Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
1. appointed time--better, "a warfare," hard conflict with evil (so
Translate it "appointed time"
Job reverts to the sad picture of man, however great, which he had
and details in this chapter the miseries which his friends will see,
if, according to his request
they will look on him. Even the Christian soldier, "warring a good
warfare," rejoices when it is completed
2Ti 2:3; 4:7, 8).
2. earnestly desireth--Hebrew, "pants for the [evening] shadow."
Easterners measure time by the length of their shadow. If the servant
longs for the evening when his wages are paid, why may not Job long for
the close of his hard service, when he shall enter on his "reward?"
This proves that Job did not, as many maintain, regard the grave as a
3.--Months of comfortless misfortune.
I am made to possess--literally, "to be heir to." Irony. "To be heir
to," is usually a matter of joy; but here it is the entail of an
involuntary and dismal inheritance.
Months--for days, to express its long duration.
Appointed--literally, "they have numbered to me"; marking well the
unavoidable doom assigned to him.
4. Literally, "When shall be the flight of the night?"
UMBREIT, not so well, "The night is long extended"; literally,
"measured out" (so Margin).
5. In elephantiasis maggots are bred in the sores
clods of dust--rather, a crust of dried filth and accumulated
(Job 2:7, 8).
my skin is broken and . . . loathsome--rather, comes together so as
to heal up, and again breaks out with running matter
simply the Hebrew is, "My skin rests (for a time) and (again) melts
Every day like the weaver's shuttle leaves a thread behind; and each
shall wear, as he weaves. But Job's thought is that his days must
swiftly be cut off as a web;
without hope--namely, of a recovery and renewal of life
7. Address to God.
Wind--a picture of evanescence
shall no more see--rather, "shall no more return to see good." This
change from the different wish in
&c., is most true to nature. He is now in a softer mood; a beam from
former days of prosperity falling upon memory and the thought of the
unseen world, where one is seen no more
drew from him an expression of regret at leaving this world of light
Grace rises above nature
8. The eye of him who beholds me (present, not past), that is, in
the very act of beholding me, seeth me no more.
Thine eyes are upon me, and I
am not--He disappears, even while
God is looking upon him. Job cannot survive the gaze of Jehovah
Not, "Thine eyes seek me and I am not to be found"; for God's eye
penetrates even to the unseen world
UMBREIT unnaturally takes "thine" to refer to one of
the three friends.
the grave--the Sheol, or place of departed spirits, not disproving
Job's belief in the resurrection. It merely means, "He shall come up no
more" in the present order of things.
The Oriental keenly loves his dwelling. In Arabian elegies the
desertion of abodes by their occupants is often a theme of sorrow.
Grace overcomes this also
11. Therefore, as such is my hard lot, I will at least have the
melancholy satisfaction of venting my sorrow in words. The Hebrew opening words, "Therefore I, at all events," express self-elevation
12. Why dost thou deny me the comfort of care-assuaging sleep? Why
scarest thou me with frightful dreams?
Am I a sea--regarded in Old Testament poetry as a violent rebel
against God, the Lord of nature, who therefore curbs his violence
or a whale--or some other sea monster
that Thou needest thus to watch and curb me? The Egyptians watched the
crocodile most carefully to prevent its doing mischief.
14. The frightful dreams resulting from elephantiasis he attributes
to God; the common belief assigned all night visions to God.
15. UMBREIT translates, "So that I could wish to strangle myself--dead
by my own hands." He softens this idea of Job's harboring the thought
of suicide, by representing it as entertained only in agonizing dreams,
and immediately repudiated with horror in
"Yet that (self-strangling) I loathe." This is forcible and graphic.
Perhaps the meaning is simply, "My soul chooses (even) strangling (or
any violent death) rather than my life," literally, "my bones"
that is, rather than the wasted and diseased skeleton, left to him. In
this view, "I loathe it"
refers to his life.
16. Let me alone--that is, cease to afflict me for the few and vain
days still left to me.
(Ps 8:4; 144:3).
Job means, "What is man that thou shouldst make him [of so much
importance], and that thou shouldst expend such attention [or,
heart-thought] upon him" as to make him the subject of so severe
trials? Job ought rather to have reasoned from God's condescending so
far to notice man as to try him, that there must be a wise and loving
purpose in trial. David uses the same words, in their right
application, to express wonder that God should do so much as He does
for insignificant man. Christians who know God manifest in the man
Christ Jesus may use them still more.
18. With each new day
It is rather God's mercies, not our trials, that are new every morning
The idea is that of a shepherd taking count of his flock every morning,
to see if all are there [COCCEIUS].
19. How long (like a jealous keeper) wilt thou never take thine
eyes off (so the Hebrew for "depart from") me? Nor let me alone for
a brief respite (literally, "so long as I take to swallow my spittle"),
an Arabic proverb, like our, "till I draw my breath."
20. I have sinned--Yet what sin can I do against ("to,"
thee (of such a nature that thou shouldst jealously watch and deprive me
of all strength, as if thou didst fear me)? Yet thou art one who hast
men ever in view, ever watchest them--O thou Watcher
of men. Job had borne with patience his trials, as sent by God
(Job 1:21; 2:10);
only his reason cannot reconcile the ceaseless continuance of his
mental and bodily pains with his ideas of the divine nature.
set me as a mark--Wherefore dost thou make me thy point of attack?
that is, ever assail me with new pains? [UMBREIT]
21. for now--very soon.
in the morning--not the resurrection; for then Job will be found. It is
a figure, from one seeking a sick man in the morning, and finding he
has died in the night. So Job implies that, if God does not help him at
once, it will be too late, for he will be gone. The reason why God does
not give an immediate sense of pardon to awakened sinners is that they
think they have a claim on God for it.