Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
1. Job pauses for a reply. None being made, he proceeds to
illustrate the mysteriousness of God's dealings, as set forth
by his own case.
2. preserved me--from calamity.
3. candle--when His favor shone on me
darkness--By His safeguard I passed secure through dangers. Perhaps alluding to the lights carried before caravans in nightly
travels through deserts [NOYES].
4. youth--literally, "autumn"; the time of the ripe fruits of my
prosperity. Applied to youth, as the Orientalists began their year
with autumn, the most temperate season in the East.
secret--when the intimate friendship of God rested on my tent
The Hebrew often means a divan for deliberation.
6. butter--rather, "cream," literally, "thick milk." Wherever I
turned my steps, the richest milk and oil flowed in to me abundantly.
Image from pastoral life.
When I washed my steps--Literal washing of the feet in
milk is not meant, as the second clause shows; Margin, "with
me," that is, "near" my path, wherever I walked
Olives amidst rocks yield the best oil. Oil in the East is used
for food, light, anointing, and medicine.
7-10. The great influence Job had over young and old, and noblemen.
through . . . street!--rather, When I went out of my house, in the
prologue) to the gate (ascending), up to the city (which was on
elevated ground), and when I prepared my (judicial) seat in the
market place. The market place was the place of judgment, at the
gate or propylæa of the city, such as is found in the remains of
Nineveh and Persepolis
Ps 55:11; 127:5).
8. hid--not literally; rather, "stepped backwards," reverentially.
The aged, who were already seated, arose and remained standing
(Hebrew) until Job seated himself. Oriental manners.
Refrained talking--stopped in the middle of their speech.
10. Margin, "voice--hid," that is, "hushed"
Tongue cleaved, &c.--that is, awed by my presence, the emirs or
sheiks were silent.
11. blessed--extolled my virtues
Omit "me" after "heard"; whoever heard of me (in general, not in
the market place,
gave witness--to my honorable character. Image from a court of justice
the eye--that is, "face to face"; antithesis to
ear--that is, report of me.
12-17. The grounds on which Job was praised
his helping the afflicted
who cried to him for help, as a judge, or as one possessed of means of
charity. Translate: "The fatherless who had none to help him."
13. So far was I from sending "widows" away empty
ready to perish--
diadem--tiara. Rather, "turban," "head-dress." It and the full
flowing outer mantle or "robe," are the prominent characteristics of an
Oriental grandee's or high priest's dress
So Job's righteousness especially characterized him.
15. Literally, "the blind"
figuratively, also the spiritual support which the more enlightened
gives to those less so
16. So far was I from "breaking the arms of the fatherless," as
I was a "father" to such.
the cause which I knew not--rather, "of him whom I knew not," the
&c.). Applicable to almsgiving
but here primarily, judicial conscientiousness
17. Image from combating with wild beasts
So compassionate was Job to the oppressed, so terrible to the
jaws--Job broke his power, so that he could do no more hurt, and
tore from him the spoil, which he had torn from others.
18. I said--in my heart
in--rather, "with my nest"; as the second clause refers to long
life. Instead of my family dying before me, as now, I shall live so
long as to die with them: proverbial for long life. Job did realize his
However, in the bosom of my family, gives a good sense
Use "nest" for a secure dwelling.
But the Septuagint and Vulgate, and Jewish interpreters,
favor the translation, "the phœnix bird." "Nest" in the parallel
clause supports the reference to a bird. "Sand" for multitude,
applies to men, rather than to years. The myth was, that the
phœnix sprang from a nest of myrrh, made by his father before death,
and that he then came from Arabia (Job's country) to Heliopolis (the
city of the Sun) in Egypt, once in every five hundred years, and there
burnt his father [HERODOTUS, 2:73]. Modern
research has shown that this was the Egyptian mode of representing
hieroglyphically a particular chronological era or cycle. The death and
revival every five hundred years, and the reference to the sun,
implies such a grand cycle commencing afresh from the same point in
relation to the sun from which the previous one started. Job probably
refers to this.
19. Literally, "opened to the waters." Opposed to
20. My renown, like my bodily health, was continually fresh.
bow--Metaphor from war, for, my strength, which gains me "renown,"
was ever renewed
21. Job reverts with peculiar pleasure to his former dignity in
22. not again--did not contradict me.
dropped--affected their minds, as the genial rain does the soil on
which it gently drops
23. Image of
continued. They waited for my salutary counsel, as the dry soil does
for the refreshing rain.
opened . . . mouth--panted for; Oriental image
The "early rain" is in autumn and onwards, while the seed is being
sown. The "latter rain" is in March, and brings forward the harvest,
which ripens in May or June. Between the early and latter rains, some
rain falls, but not in such quantities as those rains. Between March
and October no rain falls
24. When I relaxed from my wonted gravity (a virtue much esteemed in
the East) and smiled, they could hardly credit it; and yet,
notwithstanding my condescension, they did not cast aside reverence for my gravity. But the parallelism is better in
"I smiled kindly on those who trusted not," that is, in times of danger
I cheered those in despondency. And they could not cast down
(by their despondency) my serenity of countenance
(flowing from trust in God)
The opposite phrase
(Ge 4:5, 6).
"Gravity" cannot well be meant by "light of countenance."
25. I chose out their way--that is, I willingly went up to their
assembly (from my country residence,
in the army--as a king supreme in the midst of his army.
comforteth the mourners--Here again Job unconsciously foreshadows
(Isa 61:2, 3).
Job's afflictions, as those of Jesus Christ, were fitting him for the