Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
PROVED AGAINST THE
Christ's resurrection rests on the evidence of many eye-witnesses,
including Paul himself, and is the great fact preached as the groundwork
of the Gospel: they who deny the resurrection in general, must deny that
of Christ, and the consequence of the latter will be, that Christian
preaching and faith are vain.
1. Moreover--"Now" [ALFORD and
I declare--literally, "I make known": it implies some degree of
reproach that it should be now necessary to make it known to them
afresh, owing to some of them "not having the knowledge of God"
wherein ye stand--wherein ye now take your stand. This is your present
actual privilege, if ye suffer not yourselves to fall from your high
2. ye are saved--rather, "ye are being saved."
if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you--Able critics,
and others, prefer connecting the words thus, "I declare unto you the
in what words I preached it unto you." Paul reminds them, or rather
makes known to them, as if anew, not only the fact of the Gospel, but
also with what words, and by what arguments, he preached
it to them. Translate in that case, "if ye hold it fast." I prefer
arranging as English Version, "By which ye are saved, if ye hold
fast (in memory and personal appropriation) with what speech I
preached it unto you."
unless--which is impossible, your faith is vain, in resting on Christ's
resurrection as an objective reality.
3. I delivered unto you--A short creed, or summary of articles of
faith, was probably even then existing; and a profession in accordance
with it was required of candidates for baptism
first of all--literally, "among the foremost points"
The atonement is, in Paul's view, of primary importance.
which I . . . received--from Christ Himself by special
died for our sins--that is, to atone FOR them;
for taking away
"gave Himself for our sins"
The "for" here does not, as in some passages, imply vicarious
substitution, but "in behalf of"
It does not, however, mean merely "on account of," which is expressed
by a different Greek word
(though in English Version translated similarly, "for").
according to the scriptures--which "cannot be broken." Paul puts
the testimony of Scripture above that of those who saw the Lord
after His resurrection [BENGEL]. So our Lord
&c.; Da 9:26.
4. buried . . . rose again--His burial is more closely
connected with His resurrection than His death. At the moment of His
death, the power of His inextinguishable life exerted itself
The grave was to Him not the destined receptacle of corruption, but an
apartment fitted for entering into life
rose again--Greek, "hath risen": the state thus begun, and its
consequences, still continue.
5. seen of Cephas--Peter
the twelve--The round number for "the Eleven"
(Lu 24:33, 36).
"The Twelve" was their ordinary appellation, even when their number was
not full. However, very possibly Matthias was present
(Ac 1:22, 23).
Some of the oldest manuscripts and versions read, "the Eleven": but the
best on the whole, "the Twelve."
6. five hundred--This appearance was probably on the mountain (Tabor,
according to tradition), in Galilee, when His most solemn and public
appearance, according to His special promise, was vouchsafed
(Mt 26:32; 28:7, 10, 16).
He "appointed" this place, as one remote from Jerusalem, so that
believers might assemble there more freely and securely. ALFORD'S theory of Jerusalem being the scene, is
improbable; as such a multitude of believers could not, with any
safety, have met in one place in the metropolis, after His crucifixion
there. The number of disciples
at Jerusalem shortly after, was one hundred and twenty, those in
Galilee and elsewhere not being reckoned. Andronicus and JUNIUS were, perhaps, of the number
they are said to be "among the apostles" (who all were witnesses of the
remain unto this present--and, therefore, may be sifted thoroughly to
ascertain the trustworthiness of their testimony.
fallen asleep--in the sure hope of awaking at the resurrection
7. seen of James--the Less, the brother of our Lord
The Gospel according to the Hebrews, quoted by JEROME
[On Illustrious Men, p. 170 D.], records that "James swore he would
not eat bread from the hour that he drank the cup of the Lord, till he
should see Him rising again from the dead."
all the apostles--The term here includes many others besides "the
Twelve" already enumerated
perhaps the seventy disciples
8. One born out of due time--Greek, "the one abortively
born": the abortion in the family of the apostles. As a child born
before the due time is puny, and though born alive, yet not of the
proper size, and scarcely worthy of the name of man, so "I am the
least of the apostles," scarcely "meet to be called an apostle"; a
supernumerary taken into the college of apostles out of regular course,
not led to Christ by long instruction, like a natural birth, but by a
sudden power, as those prematurely born [GROTIUS].
Compare the similar image from childbirth, and by the same spiritual
power, the resurrection of Christ
"Begotten again by the resurrection of Jesus." Jesus'
appearance to Paul, on the way to Damascus, is the one here referred
9. least--The name, "Paulus," in Latin, means "least."
I persecuted the church--Though God has forgiven him, Paul can hardly
forgive himself at the remembrance of his past sin.
10. by . . . grace . . . and his grace--The repetition implies the
prominence which God's grace had in his mind, as the sole cause of
his marvellous conversion and subsequent labors. Though "not meet to be
called an apostle," grace has given him, in Christ, the meetness needed
for the office. Translate as the Greek, "His grace which was
(showed) towards me."
what I am--occupying the honorable office of an apostle. Contrast
with this the self-sufficient prayer of another Pharisee
but I laboured--by God's grace
than they all--than any of the apostles
grace of God . . . with me--Compare "the Lord working
The oldest manuscripts omit "which was." The "not I, but grace,"
implies, that though the human will concurred with God when
brought by His Spirit into conformity with His will, yet "grace" so
preponderated in the work, that his own co-operation is regarded as
nothing, and grace as virtually the sole agent. (Compare
Php 2:12, 13).
11. whether it were I or they--(the apostles) who "labored more
in preaching, such was the substance of our preaching, namely, the
truths stated in
1Co 15:3, 4.
12. if--Seeing that it is an admitted fact that Christ is announced
by us eye-witnesses as having risen from the dead, how is it that some
of you deny that which is a necessary consequence of Christ's
resurrection, namely, the general resurrection?
(Ac 17:32; 26:8)
who would not believe it because they did not see "how" it could be
(1Co 15:35, 36).
13. If there be no general resurrection, which is the consequent,
then there can have been no resurrection of Christ, which is the
antecedent. The head and the members of the body stand on the same
footing: what does not hold good of them, does not hold good of Him
either: His resurrection and theirs are inseparably joined (compare
14. your faith . . . vain--
The Greek for "vain" here is, empty, unreal: in
on the other hand, it is, without use, frustrated. The principal
argument of the first preachers in support of Christianity was that God
had raised Christ from the dead
(Ac 1:22; 2:32; 4:10, 33; 13:37;
If this fact were false, the faith built on it must be false too.
15. testified of God--that is, concerning God. The rendering of others
is, "against God" [Vulgate, ESTIUS,
GROTIUS]: the Greek preposition
with the genitive implies, not direct antagonism (as the accusative
would mean), but indirect to the dishonor of God.
English Version is probably better.
if so be--as they assert. It is not right to tell untrue stories,
though they are told and seem for the glory of God
16. The repetition implies the unanswerable force of the argument.
17. vain--Ye are, by the very fact (supposing the case to be as the
skeptics maintained), frustrated of all which "your faith"
appropriates: Ye are still under the everlasting condemnation of your
sins (even in the disembodied state which is here referred to), from
which Christ's resurrection is our justification
"saved by his life"
18. fallen asleep in Christ--in communion with Christ as His members.
"In Christ's case the term used is death, to assure us of the
reality of His suffering; in our case, sleep, to give us consolation:
In His case, His resurrection having actually taken place, Paul shrinks
not from the term death; in ours, the resurrection being still only a
matter of hope, he uses the term falling asleep" [PHOTIUS,
Quæstiones Amphilochiæ, 197].
perished--Their souls are lost; they are in misery in the unseen
19. If our hopes in Christ were limited to this life only, we should
be, of all men, most to be pitied; namely, because, while others live
unmolested, we are exposed to every trial and persecution, and, after
all, are doomed to bitter disappointment in our most cherished hope; for
all our hope of salvation, even of the soul (not merely of the body),
hangs on the resurrection of Christ, without which His death would be of
no avail to us
(Eph 1:19, 20;
The heathen are "without hope"
We should be even worse, for we should be also without present
20. now--as the case really is.
and become--omitted in the oldest manuscripts.
the first-fruits--the earnest or pledge, that the whole resurrection
harvest will follow, so that our faith is not vain, nor our hope limited
to this life. The time of writing this Epistle was probably about the
the day after the Passover sabbath was that for offering the
(Le 23:10, 11),
and the same was the day of Christ's resurrection: whence appears the
appropriateness of the image.
21. by man . . . by man--The first-fruits are of the same nature as
the rest of the harvest; so Christ, the bringer of life, is of the same
nature as the race of men to whom He brings it; just as Adam, the
bringer of death, was of the same nature as the men on whom he brought
22. in Adam all--in union of nature with Adam, as representative head
of mankind in their fall.
in Christ . . . all--in union of nature with Christ, the representative
head of mankind in their recovery. The life brought in by Christ is
co-extensive with the death brought in by Adam.
23. But every man in his own order--rather, "rank": the
Greek is not in the abstract, but concrete: image from troops,
"each in his own regiment." Though all shall rise again, let not any
think all shall be saved; nay, each shall have his proper place, Christ
and after Him the godly who die in Christ
in a separate band from the ungodly, and then "the end," that is, the
resurrection of the rest of the dead. Christian churches, ministers,
and individuals seem about to be judged first "at His coming"
then "all the nations"
Christ's own flock shall share His glory "at His coming," which is not
to be confounded with "the end," or general judgment
(Re 20:4-6, 11-15).
The latter is not in this chapter specially discussed, but only the
first resurrection, namely, that of the saints: not even the judgment
of Christian hollow professors
at His coming, is handled, but only the glory of them "that are
Christ's," who alone in the highest sense "obtain the resurrection from
(Lu 14:14; 20:35, 36;
The second coming of Christ is not a mere point of time, but a
period beginning with the resurrection of the just at His
appearing, and ending with the general judgment. The ground of the
universal resurrection is the union of all mankind in nature with
Christ, their representative Head, who has done away with death, by His
own death in their stead: the ground of the resurrection of believers
is not merely this, but their personal union with Him as their
effected causatively by the Holy Spirit, and
instrumentally by faith as the subjective, and by
ordinances as the objective means.
24. Then--after that: next in the succession of "orders" or "ranks."
the end--the general resurrection, and final judgment and consummation
delivered up . . . kingdom to . . . Father--(Compare
Seeming at variance with
"His dominion is an everlasting dominion which shall not pass
away." Really, His giving up of the mediatorial
kingdom to the Father, when the end for which the mediatorial economy
was established has been accomplished, is altogether in harmony with
its continuing everlastingly. The change which shall then take place,
shall be in the manner of administration, not in the
kingdom itself; God shall then come into direct
connection with the earth, instead of mediatorially, when Christ shall
have fully and finally removed everything that severs asunder the holy
God and a sinful earth
The glory of God is the final end of Christ's mediatorial office
(Php 2:10, 11).
His co-equality with the Father is independent of the latter, and prior
to it, and shall, therefore, continue when its function shall have
ceased. His manhood, too, shall everlastingly continue, though, as now,
subordinate to the Father. The throne of the Lamb (but no longer
mediatorial) as well as of God, shall be in the heavenly city
The unity of the Godhead, and the unity of the Church, shall be
simultaneously manifested at Christ's second coming. Compare
The oldest manuscripts for "shall have delivered up," read,
"delivereth up," which suits the sense better. It is "when He
shall have put down all rule," that "He delivereth up the
kingdom to the Father."
shall have put down all rule--the effect produced during the millennary
reign of Himself and His saints
(Ps 110:1; 8:6; 2:6-9),
to which passages Paul refers, resting his argument on the two words,
"all" and "until," of the Psalmist: a proof of verbal inspiration of
Re 2:26, 27).
Meanwhile, He "rules in the midst of His enemies"
He is styled "the King" when He takes His great power
Re 11:15, 17).
The Greek for "put down" is, "done away with," or
"brought to naught." "All" must be subject to Him, whether openly
opposed powers, as Satan and his angels, or kings and angelic
25. must--because Scripture foretells it.
till--There will be no further need of His mediatorial kingdom, its
object having been realized.
enemies under his feet--
26. shall be--Greek, "is done away with"
It is to believers especially this applies
even in the case of unbelievers, death is done away with by the general
resurrection. Satan brought in sin, and sin brought in
death! So they shall be destroyed (rendered utterly powerless)
in the same order
Re 19:20; 20:10, 14).
27. all things--including death (compare
It is said, "hath put," for what God has said is the same as if
it were already done, so sure is it. Paul here quotes
in proof of his previous declaration, "For (it is written), 'He hath
put all things under His feet.'"
under his feet--as His footstool
In perfect and lasting subjection.
when he--namely, God, who by His Spirit inspired the Psalmist.
28. Son . . . himself . . . subject--not as the creatures are, but as a
Son voluntarily subordinate to, though co-equal with, the Father. In
the mediatorial kingdom, the Son had been, in a manner, distinct from
the Father. Now, His kingdom shall merge in the Father's, with whom He
is one; not that there is thus any derogation from His honor; for the
Father Himself wills "that all should honor the Son, as they honor the
(Joh 5:22, 23;
God . . . all in all--as Christ is all in all
Then, and not till then, "all things," without the least
infringement of the divine prerogative, shall be subject to the Son,
and the Son subordinate to the Father, while co-equally sharing His
Ps 10:4; 14:1.
Even the saints do not fully realize God as their "all"
now, through desiring it; then each shall feel, God is all to
29. Else--if there be no resurrection.
what shall they do?--How wretched is their lot!
they . . . which are baptized for the dead--third
person; a class distinct from that in which the apostle places himself,
first person. ALFORD thinks there is an allusion
to a practice at Corinth of baptizing a living person in behalf
of a friend who died unbaptized; thus Paul, without giving the
least sanction to the practice, uses an ad hominem argument from
it against its practicers, some of whom, though using it, denied the
resurrection: "What account can they give of their practice; why are
they at the trouble of it, if the dead rise not?" [So Jesus used an
ad hominem argument,
But if so, it is strange there is no direct censure of it. Some
Marcionites adopted the practice at a later period, probably from
taking this passage, as ALFORD does; but,
generally, it was unknown in the Church. BENGEL
translates, "over (immediately upon) the dead," that is, who will be
gathered to the dead immediately after baptism. Compare
"the graves are ready for me." The price they get for their trouble is,
that they should be gathered to the dead for ever
(1Co 15:13, 16).
Many in the ancient Church put off baptism till near death. This seems
the better view; though there may have been some rites of symbolical
baptism at Corinth, now unknown, perhaps grounded on Jesus' words
(Mt 20:22, 23),
which Paul here alludes to. The best punctuation is, "If the dead rise
not at all, why are they then baptized for them" (so the oldest
manuscripts read the last words, instead of "for the dead")?
A gradation from those who could only for a little time enjoy this life
(that is, those baptized at the point of death), to us, who
could enjoy it longer, if we had not renounced the world for Christ
31. by your rejoicing--by the glorying which I have concerning you,
as the fruit of my labors in the Lord. Some of the earliest manuscripts
and fathers read "our," with the same sense. BENGEL
rejoicing," to be the enjoyable state of the Corinthians, as contrasted
with his dying daily to give his converts rejoicing or glorying
2Co 4:12, 15;
But the words, "which I have," favor the explanation--"the rejoicing
which I have over you." Many of the oldest manuscripts and
Vulgate insert "brethren" here.
I die daily--This ought to stand first in the sentence, as it is so
put prominently forward in the Greek. I am day by day in sight of
death, exposed to it, and expecting it
(2Co 4:11, 12; 1:8, 9; 11:23).
32. Punctuate thus: "If after the manner of men I have fought with
beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me? If the dead rise not, let us
eat and drink," &c. [BENGEL]. If "merely as a man" (with the mere
human hope of the present life; not with the Christian's hope of the
resurrection; answering to "If the dead rise not," the parallel clause
in the next sentence), I have fought with men resembling savage beasts.
Heraclitus, of Ephesus, had termed his countrymen "wild beasts" four
hundred years before. So Epimenides called the Cretians
Paul was still at Ephesus
and there his life was daily in danger
Though the tumult
(Ac 19:29, 30)
had not yet taken place (for after it he set out
immediately for Macedonia), this Epistle was written evidently
just before it, when the storm was gathering; "many adversaries"
were already menacing him.
what advantageth it me?--seeing I have renounced all that,
"as a mere man," might compensate me for such sufferings, gain,
let us eat, &c.--Quoted from the Septuagint,
where the prophet describes the reckless self-indulgence of the
despisers of God's call to mourning, Let us enjoy the good things of
life now, for it soon will end. Paul imitates the language of such
skeptics, to reprove both their theory and practice. "If men but
persuade themselves that they shall die like the beasts, they soon will
live like beasts too" [SOUTH].
33. evil communications corrupt good manners--a current saying, forming
a verse in MENANDER, the comic poet, who probably took it from Euripides
[SOCRATES, Ecclesiastical History, 3.16]. "Evil communications"
refer to intercourse with those who deny the resurrection. Their notion
seems to have been that the resurrection is merely spiritual, that sin
has its seat solely in the body, and will be left behind when the soul
leaves it, if, indeed, the soul survive death at all.
good--not only good-natured, but pliant. Intimacy with the
profligate society around was apt to corrupt the principles of the
34. Awake--literally, "out of the sleep" of carnal intoxication
into which ye are thrown by the influence of these skeptics
to righteousness--in contrast with "sin" in this verse, and
sin not--Do not give yourselves up to sinful pleasures. The
Greek expresses a continued state of abstinence from sin. Thus,
Paul implies that they who live in sinful pleasures readily persuade
themselves of what they wish, namely, that there is to be no
some--the same as in
have not the knowledge of God--and so know not His power in the
Stronger than "are ignorant of God." An habitual ignorance:
wilful, in that they prefer to keep their sins, rather than part with
them, in order to know God (compare
to your shame--that you Corinthian Christians, who boast of your
knowledge, should have among you, and maintain intercourse with,
those so practically ignorant of God, as to deny the resurrection.
35. How--It is folly to deny a fact of REVELATION,
because we do not
know the "how." Some measure God's power by their petty
intelligence, and won't admit, even on His assurance, anything which
they cannot explain. Ezekiel's answer of faith to the question is
the truly wise one
So Jesus argues not on principles of philosophy, but wholly from "the
power of God," as declared by the Word of God
Mr 10:27; 12:23;
come--The dead are said to depart, or to be deceased: those
rising again to come. The objector could not understand how the
dead are to rise, and with what kind of a body they are to come. Is
it to be the same body? If so, how is this, since the resurrection
bodies will not eat or drink, or beget children, as the natural bodies
do? Besides, the latter have mouldered into dust. How then can they
rise again? If it be a different body, how can the personal identity be
preserved? Paul answers, In one sense it will be the same body, in
another, a distinct body. It will be a body, but a spiritual, not a
36. fool--with all thy boasted philosophy
that which thou--"thou," emphatical: appeal to the objector's
own experience: "The seed which thou thyself sowest."
Paul, in this verse and in
answers the question of
"How?" and in
1Co 15:37-41, 43,
the question, "With what kind of body?" He converts the very
objection (the death of the natural body) into an argument. Death, so
far from preventing quickening, is the necessary prelude and
prognostication of it, just as the seed "is not quickened" into a new
sprout with increased produce, "except it die" (except a dissolution of
its previous organization takes place). Christ by His death for us has
not given us a reprieve from death as to the life which we have from
Adam; nay, He permits the law to take its course on our fleshly nature;
but He brings from Himself new spiritual and heavenly life out of death
37. not that body that shall be--a body beautiful and no longer a
"bare grain" [BENGEL]. No longer without stalk or ear, but clothed with
blade and ears, and yielding many grains instead of only one
There is not an identity of all the particles of the old and the new
body. For the perpetual transmutation of matter is inconsistent with
this. But there is a hidden germ which constitutes the identity of body
amidst all outward changes: the outward accretions fall off in its
development, while the germ remains the same. Every such germ ("seed,"
"shall have its own body," and be instantly recognized, just as each
plant now is known from the seed that was sown (see on
So Christ by the same image illustrated the truth that His death was
the necessary prelude of His putting on His glorified body, which is
the ground of the regeneration of the many who believe
Progress is the law of the spiritual, as of the natural world. Death is
the avenue not to mere revivification or reanimation, but
to resurrection and regeneration
Compare "planted," &c.,
38. as it hath pleased him--at creation, when He gave
to each of the (kinds of) seeds
(so the Greek is for "to every seed") a body of its own
"after its kind," suited to its species). So God can and will give to
the blessed at the resurrection their own appropriate
body, such as it pleases Him, and such as is suitable to
their glorified state: a body peculiar to the individual, substantially
the same as the body sown.
39-41. Illustrations of the suitability of bodies, however various,
to their species: the flesh of the several species of animals; bodies
celestial and terrestrial; the various kinds of light in the sun, moon,
and stars, respectively.
flesh--animal organism [DE
WETTE]. He implies by the word that our
resurrection bodies shall be in some sense really flesh, not mere
phantoms of air [ESTIUS].
So some of the oldest creeds expressed it, "I
believe in the resurrection of the flesh." Compare as to Jesus' own
to which ours shall be made like, and therefore shall be
flesh, but not of animal organism
and liable to corruption. But
below implies, it is not "flesh and blood" in the animal sense we now
understand them; for these "shall not inherit the kingdom of God."
not the same--not flesh of the same nature and excellency. As the
kinds of flesh, however widely differing from one another, do not cease
to be flesh, so the kinds of bodies, however differing from one another,
are still bodies. All this is to illustrate the difference of the new
celestial body from its terrestrial seed, while retaining a substantial
another of fishes . . . another of birds--Most of the oldest
manuscripts read thus, "another FLESH
of birds . . . another of
fishes": the order of nature.
40. celestial bodies--not the sun, moon, and stars, which are first
but the bodies of angels, as distinguished from the bodies of
the glory of the celestial--
glory of . . .
(Mt 6:28, 29;
41. one glory of . . . sun . . . another . . . of . . . moon--The
analogy is not to prove different degrees of glory among the blessed
(whether this may be, or not, indirectly hinted at), but this: As
the various fountains of light, which is so similar in its aspect
and properties, differ (the sun from the moon, and the moon from the
stars; and even one star from another star, though all seem so much
alike); so there is nothing unreasonable in the doctrine that
our present bodies differ from our resurrection bodies, though
still continuing bodies. Compare the same simile, appropriate
especially in the clear Eastern skies
Also that of seed in the same parable
Ga 6:7, 8).
42. sown--Following up the image of seed. A delightful word
instead of burial.
in corruption--liable to corruption: corruptible: not merely a
prey when dead to corruption; as the contrast shows, "raised in
incorruption," that is, not liable to corruption: incorruptible.
43. in dishonour--answering to "our vile body"
literally, "our body of humiliation": liable to various humiliations of
disease, injury, and decay at last.
in glory--the garment of incorruption
(1Co 15:42, 43)
like His glorious body
which we shall put on
(1Co 15:49, 53;
in weakness--liable to infirmities
in power--answering to a "spiritual body"
"Spirit and power"). Not liable to the weaknesses of our present frail
44. a natural body--literally, "an animal body," a body moulded
in its organism of "flesh and blood"
to suit the animal soul which predominates in it. The Holy Spirit in
the spirit of believers, indeed, is an earnest of a superior state
but meanwhile in the body the animal soul preponderates;
hereafter the Spirit shall predominate, and the animal soul be duly
spiritual body--a body wholly moulded by the Spirit, and its organism
not conformed to the lower and animal
(Lu 20:35, 36),
but to the higher and spiritual, life (compare
There is, &c.--The oldest manuscripts read,
"IF there is a natural
(or animal-souled) body, there is also a spiritual body." It is
no more wonderful a thing, that there should be a body fitted to the
capacities and want of man's highest part, his spirit (which we see to
be the case), than that there should be one fitted to the capacities and
wants of his subordinate part, the animal soul [ALFORD].
45. so--in accordance with the distinction just mentioned
between the natural or animal-souled body and the
it is written--
"Man became (was made to become) a living soul," that is, endowed with
an animal soul, the living principle of his body.
the last Adam--the LAST Head of humanity, who is to be fully manifested
in the last day, which is His day
He is so called in
In contrast to "the last," Paul calls "man"
"the FIRST Adam."
quickening--not only living, but making alive
6:33, 39, 40, 54, 57, 62, 63;
As the natural or animal-souled body
is the fruit of our union with the first Adam, an animal-souled
man, so the spiritual body is the fruit of our union with the
second Adam, who is the quickening Spirit
As He became representative of the whole of humanity in His union of
the two natures, He exhausted in His own person the sentence of death
passed on all men, and giveth spiritual and everlasting life to whom He
46. afterward--Adam had a soul not necessarily mortal, as it
afterwards became by sin, but "a living soul," and destined to
live for ever, if he had eaten of the tree of life
still his body was but an animal-souled body, not a
spiritual body, such as believers shall have; much less was he a
"life-giving spirit," as Christ. His soul had the germ of the Spirit,
rather than the fulness of it, such as man shall have when restored
"body, soul, and spirit," by the second Adam
As the first and lower Adam came before the second and heavenly Adam,
so the animal-souled body comes first, and must die before it be
changed into the spiritual body (that is, that in which the Spirit
predominates over the animal soul).
47. of the earth--inasmuch as being sprung from the earth, he is
(Ge 2:7; 3:19,
"dust thou art"); that is, not merely earthly or born upon the
earth, but terrene, or of earth; literally, "of
heaped earth" or clay. "Adam" means red earth.
the Lord--omitted in the oldest manuscripts and versions.
(Joh 3:13, 31).
Humanity in Christ is generic. In Him man is impersonated in his true
ideal as God originally designed him. Christ is the representative man,
the federal head of redeemed man.
48. As is the earthy--namely, Adam.
they . . . that are earthy--All Adam's posterity in their natural state
(Joh 3:6, 7).
they . . . that are heavenly--His people in their regenerate state
(Php 3:20, 21).
As the former precedes the latter state, so the natural bodies
precede the spiritual bodies.
49. as--Greek, "even as" (see
we shall also bear--or wear as a garment [BENGEL]. The oldest
manuscripts and versions read, "We must also bear," or "let us also
bear." It implies the divine appointment (compare "must,"
and faith assenting to it. An exhortation, and yet implying a promise
The conformity to the image of the heavenly Representative man is to be
begun here in our souls, in part, and shall be perfected at the
resurrection in both bodies and souls.
50. (See on
"Flesh and blood" of the same animal and corruptible nature as our
animal-souled bodies, cannot inherit the kingdom of God.
Therefore the believer acquiesces gladly in the unrepealed sentence of
the holy law, which appoints the death of the present body as the
necessary preliminary to the resurrection body of glory. Hence he "dies
daily" to the flesh and to the world, as the necessary condition to his
regeneration here and hereafter
As the being born of the flesh constitutes a child of Adam, so
the being born of the Spirit constitutes a child of God.
cannot--Not merely is the change of body possible, but it is
necessary. The spirit extracted from the dregs of wine does not so
much differ from them, as the glorified man does from the mortal man
[BENGEL] of mere animal flesh and blood
The resurrection body will be still a body though spiritual, and
substantially retaining the personal identity; as is proved by
the kingdom of God--which is not at all merely animal, but altogether
spiritual. Corruption doth not inherit, though it is the way to,
(1Co 15:36, 52, 53).
51. Behold--Calling attention to the "mystery" heretofore hidden in
God's purposes, but now revealed.
you--emphatical in the Greek; I show (Greek,
"tell," namely, by the word of the Lord,
YOU, who think you have so much knowledge, "a
which your reason could never have discovered. Many of the old
manuscripts and Fathers read, "We shall all sleep, but we shall not all
be changed"; but this is plainly a corrupt reading, inconsistent with
1Th 4:15, 17,
and with the apostle's argument here, which is that a change is
English Version is supported by some of the oldest manuscripts
and Fathers. The Greek is literally "We all shall not sleep,
but," &c. The putting off of the corruptible body for an incorruptible
by an instantaneous change will, in the case of "the quick,"
stand as equivalent to death, appointed to all men
of this Enoch and Elijah are types and forerunners. The "we" implies
that Christians in that age and every successive age since and
hereafter were designed to stand waiting, as if Christ might come again
in their time, and as if they might be found among "the quick."
52. the last trump--at the sounding of the trumpet on the last day
(Mt 24:31; 1Th 4:16).
Or the Spirit by Paul hints that the other trumpets mentioned
subsequently in the Apocalypse shall precede, and that this shall be
the last of all (compare
As the law was given with the sound of a trumpet, so the final judgment
according to it
As the Lord ascended "with the sound of a trumpet"
so He shall descend
The trumpet was sounded to convoke the people on solemn feasts,
especially on the first day of the seventh month (the type of the
completion of time; seven being the number for
perfection; on the tenth of the same month was the atonement,
and on the fifteenth the feast of tabernacles, commemorative of
completed salvation out of the spiritual Egypt, compare
Zec 14:18, 19);
Compare His calling forth of Lazarus from the grave "with a loud
with Joh 5:25, 28.
and--immediately, in consequence.
53. this--pointing to his own body and that of those whom he
put on--as a garment
(2Co 5:2, 3).
immortality--Here only, besides
the word "immortality" is found. Nowhere is the immortality of the
soul, distinct from the body, taught; a notion which many
erroneously have derived from heathen philosophers. Scripture does not
contemplate the anomalous state brought about by death, as the
consummation to be earnestly looked for
but the resurrection.
54. then--not before. Death has as yet a sting even to the
believer, in that his body is to be under its power till the
resurrection. But then the sting and power of death shall cease for
Death is swallowed up in victory--In Hebrew of
from which it is quoted, "He (Jehovah) will swallow up
death in victory"; that is, for ever: as "in victory" often
means in Hebrew idiom
Christ will swallow it up so altogether victoriously that it
shall never more regain its power (compare
Ho 6:2; 13:14;
Heb 2:14, 15;
Re 20:14; 21:4).
55. Quoted from
substantially; but freely used by the warrant of the Spirit by which
Paul wrote. The Hebrew may be translated, "O death, where are
thy plagues? Where, O Hades, is thy destruction?" The
Septuagint, "Where is thy victory (literally, in a
lawsuit), O death? Where is thy sting, O Hades? . . .
Sting" answers to the Hebrew "plagues," namely, a poisoned
sting causing plagues. Appropriate, as to the old serpent
(Ge 3:14, 15;
"Victory" answers to the Hebrew "destruction." Compare
"destroy . . . veil . . . over all nations,"
namely, victoriously destroy it; and to "in victory"
which he triumphantly repeats. The "where" implies their past
victorious destroying power and sting, now gone for ever; obtained
through Satan's triumph over man in Eden, which enlisted God's law on
the side of Satan and death against man
(Ro 5:12, 17, 21).
The souls in Hades being freed by the resurrection, death's sting and
victory are gone. For "O grave," the oldest manuscripts and versions
read, "O death," the second time.
56. If there were no sin, there would be no death. Man's transgression
of the law gives death its lawful power.
strength of sin is the law--Without the law sin is not perceived
(Ro 3:20; 4:15; 5:13).
The law makes sin the more grievous by making God's will the clearer
Christ's people are no longer "under the law"
57. to God--The victory was in no way due to ourselves
giveth--a present certainty.
the victory--which death and Hades ("the grave") had aimed at, but
which, notwithstanding the opposition of them, as well as of the law and
sin, we have gained. The repetition of the word
(1Co 15:54, 55)
is appropriate to the triumph gained.
58. beloved--Sound doctrine kindles Christian love.
steadfast--not turning aside from the faith of the resurrection
unmovable--not turned aside by others
the work of the Lord--the promotion of Christ's kingdom
not in vain--as the deniers of the resurrection would make it
(1Co 15:14, 17).
in the Lord--applying to the whole sentence and its several clauses:
Ye, as being in the Lord by faith, know that your labor in the Lord
(that is, labor according to His will) is not to be without its reward
in the Lord (through His merits and according to His gracious