Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
USE AND THE
This is the second subject for correction in the Corinthian assemblies:
the "first" was discussed
1. spiritual gifts--the signs of the Spirit's continued efficacious
presence in the Church, which is Christ's body, the complement of His
incarnation, as the body is the complement of the head. By the love
which pervades the whole, the gifts of the several members, forming
reciprocal complements to each other, tend to the one object of
perfecting the body of Christ. The ordinary and permanent gifts are
comprehended together with the extraordinary, without distinction
specified, as both alike flow from the divine indwelling Spirit of life.
The extraordinary gifts, so far from making professors more peculiarly
saints than in our day, did not always even prove that such
persons were in a safe state at all
They were needed at first in the Church: (1) as a pledge to Christians
themselves who had just passed over from Judaism or heathendom, that
God was in the Church; (2) for the propagation of Christianity in the
world; (3) for the edification of the Church. Now that we have the
whole written New Testament (which they had not) and
Christianity established as the result of the miracles, we need no
further miracle to attest the truth. So the pillar of cloud which
guided the Israelites was withdrawn when they were sufficiently assured
of the Divine Presence, the manifestation of God's glory being
thenceforward enclosed in the Most Holy Place [ARCHBISHOP WHATELY]. Paul sets forth
in order: (1). The unity of the body
(2). The variety of its members and functions
(3). The grand principle for the right exercise of the gifts, namely,
(4) The comparison of the gifts with one another
I would not have you ignorant--with all your boasts of
"knowledge" at Corinth. If ignorant now, it will be your own fault, not
that ye were--The best manuscripts read, "That
WHEN ye were"; thus
"ye were" must be supplied before "carried away"--Ye were blindly
transported hither and thither at the will of your false guides.
these dumb idols--Greek, "the idols which are dumb";
contrasted with the living God who "speaks" in the believer by His
&c.). This gives the reason why the Corinthians needed instruction as
to spiritual gifts, namely, their past heathen state, wherein they had
no experience of intelligent spiritual powers. When blind, ye went to
as ye were led--The Greek is, rather, "as ye might (happen to)
be led," namely, on different occasions. The heathen oracles led their
votaries at random, without any definite principle.
3. The negative and positive criteria of inspiration by the
Spirit--the rejection or confession of Jesus as Lord [ALFORD]
(1Jo 4:2; 5:1).
Paul gives a test of truth against the Gentiles; John, against the
by the Spirit--rather, as Greek, "IN the Spirit"; that
being the power pervading him, and the element in which he speaks
of God . . . Holy--The same Spirit is called at one time "the Spirit
of GOD"; at another, "the
HOLY Ghost," or "Holy Spirit." Infinite
Holiness is almost synonymous with Godhead.
speaking . . . say--"Speak" implies the act of utterance; "say" refers
to that which is uttered. Here, "say" means a spiritual and
believing confession of Him.
Jesus--not an abstract doctrine, but the historical, living God-man
accursed--as the Jews and Gentiles treated Him
Compare "to curse Christ" in the heathen PLINY'S
letter [Epistles, 10.97]. The spiritual man feels Him to be the
Source of all blessings
and to be severed from Him is to be accursed
Lord--acknowledging himself as His servant
"Lord" is the Septuagint translation for the incommunicable
Hebrew name JEHOVAH.
4. diversities of gifts--that is, varieties of spiritual endowments
peculiar to the several members of the Church: compare "dividing to
every man severally"
same Spirit--The Holy Trinity appears here: the Holy Spirit in
this verse; Christ in
and the Father in
The terms "gifts," "administrations," and "operations," respectively
correspond to the Divine Three. The Spirit is treated of in
&c.; the Lord, in
&c.; God, in
5, 6. "Gifts"
"administrations" (the various functions and services
performed by those having the gifts, compare
and "operations" (the actual effects resulting from both the
former, through the universally operative power of the one Father who
is "above all, through all, and in us all"), form an ascending climax
same Lord--whom the Spirit glorifies by these ministrations
same God . . . worketh--by His Spirit working
all in all--all of them (the "gifts") in all the persons
(who possess them).
7. But--Though all the gifts flow from the one God, Lord, and
Spirit, the "manifestation" by which the Spirit acts (as He is hidden in
Himself), varies in each individual.
to every man--to each of the members of the Church severally.
to profit withal--with a view to the profit of the whole body.
8-10. Three classes of gifts are distinguished by a distinct
Greek word for "another" (a distinct class), marking the
three several genera: allo marks the species, hetero the
genera (compare Greek,
I. Gifts of intellect, namely, (1) wisdom; (2) knowledge. II. Gifts
dependent on a special faith, namely, that of miracles
(1) healings; (2) workings of miracles; (3) prophecy of future events;
(4) discerning of spirits, or the divinely given faculty of
distinguishing between those really inspired, and those who pretended
to inspiration. III. Gifts referring to the tongues: (1) diverse
kinds of tongues; (2) interpretation of tongues. The catalogue in
is not meant strictly to harmonize with the one here, though there are
some particulars in which they correspond. The three genera are
summarily referred to by single instances of each in
The first genus refers more to believers; the second, to unbelievers.
by . . . by . . . by--The first in
Greek is, "By means of," or "through the operation of"; the
second is, "according to" the disposing of (compare
the third is, "in," that is, under the influence of (so the
word of wisdom--the ready utterance of (for imparting to others,
wisdom, namely, new revelations of the divine wisdom in
redemption, as contrasted with human philosophy
(1Co 1:24; 2:6, 7;
Eph 1:8; 3:10;
word of knowledge--ready utterance supernaturally
imparted of truths ALREADY REVEALED (in this it is
distinguished from "the word of wisdom," which related to NEW revelations). Compare
where "revelation" (answering to "wisdom" here) is distinguished from
"knowledge" [HENDERSON]. Wisdom or
revelation belonged to the "prophets"; knowledge, to the
"teachers." Wisdom penetrates deeper than knowledge.
Knowledge relates to things that are to be done. Wisdom, to
things eternal: hence, wisdom is not, like knowledge,
said to "pass away"
9. faith--not of doctrines, but of miracles: confidence in God, by
the impulse of His Spirit, that He would enable them to perform any
required miracle (compare
Its nature, or principle, is the same as that of saving faith, namely,
reliance on God; the producing cause, also, in the same,' namely, a
power altogether supernatural
(Eph 1:19, 20).
But the objects of faith differ respectively. Hence, we see, saving
faith does not save by its instrinsic merit, but by the merits of Him
who is the object of it.
healing--Greek plural, "healings"; referring to different kinds
of disease which need different kinds of healing
10. working of miracles--As "healings" are miracles, those here
meant must refer to miracles of special and extraordinary
POWER (so the
Greek for "miracles" means); for example, healings might be effected
by human skill in course of time; but the raising of the dead, the
infliction of death by a word, the innocuous use of poisons, &c., are
miracles of special power. Compare
prophecy--Here, probably, not in the wider sense of public teaching
by the Spirit
(1Co 11:4, 5; 14:1-5, 22-39);
but, as its position between "miracles" and a "discerning of spirits"
implies, the inspired disclosure of the future
(Ac 11:27, 28; 21:11;
[HENDERSON]. It depends on "faith"
The prophets ranked next to the apostles
Eph 3:5; 4:11).
As prophecy is part of the whole scheme of redemption, an
inspired insight into the obscurer parts of the existing Scriptures,
was the necessary preparation for the miraculous foresight of the
discerning of spirits--discerning between the operation of God's
Spirit, and the evil spirit, or unaided human spirit
1Ti 4:1; 1Jo 4:1).
kinds of tongues--the power of speaking various languages: also
a spiritual language unknown to man, uttered in ecstasy
This is marked as a distinct genus in the Greek, "To another and
a different class."
interpretation of tongues--
(1Co 14:13, 26, 27).
11. as he will--
12, 13. Unity, not unvarying uniformity, is the law of God in the
world of grace, as in that of nature. As the many members of the body
compose an organic whole and none can be dispensed with as needless, so
those variously gifted by the Spirit, compose a spiritual organic whole,
the body of Christ, into which all are baptized by the one Spirit.
of that one body--Most of the oldest manuscripts omit "one."
so also is Christ--that is, the whole Christ,
the head and body. So
"His anointed (Messiah or Christ), David (the antitypical David) and
13. by . . . Spirit . . . baptized--literally, "in"; in virtue of;
through. The designed effect of baptism, which is realized when not
frustrated by the unfaithfulness of man.
all made to drink into one Spirit--The oldest manuscripts read, "Made
to drink of one Spirit," omitting "into"
There is an indirect allusion to the Lord's Supper, as there is a
direct allusion to baptism in the beginning of the verse. So the
"Spirit, the water, and the blood"
similarly combine the two outward signs with the inward things
signified, the Spirit's grace.
are . . . have been--rather as Greek, "were . . . were" (the past
14. Translate, "For the body also." The analogy of the body, not
consisting exclusively of one, but of many members, illustrates the
mutual dependence of the various members in the one body, the Church.
The well-known fable of the belly and the other members, spoken by
Menenius Agrippa, to the seceding commons [LIVY, 2.32], was probably
before Paul's mind, stored as it was with classical literature.
15. The humbler members ought not to disparage themselves, or to be
disparaged by others more noble
(1Co 12:21, 22).
foot . . . hand--The humble speaks of the more
honorable member which most nearly resembles itself: so the "ear" of
the "eye" (the nobler and more commanding member,
As in life each compares himself with those whom he approaches nearest
in gifts, not those far superior. The foot and hand
represent men of active life; the ear and eye, those of
17. Superior as the eye is, it would not do if it were the sole
member to the exclusion of the rest.
18. now--as the case really is.
every one--each severally.
19. where were the body--which, by its very idea, "hath many members"
(1Co 12:12, 14),
20. now--as the case really is: in contrast to the supposition
many members--mutually dependent.
21. The higher cannot dispense with the lower members.
22. more feeble--more susceptible of injury: for example, the brain,
the belly, the eye. Their very feebleness, so far from doing away with
the need for them, calls forth our greater care for their preservation,
as being felt "necessary."
23. less honourable--"We think" the feet and the belly "less
honorable," though not really so in the nature of things.
bestow . . . honour--putting shoes on (Margin) the feet,
and clothes to cover the belly.
uncomely parts--the secret parts: the poorest, though unclad in the
rest of the body, cover these.
24. tempered . . . together--on the principle of mutual compensation.
to that part which lacked--to the deficient part [ALFORD],
25. no schism--(compare
--no disunion; referring to the "divisions" noticed
care one for another--that is, in behalf of one another.
all . . . suffer with it--"When a thorn enters the heel, the whole body
feels it, and is concerned: the back bends, the belly and thighs
contract themselves, the hands come forward and draw out the thorn, the
head stoops, and the eyes regard the affected member with intense gaze"
rejoice with it--"When the head is crowned, the whole man feels
honored, the mouth expresses, and the eyes look, gladness"
27. members in particular--that is, severally members of it. Each
church is in miniature what the whole aggregate of churches is
collectively, "the body of Christ" (compare
and its individual components are members, every one in his assigned
28. set . . . in the church--as He has "set the
members . . . in the body"
first apostles--above even the prophets. Not merely the Twelve,
but others are so called, for example, Barnabas, &c.
teachers--who taught, for the most part, truths already revealed;
whereas the prophets made new revelations and spoke all their
prophesyings under the Spirit's influence. As the teachers had the "word
of knowledge," so the prophets "the word of wisdom"
Under "teachers" are included "evangelists and pastors."
ranked below "teachers," as the function of teaching is more
edifying, though less dazzling than working miracles.
helps, governments--lower and higher departments of "ministrations"
as instances of the former, deacons whose office it was to help
in the relief of the poor, and in baptizing and preaching, subordinate
to higher ministers
(Ac 6:1-10; 8:5-17);
also, others who helped with their time and means, in the Lord's
The Americans similarly use "helps" for "helpers." And, as
instances of the latter, presbyters, or bishops, whose
office it was to govern the Church
Heb 13:17, 24).
These officers, though now ordinary and permanent, were originally
specially endowed with the Spirit for their office, whence they are
here classified with other functions of an inspired character.
Government (literally, "guiding the helm" of affairs), as being
occupied with external things, notwithstanding the outward status it
gives, is ranked by the Spirit with the lower functions. Compare "He
that giveth" (answering to "helps")--"he that ruleth" (answering to
Translate, literally, "Helpings, governings" [ALFORD].
diversities of tongues--
"Divers kinds of tongues."
29. Are all?--Surely not.
31. covet earnestly--Greek, "emulously desire." Not in
the spirit of discontented "coveting." The Spirit "divides to
every man severally as He will"
but this does not prevent men earnestly seeking, by prayer and
watchfulness, and cultivation of their faculties, the greatest
gifts. BEZA explains, "Hold in the highest
estimation"; which accords with the distinction in his view
between "follow after charity--zealously esteem spiritual
gifts"; also with
(1Co 12:11, 18)
the sovereign will with which the Spirit distributes the gifts,
precluding individuals from desiring gifts not vouchsafed to them. But
the best gifts--Most of the oldest manuscripts read, "the
and yet--Greek, "and moreover." Besides
recommending your zealous desire for the greatest gifts, I am about to
show you a something still more excellent (literally, "a way most
way-like") to desire, "the way of love" (compare
This love, or "charity," includes both "faith" and "hope"
and bears the same fruits
as the ordinary and permanent fruits of the Spirit
Thus "long-suffering," compare
(the Greek is the same for "is kind"). It is the work of the
Holy Spirit, and consists in love to God, on account of God's love in
Christ to us, and as a consequence, love to man, especially to the
brethren in Christ
(Ro 5:5; 15:30).
This is more to be desired than gifts