Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
1. the ark . . . was in the country of the Philistines seven
months--Notwithstanding the calamities which its presence had
brought on the country and the people, the Philistine lords were
unwilling to relinquish such a prize, and tried every means to retain
it with peace and safety, but in vain.
2, 3. the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners--The
designed restoration of the ark was not, it seems, universally approved
of, and many doubts were expressed whether the prevailing pestilence
was really a judgment of Heaven. The priests and diviners united all
parties by recommending a course which would enable them easily to
discriminate the true character of the calamities, and at the same time
to propitiate the incensed Deity for any acts of disrespect which might
have been shown to His ark.
4. Five golden emerods--Votive or thank offerings were commonly made
by the heathen in prayer for, or gratitude after, deliverance from
lingering or dangerous disorders, in the form of metallic (generally
silver) models or images of the diseased parts of the body. This is
common still in Roman Catholic countries, as well as in the temples of
the Hindus and other modern heathen.
five golden mice--This animal is supposed by some to be the jerboa
or jumping mouse of Syria and Egypt
[BOCHART]; by others, to be the
short-tailed field mouse, which often swarms in prodigious numbers and
commits great ravages in the cultivated fields of Palestine.
5. give glory unto the God of Israel--By these propitiatory presents,
the Philistines would acknowledge His power and make reparation for the
injury done to His ark.
lighten his hand . . . from off your gods--Elohim for god.
6. Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and
Pharaoh hardened their hearts?--The memory of the appalling judgments
that had been inflicted on Egypt was not yet obliterated. Whether
preserved in written records, or in floating tradition, they were still
fresh in the minds of men, and being extensively spread, were doubtless
the means of diffusing the knowledge and fear of the true God.
7. make a new cart--Their object in making a new one for the purpose
seems to have been not only for cleanliness and neatness, but from an
impression that there would have been an impropriety in using one that
had been applied to meaner or more common services. It appears to have
been a covered wagon
two milch kine--Such untrained heifers, wanton and vagrant, would
pursue no certain and regular path, like those accustomed to the yoke,
and therefore were most unlikely of their own spontaneous motion to
prosecute the direct road to the land of Israel.
bring their calves home from them--The strong natural affection of
the dams might be supposed to stimulate their return homewards, rather
than direct their steps in a foreign country.
8. take the ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart--This mode of
carrying the sacred symbol was forbidden; but the ignorance of the
Philistines made the indignity excusable
put the jewels . . . in a coffer by the side thereof--The way of
securing treasure in the East is still in a chest, chained to the house
wall or some solid part of the furniture.
9-12. Beth-shemesh--that is, "house of the sun," now Ain Shems
[ROBINSON], a city of priests in Judah, in the southeast border of Dan,
lying in a beautiful and extensive valley.
JOSEPHUS says they were set
a-going near a place where the road divided into two--the one leading
back to Ekron, where were their calves, and the other to Beth-shemesh.
Their frequent lowings attested their ardent longing for their young,
and at the same time the supernatural influence that controlled their
movements in a contrary direction.
12. the lords of the Philistines went after them--to give their
tribute of homage, to prevent imposture, and to obtain the most
reliable evidence of the truth. The result of this journey tended to
their own deeper humiliation, and the greater illustration of God's
14. and they clave--that is, the Beth-shemites, in an irrepressible
outburst of joy.
offered the kine--Though contrary to the requirements of the law
(Le 1:3; 22:19),
these animals might properly be offered, as consecrated by God Himself;
and though not beside the tabernacle, there were many instances of
sacrifices offered by prophets and holy men on extraordinary occasions
in other places.
17, 18. And these are the golden emerods . . . and the mice--There were
five representative images of the emerods, corresponding to the five
principal cities of the Philistines. But the number of the golden
mice must have been greater, for they were sent from the walled towns
as well as the country villages.
18. unto the great stone of Abel--Abel, or Aben, means
"stone," so that without resorting to italics, the reading should
be, "the great stone."
19. he smote the men of Beth-shemesh, because they had looked into the
ark--In the ecstasy of delight at seeing the return of the ark, the
Beth-shemesh reapers pried into it beneath the wagon cover; and instead
of covering it up again, as a sacred utensil, they let it remain
exposed to common inspection, wishing it to be seen, in order that all
might enjoy the triumph of seeing the votive offerings presented to it,
and gratify curiosity with the sight of the sacred shrine. This was the
offense of those Israelites (Levites, as well as common people), who
had treated the ark with less reverence than the Philistines
he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten
men--Beth-shemesh being only a village, this translation must be
erroneous, and should be, "he smote fifty out of a thousand," being
only fourteen hundred in all who indulged this curiosity. God, instead
of decimating, according to an ancient usage, slew only a twentieth
part; that is, according to
JOSEPHUS, seventy out of fourteen hundred
21. Kirjath-jearim--"the city of woods," also called Kirjath-baal
(Jos 15:60; 18:14;
1Ch 13:6, 7).
This was the nearest town to Beth-shemesh; and being a place of
strength, it was a more fitting place for the residence of the ark.
Beth-shemesh being in a low plain, and Kirjath-jearim on a hill,
explains the message, "Come ye down, and fetch it up to you."