1 Samuel 30
When David was dismissed from the army of the Philistines he did not go
over to the camp of Israel, but, being expelled by Saul, observed an
exact neutrality, and silently retired to his own city Ziklag, leaving
the armies ready to engage. Now here we are told,
I. What a melancholy posture he found the city in, all laid waste by
the Amalekites, and what distress it occasioned him and his men,
1 Samuel 30:1-6.
II. What course he took to recover what he had lost. He enquired of
God, and took out a commission from him
(1 Samuel 30:7,8),
pursued the enemy
(1 Samuel 30:9,10),
gained intelligence from a straggler
(1 Samuel 30:11-15),
attacked and routed the plunderers
(1 Samuel 30:16,17),
and recovered all that they had carried off,
1 Samuel 30:18-20.
III. What method he observed in the distribution of the spoil,
1 Samuel 30:21-31.
||B. C. 1055.|
1 And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to
Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the
south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;
2 And had taken the women captives, that were therein: they
slew not any, either great or small, but carried them away, and
went on their way.
3 So David and his men came to the city, and, behold, it was
burned with fire; and their wives, and their sons, and their
daughters, were taken captives.
4 Then David and the people that were with him lifted up
their voice and wept, until they had no more power to weep.
5 And David's two wives were taken captives, Ahinoam the
Jezreelitess, and Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite.
6 And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of
stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved,
every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David
encouraged himself in the LORD his God.
Here we have,
I. The descent which the Amalekites made upon Ziklag in David's
absence, and the desolations they made there. They surprised the city
when it was left unguarded, plundered it, burnt it, and carried all the
women and children captives,
1 Samuel 30:1,2.
They intended, by this to revenge the like havoc that David had lately
made of them and their country,
1 Samuel 27:8.
He that had made so many enemies ought not to have left his own
concerns so naked and defenceless. Those that make bold with others
must expect that others will make as bold with them and provide
accordingly. Now observe in this,
1. The cruelty of Saul's pity (as it proved) in sparing the Amalekites;
if he had utterly destroyed them, as he ought to have done, these would
not have been in being to do this mischief.
2. How David was corrected for being so forward to go with the
Philistines against Israel. God showed him that he had better have
staid at home and looked after his own business. When we go abroad in
the way of our duty we may comfortably hope that God will take care of
our families in our absence, but not otherwise.
3. How wonderfully God inclined the hearts of these Amalekites to carry
the women and children away captives, and not to kill them. When David
invaded them he put all to the sword
(1 Samuel 27:9),
and no reason can be given why they did not retaliate upon this city,
but that God restrained them; for he has all hearts in his hands, and
says to the fury of the most cruel men, Hitherto thou shalt come,
and no further. Whether they spared them to lead them in triumph,
or to sell them, or to use them for slaves, God's hand must be
acknowledged, who designed to make use of the Amalekites for the
correction, not for the destruction, of the house of David.
II. The confusion and consternation that David and his men were in when
they found their houses in ashes and their wives and children gone into
captivity. Three days' march they had from the camp of the Philistines
to Ziklag, and now that they came thither weary, but hoping to find
rest in their houses and joy in their families, behold a black and
dismal scene was presented to them
(1 Samuel 30:3),
which made them all weep (David himself not excepted), though they were
men of war, till they had no more power to weep,
1 Samuel 30:4.
The mention of David's wives, Ahinoam and Abigail, and their
being carried captive, intimates that this circumstance went nearer his
heart than any thing else. Note, It is no disparagement to the boldest
and bravest spirits to lament the calamities of relations and friends.
1. This trouble came upon them when they were absent. It was the
ancient policy of Amalek to take Israel at an advantage.
2. It met them at their return, and, for aught that appears, their own
eyes gave them the first intelligence of it. Note, When we go abroad
we cannot foresee what evil tidings may meet us when we come home
again. The going out may be very cheerful, and yet the coming in be
very doleful. Boast not thyself therefore of to-morrow,
nor of to-night either, for thou knowest not what a day, or a
piece of a day, may bring forth,
If, when we come off a journey, we find our tabernacles in
peace, and not laid waste as David here found his, let the Lord be
praised for it.
III. The mutiny and murmuring of David's men against him
(1 Samuel 30:6):
David was greatly distressed, for, in the midst of all his
losses, his own people spoke of stoning him,
1. Because they looked upon him as the occasion of their calamities, by
the provocation he had given the Amalekites, and his indiscretion in
leaving Ziklag without a garrison in it. Thus apt are we, when we are
in trouble, to fly into a rage against those who are in any way the
occasion of our trouble, while we overlook the divine providence, and
have not that regard to the operations of God's hand in it which would
silence our passions, and make us patient.
2. Because now they began to despair of that preferment which they had
promised themselves in following David. They hoped ere this to have
been all princes; and now to find themselves all beggars was such a
disappointment to them as made them grow outrageous, and threaten the
life of him on whom, under God, they had the greatest dependence. What
absurdities will not ungoverned passions plunge men into? This was a
sore trial to the man after God's own heart, and could not but go very
near him. Saul had driven him from his country, the Philistines had
driven him from their camp, the Amalekites had plundered his city, his
wives were taken prisoners, and now, to complete his woe, his own
familiar friends, in whom he trusted, whom he had sheltered, and who
did eat of his bread, instead of sympathizing with him and offering him
any relief, lifted up the heel against him and threatened to
stone him. Great faith must expect such severe exercises. But it is
observable that David was reduced to this extremity just before his
accession to the throne. At this very time, perhaps, the stroke was
struck which opened the door to his advancement. Things are sometimes
at the worst with the church and people of God just before they begin
IV. David's pious dependence upon the divine providence and grace in
this distress: But David encouraged himself in the Lord his God.
His men fretted at their loss. The soul of the people was
bitter, so the word is. Their own discontent and impatience added
wormwood and gall to the affliction and misery, and made their
case doubly grievous. But
1. David bore it better, though he had more reason than any of them to
lament it; they gave liberty to their passions, but he set his graces
on work, and by encouraging himself in God, while they dispirited each
other, he kept his spirit calm and sedate. Or,
2. There may be a reference to the threatening words his men gave out
against him. They spoke of stoning him; but he, not offering to
avenge the affront, nor terrified by their menaces, encouraged
himself in the Lord his God, believed, and considered with
application to his present case, the power and providence of God, his
justice and goodness, the method he commonly takes of bringing low and
then raising up, his care of his people that serve him and trust in
him, and the particular promises he had made to him of bringing him
safely to the throne; with these considerations he supported himself,
not doubting but the present trouble would end well. Note, Those that
have taken the Lord for their God may take encouragement from their
relation to him in the worst of times. It is the duty and interest of
all good people, whatever happens, to encourage themselves in God as
their Lord and their God, assuring themselves that he can and will
bring light out of darkness, peace out of trouble, and good out of
evil, to all that love him and are the called according to his
It was David's practice, and he had the comfort of it, What time I
am afraid I will trust in thee. When he was at his wits' end he was
not at his faith's end.
|David Recovers the Spoil.
||B. C. 1055.|
7 And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I
pray thee, bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought
thither the ephod to David.
8 And David enquired at the LORD, saying, Shall I pursue after
this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue:
for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover
9 So David went, he and the six hundred men that were with
him, and came to the brook Besor, where those that were left
10 But David pursued, he and four hundred men: for two hundred
abode behind, which were so faint that they could not go over the
11 And they found an Egyptian in the field, and brought him to
David, and gave him bread, and he did eat; and they made him
12 And they gave him a piece of a cake of figs, and two
clusters of raisins: and when he had eaten, his spirit came again
to him: for he had eaten no bread, nor drunk any water, three
days and three nights.
13 And David said unto him, To whom belongest thou? and
whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of Egypt,
servant to an Amalekite; and my master left me, because three
days agone I fell sick.
14 We made an invasion upon the south of the Cherethites, and
upon the coast which belongeth to Judah, and upon the south
of Caleb; and we burned Ziklag with fire.
15 And David said to him, Canst thou bring me down to this
company? And he said, Swear unto me by God, that thou wilt
neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands of my master, and
I will bring thee down to this company.
16 And when he had brought him down, behold, they were spread
abroad upon all the earth, eating and drinking, and dancing,
because of all the great spoil that they had taken out of the
land of the Philistines, and out of the land of Judah.
17 And David smote them from the twilight even unto the evening
of the next day: and there escaped not a man of them, save four
hundred young men, which rode upon camels, and fled.
18 And David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried
away: and David rescued his two wives.
19 And there was nothing lacking to them, neither small nor
great, neither sons nor daughters, neither spoil, nor any thing
that they had taken to them: David recovered all.
20 And David took all the flocks and the herds, which they
drave before those other cattle, and said, This is David's
Solomon observes that the righteous is delivered out of trouble
and the wicked cometh in his stead, that the just falleth
seven times a-day and riseth again; so it was with David. Many were
his troubles, but the Lord delivered him out of them all, and
particularly out of this of which we have here an account.
I. He enquired of the Lord both concerning his duty--Shall I pursue
after this troop? and concerning the event--Shall I overtake
1 Samuel 30:8.
It was a great advantage to David that he had the high priest with him
and the breast-plate of judgment, which, as a public person, he might
consult in all his affairs,
We cannot think that he left Abiathar and the ephod at Ziklag, for then
he and it would have been carried away by the Amalekites, unless we may
suppose them hidden by a special providence, that they might be ready
for David to consult at his return. If we conclude that David had his
priest and ephod with him in the camp of the Philistines, it was
certainly a great neglect in him that he did not enquire of the Lord by
them concerning his engagement to Achish. Perhaps he was ashamed to own
his religion so far among the uncircumcised; but now he begins to
apprehend that this trouble is brought upon him to correct him for that
oversight, and therefore the first thing he does is to call for the
ephod. It is well if we get this good by our afflictions, to be
reminded by them of neglected duties, and particularly to be quickened
by them to enquire of the Lord. See
1 Chronicles 15:13.
David had no room to doubt but that his war against these Amalekites
was just, and he had an inclination strong enough to set upon them when
it was for the recovery of that which was dearest to him in this world;
and yet he would not go about it without asking counsel of God, thereby
owning his dependence upon God and submission to him. If we thus, in
all our ways, acknowledge God, we may expect that he will direct our
steps, as he did David's here, answering him above what he asked, with
an assurance that he should recover all.
II. He went himself in person, and took with him all the force he had,
in pursuit of the Amalekites,
1 Samuel 30:9,10.
See how quickly, how easily, how effectually the mutiny among the
soldiers was quelled by his patience and faith. When they spoke of
(1 Samuel 30:6),
if he had spoken of hanging them, or had ordered that the ringleaders
of the faction should immediately have their heads struck off, though
it would have been just, yet it might have been of pernicious
consequence to his interest in this critical juncture; and, while he
and his men were contending, the Amalekites would have clearly carried
off their spoil. But when he, as a deaf man, heard not, smothered his
resentments, and encouraged himself in the Lord his God, the
tumult of the people was stilled by his gentleness and the power of God
on their hearts; and, being thus mildly treated, they are now as ready
to follow his foot as they were but a little before to fly in his face.
Meekness is the security of any government. All his men were willing to
go along with him in pursuit of the Amalekites, and he needed them all;
but he was forced to drop a third part of them by the way; 200 out of
600 were so fatigued with their long march, and so sunk under the load
of their grief, that they could not pass the brook Besor, but staid
behind there. This was,
1. A great trial of David's faith, whether he could go on, in a
dependence upon the word of God, when so many of his men failed him.
When we are disappointed and discouraged in our expectations from
second causes, then to go on with cheerfulness, confiding in the divine
power, this is giving glory to God, by believing against hope, in hope.
2. A great instance of David's tenderness to his men, that he would by
no means urge them beyond their strength, though the case itself was so
very urgent. The Son of David thus considers the frame of his
followers, who are not all alike strong and vigorous in their spiritual
pursuits and conflicts; but, where we are weak, there he is kind; nay,
more there he is strong,
2 Corinthians 12:9,10.
III. Providence threw one in their way that gave them intelligence of
the enemy's motions, and guided theirs; a poor Egyptian lad, scarcely
alive, is made instrumental of a great deal of good to David. God
chooses the foolish things of the world, with them to confound
the wise. Observe,
1. His master's cruelty to him. He had got out of him all the service
he could, and when the lad fell sick, probably being over-toiled with
his work, he barbarously left him to perish in the field, when he was
in no such haste but he might have put him into some of the carriages,
and brought him home, or, at least, have left him wherewithal to
support himself. That master has the spirit of an Amalekite, not of an
Israelite, that can thus use a servant worse than one would use a
beast. The tender mercies of the wicked are cruel. This
Amalekite thought he should now have servants enough of the
Israelite-captives, and therefore cared not what became of his Egyptian
slave, but could willingly let him die in a ditch for want of
necessaries, while he himself was eating and drinking,
1 Samuel 30:16.
Justly did Providence make this poor servant, that was thus basely
abused, instrumental towards the destruction of a whole army of
Amalekites and his master among the rest; for God hears the cry of
2. David's compassion to him. Though he had reason to think he was one
of those that had helped to destroy Ziklag, yet, finding him in
distress, he generously relieved him, not only with bread and
(1 Samuel 30:11),
but with figs and raisins,
1 Samuel 30:12.
Though the Israelites were in haste, and had no great plenty for
themselves, yet they would not forbear to deliver one that was drawn
unto death, nor say, Behold, we knew it not,
Those are unworthy the name of Israelites who shut up the bowels of
their compassion from persons in distress. It was also prudently done
to relieve this Egyptian; for, though despicable, he was capable of
doing them service: so it proved, though they were not certain of this
when they relieved him. It is a good reason why we should neither do an
injury nor deny a kindness to any man that we know not but, some time
or other, it may be in his power to return either a kindness or an
3. The intelligence David received from this poor Egyptian when he had
come to himself. He gave him an account concerning his party.
(1.) What they had done
(1 Samuel 30:14):
We made an invasion, &c. The countries which David had
pretended to Achish to have made an incursion upon
(1 Samuel 27:10)
they really had invaded and laid waste. What was then false now proved
(2.) Whither they had gone,
1 Samuel 30:15.
This he promised David to inform him of upon condition he would spare
his life and protect him from his master, who, if he could hear of him
again (he thought), would add cruelty to cruelty. Such an opinion this
poor Egyptian had of the obligation of an oath that he desired no
greater security for his life than this: Swear unto me by God,
not by the gods of Egypt or Amalek, but by the one supreme God.
IV. David, being directed to the place where they lay, securely
celebrating their triumphs, fell upon them, and, as he used to pray,
saw his desire upon his enemies.
1. The spoilers were cut off. The Amalekites, finding the booty was
rich, and having got with it (as they thought) out of the reach of
danger, were making themselves very merry with it,
1 Samuel 30:16.
All thoughts of war were laid aside, nor were they in any haste to
house their prey, but spread themselves abroad on the earth in
the most careless manner that could be, and there they were found
eating, and drinking, and dancing, probably in honour of their
idol-gods, to whom they gave the praise of their success. In this
posture David surprised them, which made the conquest of them, and the
blow he gave them, the more easy to him and the more dismal to them.
Then are sinners nearest to ruin when they cry, Peace and
safety, and put the evil day far from them. Nor does any
thing give our spiritual enemies more advantage against us than
sensuality and the indulgence of the flesh. Eating, and drinking,
and dancing, have been the soft and pleasant way in which many have
gone down to the congregation of the dead. Finding them thus off their
guard, and from their arms (many of them, it may be, drunk, and unable
to make any resistance), he put them all to the sword, and only 400
1 Samuel 30:17.
Thus is the triumphing of the wicked short, and wrath comes on them, as
on Belshazzar, when they are in the midst of their jollity.
2. The spoil was recovered and brought off, and nothing was lost, but a
great deal gotten.
(1.) They retrieved all their own
(1 Samuel 30:18,19):
David rescued his two wives; this is mentioned particularly,
because this pleased David more than all the rest of his achievements.
Providence had so ordered it that the Amalekites carefully preserved
all that they had taken, concluding that they kept it for themselves,
though really they preserved it for the right owners, so that there was
nothing lacking to them; so it proved, when they concluded all was
gone: so much better is God oftentimes to us than our own fears. Our
Lord Jesus was indeed the Son of David and the Son of Abraham, in this
resembling them both (Abraham,
and David here), that he took the prey from the mighty, and led
captivity captive. But this was not all.
(2.) They took all that belonged to the Amalekites besides
(1 Samuel 30:20):
Flocks and herds, either such as were taken from the Philistines
and others, which David had the disposal of by the law of war; or
perhaps he made a sally into the enemy's country, and fetched off these
flocks and herds thence, as interest for his own. This drove was put in
the van of the triumph, with this proclamation, "This is David's
spoil. This we may thank him for." Those who lately spoke of
stoning him now caressed him and cried him up, because they got by him
more than they had then lost. Thus are the world and its sentiments
governed by interest.
|David's Division of the Spoil.
||B. C. 1055.|
21 And David came to the two hundred men, which were so faint
that they could not follow David, whom they had made also to
abide at the brook Besor: and they went forth to meet David, and
to meet the people that were with him: and when David came near
to the people, he saluted them.
22 Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of
those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with
us, we will not give them ought of the spoil that we have
recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they
may lead them away, and depart.
23 Then said David, Ye shall not do so, my brethren, with that
which the LORD hath given us, who hath preserved us, and
delivered the company that came against us into our hand.
24 For who will hearken unto you in this matter? but as his
part is that goeth down to the battle, so shall his part be
that tarrieth by the stuff: they shall part alike.
25 And it was so from that day forward, that he made it a
statute and an ordinance for Israel unto this day.
26 And when David came to Ziklag, he sent of the spoil unto the
elders of Judah, even to his friends, saying, Behold a present
for you of the spoil of the enemies of the LORD;
27 To them which were in Bethel, and to them which were
in south Ramoth, and to them which were in Jattir,
28 And to them which were in Aroer, and to them which
were in Siphmoth, and to them which were in Eshtemoa,
29 And to them which were in Rachal, and to them which
were in the cities of the Jerahmeelites, and to them which
were in the cities of the Kenites,
30 And to them which were in Hormah, and to them which
were in Chorashan, and to them which were in Athach,
31 And to them which were in Hebron, and to all the places
where David himself and his men were wont to haunt.
We have here an account of the distribution of the spoil which as taken
from the Amalekites. When the Amalekites had carried away a rich booty
from the land of Judah and the Philistines they spent it in sensuality,
in eating, and drinking, and making merry with it; but David disposed
of the spoil taken after another manner, as one that knew that justice
and charity must govern us in the use we make of whatever we have in
this world. What God gives us he designs we should do good with, not
serve our lusts with. In the distribution of the spoil,
I. David was just and kind to those who abode by the stuff. They came
forth to meet the conquerors, and to congratulate them on this success,
though they could not contribute to it
(1 Samuel 30:21);
for we should rejoice in a good work done, though Providence had laid
us aside and rendered us incapable of lending a hand to it. David
received their address very kindly, and was so far from upbraiding them
with their weakness that he showed himself solicitous concerning them.
He saluted them; he asked them of peace (so the word is),
enquired how they did, because he had left them faint and not well; or
wished them peace, bade them be of good cheer, they should lose nothing
by staying behind; for of this they seemed afraid, as perhaps David saw
by their countenances.
1. There were those that opposed their coming in to share in the spoil;
some of David's soldiers, probably the same that spoke of stoning him,
spoke now of defrauding their brethren; they are called wicked men and
men of Belial,
1 Samuel 30:22.
Let not the best of men think it strange if they have those attending
them that are very bad and they cannot prevail to make them better. We
may suppose that David had instructed his soldiers, and prayed with
them, and yet there were many among them that were wicked men and men
of Belial, often terrified with the apprehensions of death and yet
wicked men still and men of Belial. These made a motion that the 200
men who abode by the stuff should only have their wives and children
given them, but none of their goods. Well might they be called
wicked men; for this bespeaks them,
(1.) Very covetous themselves and greedy of gain; for hereby the more
would fall to their share. Awhile ago they would gladly have given half
their own to recover the other half, yet now that they have all their
own they are not content unless they can have their brethren's too; so
soon do men forget their low estate. All seek their own, and too often
more than their own.
(2.) Very barbarous to their brethren; for, to give them their wives
and children, and not their estates, was to give them the mouths
without the meat. What joy could they have of their families if they
had nothing to maintain them with? Was this to do as they would be done
by? Those are men of Belial indeed who delight in putting hardships
upon their brethren, and care not who is starved, so they may be fed to
2. David would by no means admit this, but ordered that those who
tarried behind should come in for an equal share in the spoils with
those that went to the battle,
1 Samuel 30:23,24.
This he did,
(1.) In gratitude to God. The spoil we have is that which God has given
us; we have it from him, and therefore must use it under his direction
as good stewards. Let this check us when we are tempted to misapply
that which God has entrusted us with of this world's goods. "Nay, I
must not do so with that which God has given me, not serve Satan and a
base lust with those things which are not only the creatures of his
power, but the gifts of his bounty. God has recompensed us by
delivering the company that came against us into our hand, let
not us then wrong our brethren. God has been kind to us in preserving
us and giving us victory, let not us be unkind to them." God's mercy to
us should make us merciful to one another.
(2.) In justice to them. It was true they tarried behind; but,
[1.] It was not for want of good-will to the cause or to their
brethren, but because they had not strength to keep up with them. It
was not their fault, but their infelicity; and therefore they ought not
to suffer for it.
[2.] Though they tarried behind now, they had formerly engaged many
times in battle and done their part as well as the best of their
brethren, and their former services must be considered now that there
was something to enjoy.
[3.] Even now they did good service, for they abode by the stuff, to
guard that which somebody must take care of, else that might have
fallen into the hands of some other enemy. Every post of service is not
alike a post of honour, yet those that are in any way serviceable to
the common interest, though in a meaner station, ought to share in the
common advantages, as in the natural body every member has its use and
therefore has its share of the nourishment. First, Thus David
overruled the wicked men, and men of Belial, with reason, but with a
great deal of mildness; for the force of reason is sufficient, without
the force of passion. He calls them his brethren,
1 Samuel 30:23.
Superiors often lose their authority by haughtiness, but seldom by
courtesy and condescension. Secondly, Thus he settled the matter
for the time to come, made it a statute of his kingdom (a statute of
distributions, primo Davidis--in the first year of David's
reign), an ordinance of war
(1 Samuel 30:25),
that as his part is that goes down to the battle, and hazards
his life in the high places of the field, so shall his be that guards
the carriages. Abraham returned the spoils of Sodom to the right
owners, and quitted his title to them jure belli--derived from the
laws of war. If we help others to recover their right, we must not
think that this alienates the property and makes it ours. God appointed
that the spoil of Midian should be divided between the soldiers and the
The case here was somewhat different, but governed by the same general
rule--that we are members one of another. The disciples, at first,
had all things common, and we should still be ready to
distribute, willing to communicate,
1 Timothy 6:18.
When kings of armies did flee apace, she that tarried at home did
divide the spoil,
II. David was generous and kind to all his friends. When he had given
every one his own with interest there was a considerable overplus,
which David, as general, had the disposal of; probably the spoil of the
tents of the Amalekites consisted much in plate and jewels
and these, because he thought they would but make his own soldiers
proud and effeminate, he thought fit to make presents of to his
friends, even the elders of Judah,
1 Samuel 30:26.
Several places are here named to which he sent of these presents, all
of them in or near the tribe of Judah. The first place named is Bethel,
which signifies the house of God; that place shall be first
served for its name's sake; or perhaps it means not the city so called,
but the place where the ark was, which was therefore the house of
God. Thither David sent the first and best, to those that attended
there, for his sake who is the first and best. Hebron is named
(1 Samuel 30:31),
probably because thither he sent the residuum, which was the largest
share, having an eye upon that place as fittest for his head-quarters,
2 Samuel 2:1.
In David's sending these presents observe,
1. His generosity. He aimed not to enrich himself, but to serve his
country; and therefore God afterwards enriched him, and set him to rule
the country he had served. It becomes gracious souls to be generous.
There is that scatters, and yet increases.
2. His gratitude. He sent presents to all the places where he and
his men were wont to haunt
(1 Samuel 30:31),
that is, to all that he had received kindness from, that had sheltered
him and sent him intelligence or provisions. Note, Honesty, as well as
honour, obliges us to requite the favours that have been done us, or at
least to make a real acknowledgment of them as far as is in the power
of our hand.
3. His piety. He calls his present a blessing; for no present we
give to our friends will be a comfort to them but as it is made so by
the blessing of God: it intimates that his prayers for them accompanied
his present. He also sent it out of the spoil of the enemies of the
Lord (so he calls them, not his enemies), that they might
rejoice in the victory for the Lord's sake, and might join with him in
thanksgivings for it.
4. His policy. He sent these presents among his countrymen to engage
them to be ready to appear for him upon his accession to the throne,
which he now saw at hand. A man's gift maketh room for him. He
was fit to be a king who thus showed the bounty and liberality of a
king. Munificence recommends a man more than magnificence. The
Ziphites had none of his presents, nor the men of Keilah; and thus he
showed that, though he was such a saint as not to revenge affronts, yet
he was not such a fool as not to take notice of them.