Elihu, it is likely, paused awhile, to see if Job had any thing to say
against his discourse in the foregoing chapter; but he sitting silent,
and it is likely intimating his desire that he would go on, he here
I. He bespeaks not only the audience, but the assistance of the company,
II. He charges Job with some more indecent expressions that had dropped
III. He undertakes to convince him that he had spoken amiss, by showing
1. God's incontestable justice,
2. His sovereign dominion,
3. His almighty power,
4. His omniscience,
5. His severity against sinners,
6. His overruling providence,
IV. He teaches him what he should say,
And then, lastly, he leaves the matter to Job's own conscience, and
concludes with a sharp reproof of him for his peevishness and
All this Job not only bore patiently, but took kindly, because he saw
that Elihu meant well; and, whereas his other friends had accused him
of that from which his own conscience acquitted him, Elihu charged him
with that only for which, it is probable, his own heart, now upon the
reflection, began to smite him.
|The Address of Elihu.
||B. C. 1520.|
1 Furthermore Elihu answered and said,
2 Hear my words, O ye wise men; and give ear unto me, ye that
3 For the ear trieth words, as the mouth tasteth meat.
4 Let us choose to us judgment: let us know among ourselves
what is good.
5 For Job hath said, I am righteous: and God hath taken away my
6 Should I lie against my right? my wound is incurable
7 What man is like Job, who drinketh up scorning like
8 Which goeth in company with the workers of iniquity, and
walketh with wicked men.
9 For he hath said, It profiteth a man nothing that he should
delight himself with God.
I. Elihu humbly addresses himself to the auditors, and endeavours, like
an orator, to gain their good-will and their favourable attention.
1. He calls them wise men, and men that had knowledge,
It is comfortable dealing with such as understand sense. I speak as
to wise men, who can judge what I say,
1 Corinthians 10:15.
Elihu differed in opinion from them, and yet he calls them wise and
knowing men. Peevish disputants think all fools that are not of their
mind; but it is a piece of justice which we owe to those who are wise
to acknowledge it, though our sentiments do not agree with theirs.
2. He appeals to their judgment, and therefore submits to their trial,
The ear of the judicious tries words, whether what is
said be true or false, right or wrong, and he that speaks must stand
the test of the intelligent. As we must prove all things we hear, so we
must be willing that what we speak should be proved.
3. He takes them into partnership with him in the examination and
discussion of this matter,
He does not pretend to be sole dictator, nor undertake to say what is
just and good and what is not, but he is willing to join with them in
searching it out, and desires a consultation: "Let us agree to lay
aside all animosities and feuds, all prejudices and affectation of
contradiction, and all stiffness in adhering to the opinion we have
once espoused, and let us choose to ourselves judgment; let us
fix right principles on which to proceed, and then take right methods
for finding out truth; and let us know among ourselves, by
comparing notes and communicating our reasons, what is good and
what is otherwise." Note, We are then likely to discern what is right
when we agree to assist one another in searching it out.
II. He warmly accuses Job for some passionate words which he had
spoken, that reflected on the divine government, appealing to the house
whether he ought not to be called to the bar and checked for them.
1. He recites the words which Job had spoken, as nearly as he can
(1.) He had insisted upon his own innocency. Job hath said, I am
and, when urged to confess his guilt, had stiffly maintained his plea
of, Not guilty: Should I lie against my right?
Job had spoken to this purport, My righteousness I hold fast,
(2.) He had charged God with injustice in his dealings with him, that
he had wronged him in afflicting him and had not righted him:
God has taken away my judgment; so Job had said,
(3.) He had despaired of relief and concluded that God could not, or
would not, help him: My wound is incurable, and likely to be
mortal, and yet without transgression; not for any injustice in my
(4.) He had, in effect, said that there is nothing to be got in the
service of God and that no man will be the better at last for his
He hath said that which gives occasion to suspect that he thinks
it profiteth a man nothing that he should delight himself with
God. It is granted that there is a present pleasure in religion;
for what is it but to delight ourselves with God, in communion with
him, in concurrence with him, in walking with him as Enoch did? this is
a true notion of religion, and bespeaks its ways to be pleasantness.
Yet the advantage of it is denied, as if it were vain to serve
This Elihu gathers as Job's opinion, by an innuendo from what he said
He destroys the perfect and the wicked, which has a truth in it
(for all things come alike to all), but it was ill expressed, and gave
too much occasion for this imputation, and therefore Job sat down
silently under it and attempted not his own vindication, whence Mr.
Caryl well observes that good men sometimes speak worse than they mean,
and that a good man will rather bear more blame than he deserves than
to stand to excuse himself when he has deserved any blame.
2. He charges Job very high upon it. In general, What man is like
"Did you ever know such a man as Job, or ever hear a man talk at such
an extravagant rate?" He represents him,
(1.) As sitting in the seat of the scornful: "He drinketh up
scorning like water," that is, "he takes a great deal of liberty to
reproach both God and his friends, takes a pleasure in so doing, and is
very liberal in his reflections." Or, "He is very greedy in receiving
and hearkening to the scorns and contempts which others cast upon their
brethren, is well pleased with them and extols them." Or, as some
explain it, "By these foolish expressions of his he makes himself the
object of scorn, lays himself very open to reproach, and gives occasion
to others to laugh at him; while his religion suffers by them, and the
reputation of that is wounded through his side." We have need to pray
that God will never leave us to ourselves to say or do any thing which
may make us a reproach to the foolish,
(2.) As walking in the course of the ungodly, and standing in the way
of sinners: He goes in company with the workers of iniquity
not that in his conversation he did associate with them, but in his
opinion he did favour and countenance them, and strengthen their hands.
If (as it follows,
for the proof of this) it profits a man nothing to delight himself
in God, why should he not lay the reins on the neck of his lusts
and herd with the workers of iniquity? He that says, I have cleansed
my hands in vain, does not only offend against the generation of
but gratifies his enemies, and says as they say.
10 Therefore hearken unto me, ye men of understanding: far be
it from God, that he should do wickedness; and from the
Almighty, that he should commit iniquity.
11 For the work of a man shall he render unto him, and cause
every man to find according to his ways.
12 Yea, surely God will not do wickedly, neither will the
Almighty pervert judgment.
13 Who hath given him a charge over the earth? or who hath
disposed the whole world?
14 If he set his heart upon man, if he gather unto himself
his spirit and his breath;
15 All flesh shall perish together, and man shall turn again
The scope of Elihu's discourse to reconcile Job to his afflictions and
to pacify his spirit under them. In order to this he had shown, in the
foregoing chapter, that God meant him no hurt in afflicting him, but
intended it for his spiritual benefit. In this chapter he shows that
he did him no wrong in afflicting him, nor punished him more than he
deserved. If the former could not prevail to satisfy him, yet this
ought to silence him. In these verses he directs his discourse to all
the company: "Hearken to me, you men of understanding
and show yourselves to be intelligent by assenting to this which I
say." And this is that which he says, That the righteous God never did,
nor ever will do, any wrong to any of his creatures, but his ways are
equal, ours are unequal. The truth here maintained respects the justice
of equity of all God's proceedings. Now observe in these verses,
I. How plainly this truth is laid down, both negatively and positively.
1. He does wrong to none: God cannot do wickedness, nor the
Almighty commit iniquity,
It is inconsistent with the perfection of his nature, and so it is also
with the purity of his will
God will not do wickedly, neither will the Almighty pervert
judgment. He neither can nor will do a wrong thing, nor deal hardly
with any man. He will never inflict the evil of punishment but where he
finds the evil of sin, nor in any undue proportion, for that would be
to commit iniquity and do wickedly. If appeals be made to him, or he be
to give a definitive sentence, he will have an eye to the merits of the
cause and not respect the person, for that were to pervert judgment. He
will never either do any man wrong or deny any man right, but the
heavens will shortly declare his righteousness. Because he is God,
and therefore is infinitely perfect and holy, he can neither do wrong
himself nor countenance it in others, nay more than he can die, or lie,
or deny himself. Though he be Almighty, yet he never uses his power, as
mighty men often do, for the support of injustice. He is
Shaddai--God all-sufficient, and therefore he cannot be
tempted with evil
to do an unrighteous thing.
2. He ministers justice to all
The work of a man shall he render unto him. Good works shall be
rewarded and evil works either punished or satisfied for; so that
sooner or later, in this world or in that to come, he will cause every
man to find according to his ways. This is the standing rule of
distributive justice, to give to every man according to his work.
Say to the righteous, it shall be well with them; woe to the wicked,
it shall be ill with them. If services persevered in now go
unrewarded, and sins persisted in now go unpunished, yet there is a day
coming when God will fully render to every man according to his works,
with interest for the delay.
II. How warmly it is asserted,
1. With an assurance of the truth of it: Yea, surely,
It is a truth which none can deny or call in question; it is what we
may take for granted and are all agreed in, That God will not do
2. With an abhorrence of the very thought of the contrary
Far be it from God that he should do wickedness, and from us
that we should entertain the least suspicion of it or say any thing
that looks like charging him with it.
III. How evidently it is proved by two arguments:
1. His independent absolute sovereignty and dominion
Who has given him a charge over the earth and deputed him to
manage the affairs of men upon the earth? Or, Who besides has disposed
the whole world of mankind? He has the sole administration of the
kingdoms of men, and has it of himself, nor is he entrusted with it by
or for any other.
(1.) It is certain that the government is his, and he does according to
his will in all the hosts both of heaven and earth; and therefore he is
not to be charged with injustice; for shall not the Judge of all the
earth do right?
How shall God either rule or judge the world if there be, or could be,
any unrighteousness with him?
He that is entitled to such unlimited power most certainly have in
himself unspotted purity. This is also a good reason why we should
acquiesce in all God's dealings with us. Shall not he that disposes of
the whole world dispose of us and our concerns?
(2.) It is as certain that he does not derive his power from any, nor
is it a dispensation that is committed to him, but his power is
original, and, like his being, of himself; and therefore, if he were
not perfectly just, all the world and the affairs of it would soon be
in the utmost confusion. The highest powers on earth have a God above
them, to whom they are accountable, because it is not far from them to
do iniquity. But therefore God has none above him, because it is
not possible that he should do any thing (such is the perfection of his
nature) that should need to be controlled. And, if he be an absolute
sovereign, we are bound to submit to him, for there is no higher power
to which we may appeal, so that the virtue is a necessity.
2. His irresistible power
If he set his heart upon man, to contend with him, much more
if (as some read it) he set his heart against man, to
ruin him, if he should deal with man either by summa potestas--mere
sovereignty, or by summum jus--strict justice, there were no
standing before him; man's spirit and breath would soon be gone and
all flesh would perish together,
Many men's honesty is owing purely to their impotency; they do not do
wrong because they cannot support it when it is done, or it is not in
their power to do it. But God is able to crush any man easily and
suddenly, and yet does not by arbitrary power crush any man, which
therefore must be attributed to the infinite perfection of his nature,
and that is immutable. See here,
(1.) What God can do with us. He can soon bring us to dust; there needs
not any positive act of his omnipotence to do it; if he do but withdraw
that concurrence of his providence by which we live, if he gather
unto himself that spirit and breath which was from his hand at
first and is still in his hand, we expire immediately, like an animal
in an air-pump when the air is exhausted.
(2.) What he may do with us without doing us wrong. He may recall the
being he gave, of which we are but tenants at will, and which also we
have forfeited; and therefore, as long as that is continued of his mere
favour, we have no reason to cry out of wrong, whatever other comforts
16 If now thou hast understanding, hear this: hearken to the
voice of my words.
17 Shall even he that hateth right govern? and wilt thou
condemn him that is most just?
18 Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked? and to
princes, Ye are ungodly?
19 How much less to him that accepteth not the persons of
princes, nor regardeth the rich more than the poor? for they all
are the work of his hands.
20 In a moment shall they die, and the people shall be troubled
at midnight, and pass away: and the mighty shall be taken away
21 For his eyes are upon the ways of man, and he seeth all
22 There is no darkness, nor shadow of death, where the
workers of iniquity may hide themselves.
23 For he will not lay upon man more than right; that he
should enter into judgment with God.
24 He shall break in pieces mighty men without number, and set
others in their stead.
25 Therefore he knoweth their works, and he overturneth them
in the night, so that they are destroyed.
26 He striketh them as wicked men in the open sight of others;
27 Because they turned back from him, and would not consider
any of his ways:
28 So that they cause the cry of the poor to come unto him, and
he heareth the cry of the afflicted.
29 When he giveth quietness, who then can make trouble? and
when he hideth his face, who then can behold him? whether it
be done against a nation, or against a man only:
30 That the hypocrite reign not, lest the people be ensnared.
Elihu here addresses himself more directly to Job. He had spoken to the
as men of understanding; now, speaking to Job; he puts an
if upon his understanding: If thou hast understanding,
hear this and observe it,
I. Hear this, That God is not to be quarrelled with for any thing that
he does. It is daring presumption to arraign and condemn God's
proceedings, as Job had done by his discontents. It was,
1. As absurd as it would be to advance one to power that is a professed
enemy to justice: Shall even he that hates right govern?
The righteous Lord so loves righteousness that, in comparison with him,
even Job himself, though a perfect and upright man, might be said to
hate right; and shall he govern? Shall he pretend to direct God or
correct what he does? Shall such unrighteous creatures as we are give
law to the righteous God? or must he take his measures from us? When we
consider the corruption of our nature, and the contrariety there is in
us to the eternal rule of equity, we cannot but see it to be an
impudent impious thing for us to prescribe to God.
2. It was as absurd as it would be to call a most righteous innocent
person to the bar, and to give judgment against him, though it appeared
ever so plainly, upon the trial, that he was most just: Wilt thou
condemn him that is righteous in all his ways, and cannot but be
3. It is more absurd and unbecoming than it would be to say to a
sovereign prince, Thou art wicked, and to judges upon the bench,
You are ungodly,
This would be looked upon as an insufferable affront to majesty and to
magistracy; no king, no prince, would bear it. In favour of government,
we presume it is a right sentence that is passed, unless the contrary
be very evident; but, whatever we think, it is not fit to tell a king
to his face that he is wicked. Nathan reproved David by a parable. But,
whatever a high priest or a prophet might do, it is not for an ordinary
subject to make so bold with the powers that are. How absurd is then to
say so to God--to impute iniquity to him, who, having no respect of
persons, is in no temptation to do an unjust thing! He regardeth not
the rich more than the poor, and therefore it is fit he should
rule, and it is not fit we should find fault with him,
Note, Rich and poor stand upon the same level before God. A great man
shall fare never the better, nor find any favour, for his wealth and
greatness; nor shall a poor man fare ever the worse for his poverty,
nor an honest cause be starved. Job, now that he was poor, should have
as much favour with God, and be as much regarded by him, as when he was
rich; for they are all the work of his hands. Their persons are
so: the poor are made by the same hand, and of the same mould, as the
rich. Their conditions are so: the poor were made poor by the divine
providence, as well as the rich made rich; and therefore the poor shall
fare never the worse for that which is their lot, not their fault.
II. Hear this, That God is to be acknowledged and submitted to in all
that he does. Divers considerations Elihu here suggests to Job, to
beget in him great and high thoughts of God, and so to persuade him to
submit and proceed no further in his quarrel with him.
1. God is almighty, and able to deal with the strongest of men when he
enters into judgment with them
even the people, the body of a nation, though ever so numerous,
shall be troubled, unhinged, and put into disorder, when God
pleases; even the mighty man, the prince, though ever so
honourable, ever so formidable among men, shall, if God speak
the word, be taken away out of his throne, nay, out of the land
of the living; they shall die; they shall pass away. What cannot he do
that has all the powers of death at his command? Observe the suddenness
of this destruction: In a moment shall they die. It is not a
work of time, with God, to bring down his proud enemies, but, when he
pleases, it is soon done; nor is he bound to give them warning, no, not
an hour's warning. This night thy soul shall be required.
Observe the season of it: They shall be troubled at midnight,
when they are secure and careless, and unable to help themselves; as
the Egyptians when their first-born were slain. This is the immediate
work of God: they are taken away, without hand, insensibly, by
secret judgments. God can himself humble the greatest tyrant, without
the assistance or agency of any man. Whatever hand he sometimes uses in
the accomplishing of his purposes, he needs none, but can do it without
hand. Nor is it one single mighty man only that he can thus overpower,
but even hosts of them
He shall break in pieces mighty men without number; for no
combined power can stand it out against Omnipotence. Yet, when God
destroys tyranny, he does not design anarchy; if those are brought down
that ruled ill, it does not therefore follow that people must have no
rulers; for, when he breaks mighty men, he sets others in their
stead, that will rule better, or, if they do not, he overturns
them also in the night, or in a night, so that they are
Witness Belshazzar. Or, if he designs them space to repent, he does not
presently destroy them, but he strikes them as wicked men,
Some humbling mortifying judgments are brought upon them; these wicked
rulers are stricken as other wicked men, as surely, as sorely, stricken
in their bodies, estates, or families, and this for warning to their
neighbours; the stroke is given in terrorem--as an alarm to
others, and therefore is given in the open sight of others,
that they also may see and fear, and tremble before the justice of God.
If kings stand not before him, how shall we stand!
2. God is omniscient, and can discover that which is most secret. As
the strongest cannot oppose his arm, so the most subtle cannot escape
his eye; and therefore, if some are punished either more or less than
we think they should be, instead of quarrelling with God, it becomes us
to ascribe it to some secret cause known to God only. For,
(1.) Every thing is open before him
His eyes are upon the ways of man; not only they are within
reach of his eye, so that he can see them, but his eye is upon them, so
that he actually observes and inspects them. He sees us all, and sees
all our goings; go where we will, we are under his eye; all our
actions, good and evil, are regarded and recorded and reserved to be
brought into judgment when the books shall be opened.
(2.) Nothing is or can be concealed from him
There is no darkness nor shadow of death so close, so thick, so
solitary, so remote from light or sight as that in it the workers of
iniquity may hide themselves from the discovering eye and avenging
hand of the righteous God. Observe here,
[1.] The workers of iniquity would hide themselves if they could from
the eye of the world for shame (and that perhaps they may do), and from
the eye of God for fear, as Adam among the trees of the garden. The day
is coming when mighty men, and chief captains, will call to the rocks
and mountains to hide them.
[2.] They would gladly be hid even by the shadow of death, be hid in
the grave, and lie for ever there, rather than appear before the
judgment-seat of Christ.
(3.) It is in vain to think of flying from God's justice, or absconding
when his wrath is in pursuit of us. The workers of iniquity may find
ways and means to hide themselves from men, but not from God: He
knows their works
both what they do and what they design.
3. God is righteous, and, in all his proceedings, goes according to the
rules of equity. Even when he is overturning mighty men, and breaking
them in pieces, yet he will not lay upon man more than right,
As he will not punish the innocent, so he will not exact of those that
are guilty more than their iniquities deserve; and of the proportion
between the sin and the punishment Infinite Wisdom shall be the judge.
He will not give any man cause to complain that he deals hardly with
him, nor shall any man enter into judgment with God, or bring an
action against him. If he do, God will be justified when he speaks and
clear when he judges. Therefore Job was very much to be blamed for his
complaints of God, and is here well-advised to let fall his action, for
he would certainly be cast or non-suited. It is not for man ever to
purpose to enter into judgment with the Omnipotent; so some read
the whole verse. Job had often wished to plead his cause before God.
Elihu asks, "To what purpose? The judgment already given concerning
thee will certainly be affirmed; no errors can be found in it, nor any
exceptions taken to it, but, after all, it must rest as it is." All is
well that God does, and will be found so. To prove that when God
destroys the mighty men, and strikes them as wicked men, he does
not lay upon them more than right, he shows what their
and let any compare that with their punishment, and then judge whether
they did not deserve it. In short, these unjust judges, whom God will
justly judge, neither feared God nor regarded man,
(1.) They were rebels to God: They turned back from him, cast
off the fear of him, and abandoned the very thoughts of him; for
they would not consider any of his ways, took no heed either to
his precepts or to his providences, but lived without God in the world.
This is at the bottom of all the wickedness of the wicked, they turn
back from God; and it is because they do not consider, not because they
cannot, but because they will not. From inconsideration comes impiety,
and thence all immorality.
(2.) They were tyrants to all mankind,
They will not call upon God for themselves; but they cause the cry
of the poor to come to him, and that cry is against them. They are
injurious and oppressive to the poor, wrong them, crush them,
impoverish them yet more, and add affliction to the afflicted, who cry
unto God, make their complaint to him, and he hears them and pleads
their cause. Their case is bad who have the prayers and tears of the
poor against them; for the cry of the oppressed will, sooner or later,
draw down vengeance on the heads of the oppressors, and no one can say
that this is more than right,
4. God has an uncontrollable dominion in all the affairs of the
children of men, and so guides and governs whatever concerns both
communities and particular persons, that, as what he designs cannot be
defeated, so what he does cannot be changed,
(1.) The frowns of all the world cannot trouble those whom God quiets
with his smiles. When he gives quietness who then can make
This is a challenge to all the powers of hell and earth to disquiet
those to whom God speaks peace, and for whom he creates it. If God give
outward peace to a nation, he can secure what he gives, and disable the
enemies of it to give it any disturbance. If God give inward peace to a
man only, the quietness and everlasting assurance which are the effect
of righteousness, neither the accusations of Satan nor the afflictions
of this present time, no, nor the arrests of death itself, can give
trouble. What can make those uneasy whose souls dwell at ease in
(2.) The smiles of all the world cannot quiet those whom God troubles
with his frowns; for if he, in displeasure, hide his face, and
withhold the comfort of his favour, who then can behold him?
that is, Who can behold a displeased God, so as to bear up under his
wrath or turn it away? Who can make him show his face when he resolves
to hide it, or see through the clouds and darkness which are round
about him? Or, Who can behold a disquieted sinner, so as to give him
effectual relief? Who can stand a friend to him to whom God is an
enemy? None can relieve the distresses of the outward condition without
God. If the Lord do not help thee, whence shall I?
2 Kings 6:27.
Nor can any relieve the distresses of the mind against God and his
terrors. If he impress the sense of his wrath upon a guilty conscience,
all the comforts the creature can administer are ineffectual. As
vinegar upon nitre, so are songs to a heavy heart. The
irresistibleness of God's operations must be acknowledged in his
dealings both with communities and with particular persons: what he
does cannot be controlled, whether it be done against a nation
in its public capacity or against a man only in his private
affairs. The same Providence that governs mighty kingdoms presides in
the concerns of the meanest individual; and neither the strength of a
whole nation can resist his power nor the smallness of a single person
evade his cognizance; but what he does shall be done effectually and
5. God is wise, and careful of the public welfare, and therefore
provides that the hypocrite reign not, lest the people be
(1.) The pride of hypocrites. They aim to reign; the praise of men, and
power in the world, are their reward, what they aim at.
(2.) The policy of tyrants. When they aim to set up themselves they
sometimes make use of religion as a cloak and cover for their ambition
and by their hypocrisy come to the throne.
(3.) The danger the people are in when hypocrites reign. They are
likely to be ensnared in sin, or trouble, or both. Power, in the hands
of dissemblers, is often destructive to the rights and liberties of a
people, which they are more easily wheedled out of than forced out of.
Much mischief has been done likewise to the power of godliness under
the pretence of a form of godliness.
(4.) The care which divine Providence takes of the people, to prevent
this danger, that the hypocrite reign not, either that he do not
reign at all or that he do not reign long. If God has mercy in store
for a people, he will either prevent the rise or hasten the ruin of
31 Surely it is meet to be said unto God, I have borne
chastisement, I will not offend any more:
32 That which I see not teach thou me: if I have done
iniquity, I will do no more.
33 Should it be according to thy mind? he will recompense it,
whether thou refuse, or whether thou choose; and not I: therefore
speak what thou knowest.
34 Let men of understanding tell me, and let a wise man hearken
35 Job hath spoken without knowledge, and his words were
36 My desire is that Job may be tried unto the end because of
his answers for wicked men.
37 For he addeth rebellion unto his sin, he clappeth his
hands among us, and multiplieth his words against God.
In these verses,
I. Elihu instructs Job what he should say under his affliction,
Having reproved him for his peevish passionate words, he here puts
better words into his mouth. When we reprove for what is amiss we must
direct to what is good, that our reproofs may be the reproofs of
He does not impose it upon Job to use these words, but recommends it to
him, as that which was meet to be said. In general, he would
have him repent of his misconduct, and indecent expressions, under his
affliction. Job's other friends would have had him own himself a wicked
man, and by overdoing they undid. Elihu will oblige him only to own
that he had, in the management of this controversy, spoken
unadvisedly with his lips. Let us remember this, in giving
reproofs, and not make the matter worse than it is; for the stretching
of the crime may defeat the prosecution. Elihu drives the right nail,
and speeds accordingly. He directs Job,
1. To humble himself before God for his sins, and to accept the
punishment of them: "I have borne chastisement. What I suffer
comes justly upon me, and therefore I will bear it, and not only
justify God in it, but acknowledge his goodness." Many are chastised
that do not bear chastisement, do not bear it well, and so, in effect,
do not bear it at all. Penitents, if sincere, will take all well that
God does, and will bear chastisement as a medicinal operation intended
2. To pray to God to discover his sins to him
"That which I see not teach thou me. Lord, upon the review, I
find much amiss in me and much done amiss by me, but I have reason to
fear there is much more that I am not aware of, greater abominations,
which through ignorance, mistake, and partiality to myself, I do not
yet see; Lord, give me to see it, awaken by conscience to do its office
faithfully." A good man is willing to know the worst of himself, and
particularly, under affliction, desires to be told wherefore God
contends with him and what God designs in correcting him.
3. To promise reformation
I will not offend any more. "If I have done iniquity (or seeing that
I have), I will do so no more; whatever thou shalt discover to me
to have been amiss, by thy grace I will amend it for the future." This
implies a confession that we have offended, true remorse and godly
sorrow for the offence, and a humble compliance with God's design in
afflicting us, which is to separate between us and our sins. The
penitent here completes his repentance; for it is not enough to be
sorry for our sins, but we must go and sin no more, and, as here, bind
ourselves with the bond of a fixed resolution never more to return to
folly. This is meet to be said in a stedfast purpose, and meet to be
said to God in a solemn promise and vow.
II. He reasons with him concerning his discontent and uneasiness under
We are ready to think every thing that concerns us should be just as we
would have it; but Elihu here shows,
1. That it is absurd and unreasonable to expect this: "Should it be
according to thy mind? No, what reason for that?" Elihu here speaks
with a great deference to the divine will and wisdom, and a
satisfaction therein: it is highly fit that every thing should be
according to God's mind. He speaks also with a just disdain of the
pretensions of those that are proud, and would be their own carvers:
Should it be according to thy mind? Should we always have the
good we have a mind to enjoy? We should then wrongfully encroach upon
others and foolishly ensnare ourselves. Must we never be afflicted,
because we have no mind to it? Is it fit that sinners should feel no
smart, that scholars should be under no discipline? Or, if we must be
afflicted, is it fit that we should choose what rod we will be beaten
with? No; it is fit that every thing should be according to God's mind,
and not ours; for he is the Creator, and we are creatures. He is
infinitely wise and knowing; we are foolish and short-sighted. He is in
one mind; we are in many.
2. That it is in vain, and to no purpose, to expect it: "He will
recompense it whether thou refuse or whether thou choose. God will
take his own way, fulfil his own counsel, and recompense according to
the sentence of his own justice, whether thou art pleased or
displeased; he will neither ask thy leave nor ask thy advice, but, what
he pleases, that will he do. It is therefore thy wisdom to be easy, and
make a virtue of necessity; make the best of that which is,
because it is out of thy power to make it otherwise. If thou pretend
to choose and refuse," that is, "to prescribe to God and except against
what he does, so will not I--I will acquiesce in all he does; and
therefore speak what thou knowest; say what thou wilt do,
whether thou wilt oppose or submit. The matter lies plainly before
thee; be at a point; thou art in God's hand, not in mine."
III. He appeals to all intelligent indifferent persons whether there
was not a great deal of sin and folly in that which Job said.
1. He would have the matter thoroughly examined, and brought to an
"My desire is that Job may be tried unto the end. If any will
undertake to justify what he has said, let them do it; if not, let us
all agree to bear our testimony against it." Many understand it of his
trial by afflictions: "Let his troubles be continued till he be
thoroughly humbled, and his proud spirit brought down, till he be made
to see his error and to retract what he has so presumptuously said
against God and his providence. Let the trial be continued till the end
2. He appeals both to God and man, and desires the judgment of both
(1.) Some read
as an appeal to God: O, my Father! let Job be tried. So the
margin of our Bibles, for the same word signifies my desire and
my father; and some suppose that he lifted up his eyes when he
said this, meaning, "O my Father who art in heaven! let Job be
tried till he be subdued." When we are praying for the benefit of
afflictions either to ourselves or others we must eye God as a Father,
because they are fatherly corrections and a part of our filial
(2.) He appeals to the by-standers
"Let men of understanding tell me whether they can put any more
favourable construction upon Job's words than I have put, and whether
he has not spoken very ill and ought not to cry, Peccavi--I have
done wrong." In what Job had said he thought it appeared,
[1.] That he did not rightly understand himself, but had talked
He cannot say that Job is without knowledge and wisdom; but, in this
matter, he has spoken without knowledge, and, whatever his heart
is, his words were without prudence. What he said to his wife
may be retorted upon himself (He speaks as one of the foolish men
speak) and for the same reason, Shall we not receive evil as
well as good at God's hand?
Sometimes we need and deserve those reproofs ourselves which we have
given to others. Those that reproach God's wisdom really reproach their
[2.] That he had not a due regard to God, but had talked wickedly. If
what he had said be tried to the end, that is, if one put it to
the utmost stretch and make the worst of it, it will be found,
First, That he has taken part with God's enemies: His
answers have been for wicked men; that is, what he had said
tended to strengthen the hands and harden the hearts of wicked people
in their wickedness, he having carried the matter of their prosperity
much further than he needed. Let wicked men, like Baal, plead for
themselves if they will, but far be it from us that we should answer
for them, or say any thing in favour of them. Secondly, That he
has insulted God's friends, and hectored over them: "He clappeth his
hands among us; and, if he be not thoroughly tried and humbled,
will grow yet more insolent and imperious, as if he had gotten the day
and silenced us all." To speak ill is bad enough, but to clap our hands
and triumph in it when we have done, as if error and passion had won
the victory, is much worse. Thirdly, That he has spoken against
God himself, and, by standing to what he had said, added rebellion
to his sin. To speak, though but one word, against God, by whom we
speak and for whom we ought to speak, is a great sin; what is it then
to multiply words against him, as if we would out-talk him? What is it
to repeat them, instead of unsaying them? Those that have sinned, and,
when they are called to repent, thus go on frowardly, add rebellion to
their sin and make it exceedingly sinful. Errare possum,
Hæreticus esse nolo--I may fall into error, but I will not plunge