Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
To guileless feeding on the word by the sense of their privileges as
new-born babes, living stones in the spiritual temple built on Christ
the chief corner-stone, and royal priests, in contrast to their former
state: also to abstinence from fleshly lusts, and to walk worthily in
all relations of life, so that the world without which opposes them may
be constrained to glorify God in seeing their good works. Christ, the
grand pattern to follow in patience under suffering for well-doing.
1. laying aside--once for all: so the Greek aorist
expresses as a garment put off. The exhortation applies to
Christians alone, for in none else is the new nature existing which, as
"the inward man"
can cast off the old as an outward thing, so that the Christian,
through the continual renewal of his inward man, can also exhibit
himself externally as a new man. But to unbelievers the demand is
addressed, that inwardly, in regard to the nous (mind),
they must become changed, meta-noeisthai (re-pent)
[STEIGER]. The "therefore" resumes the exhortation
Seeing that ye are born again of an incorruptible seed, be not again
entangled in evil, which "has no substantial being, but is an acting in
contrariety to the being formed in us" [THEOPHYLACT]. "Malice," &c., are utterly inconsistent
with the "love of the brethren," unto which ye have "purified your
The vices here are those which offend against the
BROTHERLY LOVE inculcated above. Each succeeding
one springs out of that which immediately precedes, so as to form a
genealogy of the sins against love. Out of malice springs
guile; out of guile, hypocrises (pretending to be what we
are not, and not showing what we really are; the opposite of "love
unfeigned," and "without dissimulation"); out of hypocrisies,
envies of those to whom we think ourselves obliged to play the
hypocrite; out of envies, evil-speaking, malicious, envious
detraction of others. Guile is the permanent disposition;
hypocrisies the acts flowing from it. The guileless knows no
"sincere," Greek, "guileless." "Malice delights in
another's hurt; envy pines at another's good; guile
imparts duplicity to the heart; hypocrisy (flattery) imparts
duplicity to the tongue; evil-speakings wound the character of
2. new-born babes--altogether without "guile"
As long as we are here we are "babes," in a specially tender relation
The childlike spirit is indispensable if we would enter heaven. "Milk"
is here not elementary truths in contradistinction to more advanced
Christian truths, as in
Heb 5:12, 13;
but in contrast to "guile, hypocrisies," &c.
the simplicity of Christian doctrine in general to the childlike
spirit. The same "word of grace" which is the instrument in
regeneration, is the instrument also of building up. "The mother
of the child is also its natural nurse" [STEIGER].
The babe, instead of chemically analyzing, instinctively desires and
feeds on the milk; so our part is not self-sufficient rationalizing and
questioning, but simply receiving the truth in the love of it
desire--Greek, "have a yearning desire for," or "longing
after," a natural impulse to the regenerate, "for as no one needs to
teach new-born babes what food to take, knowing instinctively that a
table is provided for them in their mother's breast," so the believer
of himself thirsts after the word of God
Compare TATIUS' language as to Achilles.
sincere--Greek, "guileless." Compare
"laying aside guile." IRENÆUS says of
heretics. They mix chalk with the milk. The article, "the," implies
that besides the well-known pure milk, the Gospel, there is no
other pure, unadulterated doctrine; it alone can make us
of the word--Not as ALFORD, "spiritual,"
nor "reasonable," as English Version in
The Greek "logos" in Scripture is not used of the
reason, or mind, but of the WORD; the preceding context
requires that "the word" should be meant here; the adjective
"logikos" follows the meaning of the noun logos,
"Lay apart all filthiness . . . and receive with
meekness the engrafted WORD," is exactly
parallel, and confirms English Version here.
grow--The oldest manuscripts and versions read, "grow unto
salvation." Being BORN again unto
salvation, we are also to grow unto salvation. The end to
which growth leads is perfected salvation. "Growth is the
measure of the fulness of that, not only rescue from destruction, but
positive blessedness, which is implied in salvation" [ALFORD].
thereby--Greek, "in it"; fed on it; in its
"The word is to be desired with appetite as the cause of life, to be
swallowed in the hearing, to be chewed as cud is by rumination with the
understanding, and to be digested by faith" [TERTULLIAN].
3. Peter alludes to
The first "tastes" of God's goodness are afterwards followed by fuller
and happier experiences. A taste whets the appetite
gracious--Greek, "good," benignant, kind; as God is
revealed to us in Christ, "the Lord"
we who are born again ought so to be good and kind to the
"Whosoever has not tasted the word to him it is not sweet it has not
reached the heart; but to them who have experienced it, who with the
heart believe, 'Christ has been sent for me and is become my
own: my miseries are His, and His life mine,' it tastes
4. coming--drawing near (same Greek as here,
by faith continually; present tense: not having come once for all at
stone--Peter (that is, a stone, named so by
Christ) desires that all similarly should be living stones
CHRIST, THE TRUE FOUNDATION-STONE; compare his
An undesigned coincidence and mark of genuineness. The Spirit
foreseeing the Romanist perversion of
"Son of the LIVING God," which coincides with his
language here, "the LIVING stone"), presciently
makes Peter himself to refuse it. He herein confirms Paul's teaching.
Omit the as unto of English Version. Christ is positively
termed the "living stone"; living, as having life in Himself
from the beginning, and as raised from the dead to live evermore
after His rejection by men, and so the source of life to us. Like no
earthly rock, He lives and gives life. Compare
and the type,
disallowed--rejected, reprobated; referred to also by Christ
Himself: also by Paul; compare the kindred prophecies,
chosen of God--literally, "with (or 'in the presence
and judgment of') God elect," or, "chosen out"
Many are alienated from the Gospel, because it is not everywhere in
favor, but is on the contrary rejected by most men. Peter answers that,
though rejected by men, Christ is peculiarly the stone of
salvation honored by God, first so designated by Jacob in his deathbed
5. Ye also, as lively stones--partaking of the name and life
which is in "THE LIVING
Many names which belong to Christ in the singular are assigned to
Christians in the plural. He is "THE
SON," "High Priest," "King," "Lamb"; they, "sons,"
"priests," "kings," "sheep," "lambs." So the Shulamite called from
are built up--Greek, "are being built up," as in
Not as ALFORD, "Be ye built up." Peter grounds his
1Pe 2:2, 11,
&c., on their conscious sense of their high privileges as living
stones in the course of being built up into a spiritual house (that
is, "the habitation of the Spirit").
priesthood--Christians are both the spiritual temple and
the priests of the temple. There are two Greek words for
"temple"; hieron (the sacred place), the whole building,
including the courts wherein the sacrifice was killed; and
naos (the dwelling, namely, of God), the inner shrine
wherein God peculiarly manifested Himself, and where, in the holiest
place, the blood of the slain sacrifice was presented before
Him. All believers alike, and not merely ministers, are now the
dwelling of God (and are called the "naos," Greek, not
the hieron) and priests unto God
The minister is not, like the Jewish priest (Greek,
"hiercus"), admitted nearer to God than the people, but merely
for order's sake leads the spiritual services of the people.
Priest is the abbreviation of presbyter in the Church
of England Prayer Book, not corresponding to the Aaronic
priest (hiereus, who offered literal sacrifices).
Christ is the only literal hiereus-priest in the New Testament
through whom alone we may always draw near to God. Compare
"a royal priesthood," that is, a body of priest-kings, such as
was Melchisedec. The Spirit never, in New Testament, gives the name
hiereus, or sacerdotal priest, to ministers of the
holy--consecrated to God.
spiritual sacrifices--not the literal one of the mass, as the
Romish self-styled disciples of Peter teach. Compare
which compare with "acceptable to God" here;
Ps 4:5; 50:14; 51:17, 19;
"Among spiritual sacrifices the first place belongs to the general
oblation of ourselves. For never can we offer anything to God until we
have offered ourselves
in sacrifice to Him. There follow afterwards prayers, giving of thanks,
alms deeds, and all exercises of piety" [CALVIN].
Christian houses of worship are never called temples because the
temple was a place for sacrifice, which has no place in
the Christian dispensation; the Christian temple is the congregation of
spiritual worshippers. The synagogue (where reading of Scripture and
prayer constituted the worship) was the model of the Christian house of
worship (compare Note, see on
Our sacrifices are those of prayer, praise, and self-denying services
in the cause of Christ
by Jesus Christ--as our mediating High Priest before God.
Connect these words with "offer up." Christ is both precious
Himself and makes us accepted [BENGEL]. As
the temple, so also the priesthood, is built on Christ
(1Pe 2:4, 5)
[BEZA]. Imperfect as are our services, we are not
with unbelieving timidity, which is close akin to refined
self-righteousness, to doubt their acceptance THROUGH CHRIST. After extolling the
dignity of Christians he goes back to CHRIST as
the sole source of it.
6. Wherefore also--The oldest manuscripts read, "Because that."
The statement above is so "because it is contained in
Behold--calling attention to the glorious announcement of His
elect--so also believers
"chosen," Greek, "elect generation").
"a corner-stone of preciousness." See on
Christ is said to be, to believers, "precious," Greek,
confounded--same Greek as in
(Peter here as elsewhere confirming Paul's teaching. See
"make haste," that is, flee in sudden panic, covered with the
shame of confounded hopes.
7. Application of the Scripture just quoted first to the
believer, then to the unbeliever. On the opposite effects of the same
Gospel on different classes, compare
2Co 2:15, 16.
precious--Greek, "THE preciousness"
To you believers belongs the preciousness of Christ just
disobedient--to the faith, and so disobedient in practice.
the stone which . . . head of . . .
Those who rejected the STONE were all the while in
spite of themselves unconsciously contributing to its becoming Head of
the corner. The same magnet has two poles, the one repulsive, the other
attractive; so the Gospel has opposite effects on believers and
8. stone of stumbling, &c.--quoted from
Not merely they stumbled, in that their prejudices were
offended; but their stumbling implies the judicial punishment of
their reception of Messiah; they hurt themselves in stumbling over the
corner-stone, as "stumble" means in
at the word--rather, join "being disobedient to the word"; so
1Pe 3:1; 4:17.
whereunto--to penal stumbling; to the judicial punishment
of their unbelief. See above.
also--an additional thought; God's ordination; not that God
ordains or appoints them to sin, but they are given up to
"the fruit of their own ways" according to the eternal counsel
of God. The moral ordering of the world is altogether of God. God
appoints the ungodly to be given up unto sin, and a reprobate
mind, and its necessary penalty. "Were appointed," Greek,
"set," answers to "I lay," Greek, "set,"
God, in the active, is said to appoint Christ and the elect
(directly). Unbelievers, in the passive, are said to be
appointed (God acting less directly in the appointment of the
sinner's awful course) [BENGEL]. God ordains the
wicked to punishment, not to crime [J. CAPPEL].
"Appointed" or "set" (not here "FORE-ordained") refers, not to the
eternal counsel so directly, as to the penal justice of God. Through
the same Christ whom sinners rejected, they shall be rejected; unlike
believers, they are by God appointed unto wrath as FITTED for it. The lost shall lay all the blame of their
ruin on their own sinful perversity, not on God's decree; the saved
shall ascribe all the merit of their salvation to God's electing love
9. Contrast in the privileges and destinies of believers.
Compare the similar contrast with the preceding context.
chosen--"elect" of God, even as Christ your Lord is.
generation--implying the unity of spiritual origin and kindred
of believers as a class distinct from the world.
royal--kingly. Believers, like Christ, the antitypical
Melchisedec, are at once kings and priests. Israel, in a
spiritual sense, was designed to be the same among the nations of the
earth. The full realization on earth of this, both to the literal and
the spiritual Israel, is as yet future.
holy nation--antitypical to Israel.
peculiar people--literally, "a people for an
acquisition," that is, whom God chose to be peculiarly His:
"purchased," literally, "acquired." God's "peculiar treasure"
show forth--publish abroad. Not their own praises
but His. They have no reason to magnify themselves above others
for once they had been in the same darkness, and only through God's
grace had been brought to the light which they must henceforth show
forth to others.
praises--Greek, "virtues," "excellencies": His glory,
Nu 14:17, 18;
The same term is applied to believers,
of him who hath called you--
out of darkness--of heathen and even Jewish ignorance, sin, and
misery, and so out of the dominion of the prince of darkness.
marvellous--Peter still has in mind
light--It is called "His," that is, God's. Only the (spiritual)
light is created by God, not darkness. In
it is physical darkness and evil, not moral, that God is said to
create, the punishment of sin, not sin itself. Peter, with
characteristic boldness, brands as darkness what all the world
calls light; reason, without the Holy Spirit, in spite of its
vaunted power, is spiritual darkness. "It cannot apprehend what faith
is: there it is stark blind; it gropes as one that is without eyesight,
stumbling from one thing to another, and knows not what it does"
10. Adapted from
Ho 1:9, 10; 2:23.
Peter plainly confirms Paul, who quotes the passage as implying the
call of the Gentiles to become spiritually that which Israel had been
literally, "the people of God." Primarily, the prophecy refers to
literal Israel, hereafter to be fully that which in their best days
they were only partially, God's people.
not obtained mercy--literally, "who were men not
compassionated." Implying that it was God's pure mercy, not
their merits, which made the blessed change in their state; a thought
which ought to kindle their lively gratitude, to be shown with
their life, as well as their lips.
11. As heretofore he exhorted them to walk worthily of their
calling, in contradistinction to their own former walk, so now he
exhorts them to glorify God before unbelievers.
Dearly beloved--He gains their attention to his exhortation by
assuring them of his love.
strangers and pilgrims--
Sojourners, literally, settlers having a house in a city
without being citizens in respect to the rights of citizenship;
a picture of the Christian's position on earth; and pilgrims,
staying for a time in a foreign land. FLACIUS thus
analyzes the exhortation: (1) Purify your souls (a) as strangers
on earth who must not allow yourselves to be kept back by earthly
lusts, and (b) because these lusts war against the soul's salvation.
(2) Walk piously among unbelievers (a) so that they may cease to
calumniate Christians, and (b) may themselves be converted to Christ.
fleshly lusts--enumerated in
&c. Not only the gross appetites which we have in common with the
brutes, but all the thoughts of the unrenewed mind.
which--Greek, "the which," that is, inasmuch as
being such as "war." &c. Not only do they impede, but they assail
the soul--that is, against the regenerated soul; such as were
those now addressed. The regenerated soul is besieged by sinful lusts.
Like Samson in the lap of Delilah, the believer, the moment that he
gives way to fleshly lusts, has the locks of his strength shorn, and
ceases to maintain that spiritual separation from the world and the
flesh of which the Nazarite vow was the type.
12. conversation--"behavior"; "conduct." There are two things in
which "strangers and pilgrims" ought to bear themselves well: (1) the
conversation or conduct, as subjects
all persons under all circumstances
(2) confession of the faith
(1Pe 3:15, 16).
Each of the two is derived from the will of God. Our
conversation should correspond to our Saviour's condition; this is in
heaven, so ought that to be.
honest--honorable, becoming, proper
Contrast "vain conversation,"
A good walk does not make us pious, but we must first be pious and
believe before we attempt to lead a good course. Faith first receives
from God, then love gives to our neighbor [LUTHER].
whereas they speak against you--now
that they may, nevertheless, at some time or other hereafter
glorify God. The Greek may be rendered, "Wherein they
speak against you . . . that (herein) they may, by
your good works, which on a closer inspection they shall behold,
glorify God." The very works "which on more careful consideration, must
move the heathen to praise God, are at first the object of hatred and
evildoers--Because as Christians they could not conform to
heathenish customs, they were accused of disobedience to all legal
authority; in order to rebut this charge, they are told to submit to
every ordinance of man (not sinful in itself).
they shall behold--Greek, "they shall be eye-witnesses
of"; "shall behold on close inspection"; as opposed to their
of the true character of Christians and Christianity, by judging on
mere hearsay. The same Greek verb occurs in a similar sense in
"Other men narrowly look at (so the Greek implies) the
actions of the righteous" [BENGEL].
TERTULLIAN contrasts the early Christians and the
heathen: these delighted in the bloody gladiatorial spectacles of the
amphitheater, whereas a Christian was excommunicated if he went to it
at all. No Christian was found in prison for crime, but only for the
faith. The heathen excluded slaves from some of their religious
services, whereas Christians had some of their presbyters of the class
of slaves. Slavery silently and gradually disappeared by the power of
the Christian law of love, "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to
you, do ye even so to them." When the pagans deserted their nearest
relatives in a plague, Christians ministered to the sick and dying.
When the Gentiles left their dead unburied after a battle and cast
their wounded into the streets, the disciples hastened to relieve the
glorify--forming a high estimate of the God whom Christians
worship, from the exemplary conduct of Christians themselves. We must
do good, not with a view to our own glory, but to the glory
the day of visitation--of God's grace; when God shall
visit them in mercy.
13. every ordinance of man--"every human institution"
[ALFORD], literally, "every human
creation." For though of divine appointment, yet in the mode of
nomination and in the exercise of their authority, earthly governors
are but human institutions, being of men, and in relation to
men. The apostle speaks as one raised above all human things. But
lest they should think themselves so ennobled by faith as to be raised
above subordination to human authorities, he tells them to submit
themselves for the sake of Christ, who desires you to be subject,
and who once was subject to earthly rulers Himself, though having all
things subject to Him, and whose honor is at stake in you as His
earthly representatives. Compare
"Be subject for conscience' sake."
king--The Roman emperor was "supreme" in the Roman provinces to
which this Epistle was addressed. The Jewish zealots refused obedience.
The distinction between "the king as supreme" and "governors sent by
him" implies that "if the king command one thing, and the subordinate
magistrate another, we ought rather to obey the superior"
[AUGUSTINE in GROTIUS].
Scripture prescribes nothing upon the form of government, but simply
subjects Christians to that everywhere subsisting, without entering
into the question of the right of the rulers (thus the Roman
emperors had by force seized supreme authority, and Rome had, by
unjustifiable means, made herself mistress of Asia), because the de
facto governors have not been made by chance, but by the providence
14. governors--subordinate to the emperor, "sent," or delegated
by Cæsar to preside over the provinces.
for the punishment--No tyranny ever has been so unprincipled as
that some appearance of equity was not maintained in it; however
corrupt a government be, God never suffers it to be so much so as not
to be better than anarchy [CALVIN]. Although bad
kings often oppress the good, yet that is scarcely ever done by public
authority (and it is of what is done by public authority that Peter
speaks), save under the mask of right. Tyranny harasses many, but
anarchy overwhelms the whole state [HORNEIUS]. The
only justifiable exception is in cases where obedience to the earthly
king plainly involves disobedience to the express command of the King
praise of them that do well--Every government recognizes the
excellence of truly Christian subjects. Thus
PLINY, in his letter to the Emperor Trajan,
acknowledges, "I have found in them nothing else save a perverse and
extravagant superstition." The recognition in the long run mitigates
15. Ground of his directing them to submit themselves
put to silence--literally, "to muzzle," "to stop the mouth."
ignorance--spiritual not having "the knowledge of God," and
therefore ignorant of the children of God, and misconstruing their
acts; influenced by mere appearances, and ever ready to open their
mouths, rather than their eyes and ears. Their ignorance should
move the believer's pity, not his anger. They judge of things which
they are incapable of judging through unbelief (compare
Maintain such a walk that they shall have no charge against you, except
touching your faith; and so their minds shall be favorably disposed
16. As free--as "the Lord's freemen," connected with
doing well as being free. "Well-doing"
is the natural fruit of being freemen of Christ, made free by
"the truth" from the bondage of sin. Duty is enforced on us to guard
against licentiousness, but the way in which it is to be
fulfilled, is by love and the holy instincts of Christian liberty. We
are given principles, not details.
not using--Greek, "not as having your liberty for
a veil (cloak) of badness, but as the servants of God," and
therefore bound to submit to every ordinance of man
which is of God's appointment.
17. Honour all men--according to whatever honor is due in
each case. Equals have a respect due to them. Christ has dignified
our humanity by assuming it; therefore we should not dishonor, but be
considerate to and honor our common humanity, even in the very
humblest. The first "honor" is in the Greek aorist imperative,
implying, "In every case render promptly every man's due"
[ALFORD]. The second is in the present
tense, implying, Habitually and continually honor the king. Thus
the first is the general precept; the three following are its three
Love--present: Habitually love with the special and
congenial affection that you ought to feel to brethren, besides the
general love to all men.
Fear God . . . the king--The king is to be
honored; but God alone, in the highest sense, feared.
18. Servants--Greek, "household servants": not here the
Greek for "slaves." Probably including freedmen still
remaining in their master's house. Masters were not commonly
Christians: he therefore mentions only the duties of the
servants. These were then often persecuted by their unbelieving
masters. Peter's special object seems to be to teach them
submission, whatever the character of the masters might be. Paul
not having this as his prominent design, includes masters in his
be subject--Greek, "being subject": the participle
expresses a particular instance of the general exhortation to good
1Pe 2:11, 12,
of which the first particular precept is given
"Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake." The
general exhortation is taken up again in
and so the participle
"being subject," is joined to the hortatory imperatives going before,
namely, "abstain," "submit yourselves." "honor all men."
all--all possible: under all circumstances, such as are
fear--the awe of one subject: God, however, is the ultimate
object of the "fear": fear "for the Lord's sake"
not merely slavish fear of masters.
gentle--indulgent towards errors: considerate: yielding, not
exacting all which justice might demand.
froward--perverse: harsh. Those bound to obey must not make the
disposition and behavior of the superior the measure of the fulfilment
of their obligations.
19. Reason for subjection even to froward masters.
A course out of the common, and especially praiseworthy in the
eyes of God: not as Rome interprets, earning merit, and so a work of
for conscience toward God--literally, "consciousness of God":
from a conscientious regard to God, more than to men.
endure--Greek, "patiently bear up under": as a
superimposed burden [ALFORD].
20. what--Greek, "what kind of."
glory--what peculiar merit.
buffeted--the punishment of slaves, and suddenly inflicted
this is--Some oldest manuscripts read, "for." Then the
translation is, "But if when . . . ye take it patiently (it
is a glory), for this is acceptable."
acceptable--Greek, "thankworthy," as in
21. Christ's example a proof that patient endurance under
undeserved sufferings is acceptable with God.
hereunto--to the patient endurance of unmerited suffering
Christ is an example to servants, even as He was once in "the form of a
called--with a heavenly calling, though slaves.
for us--His dying for us is the highest exemplification
of "doing well"
Ye must patiently suffer, being innocent, as Christ also innocently
suffered (not for Himself, but for us). The oldest manuscripts
for "us . . . us," read, "you . . . for you."
Christ's sufferings, while they are for an example, were also primarily
sufferings "for us," a consideration which imposes an
everlasting obligation on us to please Him.
leaving--behind: so the Greek: on His departure to
the Father, to His glory.
an example--Greek, "a copy," literally, "a writing copy"
set by masters for their pupils. Christ's precepts and sermons were the
transcript of His life. Peter graphically sets before
servants those features especially suited to their case.
follow--close upon: so the Greek.
his steps--footsteps, namely, of His patience
combined with innocence.
22. Illustrating Christ's well-doing
did--Greek aorist. "Never in a single instance did"
[ALFORD]. Quoted from
neither--nor yet: not even [ALFORD].
Sinlessness as to the mouth is a mark of perfection.
Guile is a common fault of servants. "If any boast of his
innocency, Christ surely did not suffer as an evildoer" [CALVIN], yet He took it patiently
On Christ's sinlessness, compare
23. Servants are apt to "answer again"
Threats of divine judgment against oppressors are often used by
those who have no other arms, as for instance, slaves. Christ, who as
Lord could have threatened with truth, never did so.
committed himself--or His cause, as man in His
suffering. Compare the type,
In this Peter seems to have before his mind
on our corresponding duty. Leave your case in His hands, not desiring
to make Him executioner of your revenge, but rather praying for
enemies. God's righteous judgment gives tranquillity and
consolation to the oppressed.
24. his own self--there being none other but
Himself who could have done it. His voluntary undertaking
of the work of redemption is implied. The Greek puts in
antithetical juxtaposition, OUR, and His OWN SELF, to mark the idea of His substitution for
us. His "well-doing" in His sufferings is set forth here as an
example to servants and to us all
bare--to sacrifice: carried and offered up: a sacrificial
Isa 53:11, 12,
"He bare the sin of many": where the idea of bearing on
Himself is the prominent one; here the offering in sacrifice
is combined with that idea. So the same Greek means in
our sins--In offering or presenting in sacrifice
(as the Greek for "bare" implies) His body, Christ offered in it
the guilt of our sins upon the cross, as upon the altar of God,
that it might be expiated in Him, and so taken away from us. Compare
"Thou shalt make His soul an offering for sin." Peter thus means by
"bare" what the Syriac takes two words to express, to
bear and to offer: (1) He hath borne our sins laid
upon Him [namely, their guilt, curse, and punishment]; (2) He hath so
borne them that He offered them along with Himself on the altar.
He refers to the animals upon which sins were first laid, and which
were then offered thus laden [VITRINGA].
Sin or guilt among the Semitic nations is considered as a burden lying
heavily upon the sinner [GESENIUS].
on the tree--the cross, the proper place for One on whom the
curse was laid: this curse stuck to Him until it was legally
(through His death as the guilt-bearer) destroyed in His body: thus the
handwriting of the bond against us is cancelled by His death.
that we being dead to sins--the effect of His death to "sin" in
the aggregate, and to all particular "sins," namely, that we should be
as entirely delivered from them, as a slave that is dead
is delivered from service to his master. This is our spiritful
standing through faith by virtue of Christ's death: our actual
mortification of particular sins is in proportion to the degree
of our effectually being made conformable to His death. "That we should
die to the sins whose collected guilt Christ carried away in His
death, and so LIVE TO THE RIGHTEOUSNESS (compare
'My righteous servant shall justify many'), the gracious
relation to God which He has brought in"
by whose stripes--Greek, "stripe."
ye were healed--a paradox, yet true. "Ye servants (compare
'buffeted,' 'the tree,'
1Pe 2:20, 24)
often bear the strife; but it is not more than your Lord Himself
bore; learn from Him patience in wrongful sufferings.
For--Assigning their natural need of healing
now--Now that the atonement for all has been made, the
foundation is laid for individual conversion: so "ye are
returned," or "have become converted to," &c.
Shepherd and Bishop--The designation of the pastors and
elders of the Church belongs in its fullest sense to the great
Head of the Church, "the good Shepherd." As the "bishop"
oversees (as the Greek term means), so "the eyes of
the Lord are over the righteous"
He gives us His spirit and feeds and guides us by His word. "Shepherd,"
Hebrew, "Parnas," is often applied to kings, and
enters into the composition of names, as "Pharnabazus."