Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
Upon Shoshannim--(See on
title). Mingling the language of prayer and complaint, the sufferer,
whose condition is here set forth, pleads for God's help as one
suffering in His cause, implores the divine retribution on his
malicious enemies, and, viewing his deliverance as sure, promises
praise by himself, and others, to whom God will extend like blessings.
This Psalm is referred to seven times in the New Testament as
prophetical of Christ and the gospel times. Although the character in
which the Psalmist appears to some in
is that of a sinner, yet his condition as a sufferer
innocent of alleged crimes sustains the typical character of the
composition, and it may be therefore regarded throughout, as the
twenty-second, as typically expressive of the feelings of our Saviour
in the flesh.
1, 2. (Compare
come in unto my soul--literally, "come even to my soul," endanger
my life by drowning
mine eyes fail--in watching
4. hate me, &c.--(Compare
On the number and power of his enemies (compare
then I restored . . . away--that is, he suffered wrongfully under the
imputation of robbery.
5. This may be regarded as an appeal, vindicating his innocence,
as if he had said, "If sinful, thou knowest," &c. Though David's
condition as a sufferer may typify Christ's, without
requiring that a parallel be found in character.
6. for my sake--literally, "in me," in my confusion and shame.
7-12. This plea contemplates his relation to God as a sufferer in
His cause. Reproach, domestic estrangement
exhaustion in God's service
revilings and taunts of base men were the sufferings.
10. wept (and chastened) my soul--literally, "wept away my soul," a
strongly figurative description of deep grief.
12. sit in the gate--public place
13-15. With increasing reliance on God, he prays for help, describing
his distress in the figures of
Ps 69:1, 2.
16-18. These earnest terms are often used, and the address to God,
as indifferent or averse, is found in
Ps 3:7; 22:24; 27:9,
19, 20. Calling God to witness his distress, he presents its
aggravation produced by the want of sympathizing friends (compare
21. Instead of such, his enemies increase his pain by giving him
most distasteful food and drink. The Psalmist may have thus described
by figure what Christ found in reality (compare
Joh 19:29, 30).
22, 23. With unimportant verbal changes, this language is used by
Paul to describe the rejection of the Jews who refused to receive the
(Ro 11:9, 10).
The purport of the figures used is that blessings shall become curses,
the "table" of joy (as one of food) a "snare," their
welfare--literally, "peaceful condition," or security, a "trap."
Darkened eyes and failing strength complete the picture of the ruin
falling on them under the invoked retribution.
23. continually to shake--literally, "to swerve" or bend in weakness.
24, 25. An utter desolation awaits them. They will not only be driven
from their homes, but their homes--or, literally, "palaces," indicative
of wealth--shall be desolate (compare
26. Though smitten of God
men were not less guilty in persecuting the sufferer
talk to the grief--in respect to, about it, implying derision and
wounded--or, literally, "mortally wounded."
27, 28. iniquity--or, "punishment of iniquity"
come . . . righteousness--partake of its benefits.
28. book of the living--or "life," with the next clause, a figurative
mode of representing those saved, as having their names in a register
29. poor and sorrowful--the afflicted pious, often denoted by such
Ps 10:17; 12:5).
set me . . . high--out of danger.
30, 31. Spiritual are better than mere material offerings
(Ps 40:6; 50:8);
hence a promise of the former, and rather contemptuous terms are used
of the latter.
32, 33. Others shall rejoice. "Humble" and poor, as in
your heart, &c.--address to such (compare
33. prisoners--peculiarly liable to be despised.
34-36. The call on the universe for praise is well sustained by the
prediction of the perpetual and extended blessings which shall come
upon the covenant-people of God. Though, as usual, the imagery is
taken from terms used of Palestine, the whole tenor of the context
indicates that the spiritual privileges and blessings of the Church are