirous of being thought so too, and
therefore desired to be baptized by him; but he knowing the men and
said unto them;
addressed them in a very severe style, quite
contrary to their expectation, and the opinion the people had of them,
O generation of vipers!
It seems their parents before them were
vipers, and they their offspring were like them, in hypocrisy and
malice. The viper appears very beautiful outwardly, but is full of
poison; it looks harmless and innocent, as if it neither could nor
would do any hurt, its teeth being hid, but is a most deadly and
hurtful creature: so these men, though they made specious pretences to
religion and holiness, yet were full of the deadly poison of hypocrisy,
malice, and error. A very disagreeable salutation this must be to men,
who were desirous of being reckoned very religious, and who boasted of,
and trusted in, their being the seed of Abraham; when they were the
children of the devil, the seed of the old serpent, and the offspring
of the worst of men, and in whom was verified the proverb, like father
like son. John proceeds and asks, saying, "who hath warned you to flee
from the wrath to come?" who has suggested this to you? from whom have
ye received this hint? who has pointed out the way to you to escape
divine vengeance, or the ruin which will quickly come upon you? for by
wrath to come
is not meant hell fire, everlasting destruction, from
which baptism could not save them; but temporal calamity and
destruction, the wrath which in a little time came upon that nation to
the uttermost, for rejecting the Messiah, and the Gospel dispensation;
from which they might have been saved, had they given credit to Jesus
as the Messiah, though only with a bare assent; and had they entered
into the kingdom of heaven, or Messiah, the Gospel dispensation, by
receiving its doctrines, and submitting to its ordinances, though only
F21 Trad. Heb. in Gen. fol. 72. D. Tom. 3.
F23 Adv. Luciferian. fol. 49. K. Tom. 2. so Tertullian. praescript.
Haeret. c. 45.
F24 Comment. in Joan. p. 115. Ed. Huet.
F25 De Bello Jud. l. 1. c. 5. sect. 2.
F26 T. Hieros. Beracot, fol. 14. 2. & Sota fol. 20. 3. Bab. Sota, fol.
22. 2. eight sorts are reckoned in Abot R. Nathan, c. 37. fol. 8. 4.
F1 T. Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 60. 2.
F2 So Epiphanius contr. Haeres. l. 1. Haeres. 14. Hieron. Comment. in
Matt. c. 22. l. 3. fol. 30. M. Tom. 9.
F3 Abot R. Nathan c. 5. fol. 3. 1. Sepher Cosri orat. 3. fol. 187. 2. &
R. Juda Muscatus in ib. Maimon. in Pirk. Abot. c. 1. sect. 3.
Juchasin. fol. 15. 2. Ganz. Tzemach David. par. 1. fol. 20. 2. &
Bartenora in Misn. Judaim, c. 4. sect. 6.
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Matthew 3:7". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". <http://classic.studylight.org/com/geb/view.cgi?book=mt&chapter=003&verse=007>. 1999.