Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
1. Then Jacob went, &c.--Hebrew, "lifted up his feet." He
resumed his way next morning with a light heart and elastic step after
the vision of the ladder; for tokens of the divine favor tend to
quicken the discharge of duty
and came into the land, &c.--Mesopotamia and the whole region
beyond the Euphrates are by the sacred writers designated "the East"
Between the first and the second clause of this verse is included a
journey of four hundred miles.
2. And he looked, &c.--As he approached the place of his
destination, he, according to custom, repaired to the well adjoining
the town where he would obtain an easy introduction to his
3. thither were all the flocks gathered; and a stone, &c.--In
Arabia, owing to the shifting sands and in other places, owing to the
strong evaporation, the mouth of a well is generally covered,
especially when it is private property. Over many is laid a broad,
thick, flat stone, with a round hole cut in the middle, forming the
mouth of the cistern. This hole is covered with a heavy stone which it
would require two or three men to roll away. Such was the description
of the well at Haran.
4. Jacob said, My brethren--Finding from the shepherds who were
reposing there with flocks and who all belonged to Haran, that his
relatives in Haran were well and that one of the family was shortly
expected, he enquired why they were idling the best part of the day
there instead of watering their flocks and sending them back to
8. They said, We cannot, until all the flocks be gathered--In
order to prevent the consequences of too frequent exposure in places
where water is scarce, the well is not only covered, but it is
customary to have all the flocks collected round it before the covering
is removed in presence of the owner or one of his representatives; and
it was for this reason that those who were reposing at the well of
Haran with the three flocks were waiting the arrival of Rachel.
9-11. While he yet spake with them, Rachel came--Among the
pastoral tribes the young unmarried daughters of the greatest sheiks
tend the flocks, going out at sunrise and continuing to watch their
fleecy charges till sunset. Watering them, which is done twice a day,
is a work of time and labor, and Jacob rendered no small service in
volunteering his aid to the young shepherdess. The interview was
affecting, the reception welcome, and Jacob forgot all his toils in the
society of his Mesopotamian relatives. Can we doubt that he returned
thanks to God for His goodness by the way?
12. Jacob told Rachel, &c.--According to the practice of the
East, the term "brother" is extended to remote degrees of relationship,
as uncle, cousin, or nephew.
14-20. he abode a month--Among pastoral people a stranger is
freely entertained for three days; on the fourth day he is expected to
tell his name and errand; and if he prolongs his stay after that time,
he must set his hand to work in some way, as may be agreed upon. A
similar rule obtained in Laban's establishment, and the wages for which
his nephew engaged to continue in his employment was the hand of
17. Leah tender-eyed--that is, soft blue eyes--thought a blemish.
Rachel beautiful and well-favored--that is, comely and handsome
in form. The latter was Jacob's choice.
18. I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy daughter--A
proposal of marriage is made to the father without the daughter being
consulted, and the match is effected by the suitor either bestowing
costly presents on the family, or by giving cattle to the value the
father sets upon his daughter, or else by giving personal services for
a specified period. The last was the course necessity imposed on Jacob;
and there for seven years he submitted to the drudgery of a hired
shepherd, with the view of obtaining Rachel. The time went rapidly
away; for even severe and difficult duties become light when love is
the spring of action.
21. Jacob said, Give me my wife--At the expiry of the stipulated
term the marriage festivities were held. But an infamous fraud was
practised on Jacob, and on his showing a righteous indignation, the
usage of the country was pleaded in excuse. No plea of kindred should
ever be allowed to come in opposition to the claim of justice. But this
is often overlooked by the selfish mind of man, and fashion or custom
rules instead of the will of God. This was what Laban did, as he said,
"It must not be so done in our country, to give the younger before the
first-born." But, then, if that were the prevailing custom of society
at Haran, he should have apprized his nephew of it at an early period
in an honorable manner. This, however, is too much the way with the
people of the East still. The duty of marrying an elder daughter before
a younger, the tricks which parents take to get off an elder daughter
that is plain or deformed and in which they are favored by the long
bridal veil that entirely conceals her features all the wedding day,
and the prolongation for a week of the marriage festivities among the
greater sheiks, are accordant with the habits of the people in Arabia
and Armenia in the present day.
28. gave him Rachel also--It is evident that the marriage of
both sisters took place nearly about the same time, and that such a
connection was then allowed, though afterwards prohibited
29. gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah to be her maid--A father
in good circumstances still gives his daughter from his household a
female slave, over whom the young wife, independently of her husband,
has the absolute control.
31. Leah . . . hated--that is, not loved so much as
she ought to have been. Her becoming a mother ensured her rising in the
estimation both of her husband and of society.
32-35. son . . . his name Reuben--Names were also
significant; and those which Leah gave to her sons were expressive of
her varying feelings of thankfulness or joy, or allusive to
circumstances in the history of the family. There was piety and wisdom
in attaching a signification to names, as it tended to keep the bearer
in remembrance of his duty and the claims of God.