Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
1. Then sang Deborah and Barak . . . on that day--This noble triumphal
ode was evidently the composition of Deborah herself.
2, 3. The meaning is obscurely seen in our version; it has been better
rendered thus, "Praise ye Jehovah; for the free are freed in
Israel--the people have willingly offered themselves"
4, 5. Allusion is here made, in general terms, to God's interposition
on behalf of His people.
Seir . . . the field of Edom--represent the mountain range and plain
extending along the south from the Dead Sea to the Elanitic Gulf.
thou wentest out--indicates the storm to have proceeded from the south
6-8. The song proceeds in these verses to describe the sad condition
of the country, the oppression of the people, and the origin of all the
national distress in the people's apostasy from God. Idolatry was the
cause of foreign invasion and internal inability to resist it.
9. expresses gratitude to the respective leaders of the tribes which
participated in the contest; but, above all, to God, who inspired both
the patriotic disposition and the strength.
10. Speak--that is, join in this song of praise.
white asses--Those which are purely white are highly prized, and being
costly, are possessed only by the wealthy and great.
Ye that sit in judgment--has been rendered, "ye that repose on
11-14. The wells which are at a little distance from towns in the East,
are, in unsettled times, places of danger. But in peace they are scenes
of pleasant and joyous resort. The poetess anticipates that this song
may be sung, and the righteous acts of the Lord rehearsed at these now
tranquil "places of drawing water." Deborah now rouses herself to
describe, in terms suitable to the occasion, the preparation and the
contest, and calls in a flight of poetic enthusiasm on Barak to parade
his prisoners in triumphal procession. Then follows a eulogistic
enumeration of the tribes which raised the commanded levy, or
volunteered their services--the soldiers of Ephraim who dwelt near the
mount of the Amalekites, the small quota of Benjamin; "the governors,"
valiant leaders "out of Machir," the western Manasseh; out of Zebulun.
15. Then comes a reproachful notice of the tribes which did not obey
the summons to take the field against the common enemy of Israel. By the
divisions--that is, the watercourses which descend from the eastern
hills unto the Jordan and Dead Sea.
For the divisions of Reuben there were great thoughts of heart--They
felt the patriotic impulse and determined, at first, to join the ranks
of their western brethren, but resiled from the purpose, preferring
their peaceful shepherd songs to the trumpet sound of war.
17, 18. Gilead abode beyond Jordan--that is, Both Gad and the eastern
half to Manasseh chose to dwell at ease in their Havoth-jair, or
"villages of tents," while Dan and Asher, both maritime tribes,
continued with their ships and in their "breaches" ("havens"). The
mention of these craven tribes
is concluded with a fresh burst of commendation on Zebulun and
19-22. describes the scene of battle and the issue. It would seem
that Jabin was reinforced by the troops of other Canaanite princes. The
battlefield was near Taanach (now Ta'annuk), on a tell or mound in the
level plain of Megiddo (now Leijun), on its southwestern extremity, by
the left bank of the Kishon.
they took no gain of money--They obtained no plunder.
20. the stars in their courses fought--A fearful tempest burst upon
them and threw them into disorder.
21. the river of Kishon swept them away--The enemy was defeated near
"the waters of Megiddo"--the sources and side streams of the Kishon:
they that fled had to cross the deep and marshy bed of the torrent, but
the Lord had sent a heavy rain--the waters suddenly rose--the warriors
fell into the quicksands, and sinking deep into them, were drowned or
washed into the sea [VAN
22. Then were the horse hoofs broken by the means of the
prancings--Anciently, as in many parts of the East still, horses
were not shod. The breaking of the hoofs denotes the hot haste and
heavy irregular tramp of the routed foe.
23. Curse ye Meroz--a village on the confines of Issachar and
Naphtali, which lay in the course of the fugitives, but the inhabitants
declined to aid in their destruction.
24-27. is a most graphic picture of the treatment of Sisera in the
tent of Jael.
25. butter--curdled milk; a favorite beverage in the East.
28-30. In these verses a sudden transition is made to the mother of
the Canaanite general, and a striking picture is drawn of a mind
agitated between hope and fear--impatient of delay, yet anticipating
the news of victory and the rewards of rich booty.
the lattice--a lattice window, common to the houses in warm countries
for the circulation of air.
29. her wise ladies--maids of honor.
30. to every man a damsel or two--Young maidens formed always a valued
part of Oriental conquerors' war-spoils. But Sisera's mother wished
other booty for him; namely, the gold-threaded, richly embroidered, and
scarlet-colored cloaks which were held in such high esteem. The ode
concludes with a wish in keeping with the pious and patriotic character
of the prophetess.