Joshua opened the campaign with the siege of Jericho, a city which
could not trust so much to the courage of its people as to act
offensively, and to send out its forces to oppose Israel's landing and
encamping, but trusted so much to the strength of its walls as to stand
upon its defence, and not to surrender, or desire conditions of peace.
Now here we have the story of the taking of it,
I. The directions and assurances which the captain of the Lord's host
gave concerning it,
II. The trial of the people's patient obedience in walking round the
city six days,
III. The wonderful delivery of it into their hands the seventh day,
with a solemn charge to them to use it as a devoted thing,
IV. The preservation of Rahab and her relations,
V. A curse pronounced upon the man that should dare to rebuild this
An abstract of this story we find among the trophies of faith,
"By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after they were compassed
about seven days."
|The Siege of Jericho.
||B. C. 1451.|
1 Now Jericho was straitly shut up because of the children of
Israel: none went out, and none came in.
2 And the LORD said unto Joshua, See, I have given into thine
hand Jericho, and the king thereof, and the mighty men of
3 And ye shall compass the city, all ye men of war, and go
round about the city once. Thus shalt thou do six days.
4 And seven priests shall bear before the ark seven trumpets of
rams' horns: and the seventh day ye shall compass the city seven
times, and the priests shall blow with the trumpets.
5 And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long blast
with the ram's horn, and when ye hear the sound of the trumpet,
all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of
the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall ascend up
every man straight before him.
We have here a contest between God and the men of Jericho, and their
different resolutions, upon which it is easy to say whose word shall
I. Jericho resolves Israel shall not be its master,
It was straitly shut up, because of the children of Israel. It
did shut up, and it was shut up (so it is in the margin); it
did shut up itself, being strongly fortified both by art and
nature, and it was shut up by the obstinacy and resolution of
the inhabitants, who agreed never to surrender nor so much as sound a
parley; none went out as deserters or to treat of peace, nor were any
admitted in to offer peace. Thus were they infatuated, and their
hearts hardened to their own destruction--the miserable case and
character of all those that strengthen themselves against the
II. God resolves Israel shall be its master, and that quickly,
The captain of the Lord's host, here called Jehovah, taking
notice how strongly Jericho was fortified and how strictly guarded, and
knowing Joshua's thoughts and cares about reducing it, and perhaps his
fears of a disgrace there and of stumbling at the threshold, gave him
here all the assurance he could desire of success
See, I have given into thy hand Jericho. Not, "I will do
it, but, I have done it; it is all thy own, as sure as if it
were already in thy possession." It was designed that this city, being
the first-fruits of Canaan, should be entirely devoted to God, and that
neither Joshua nor Israel should ever be one mite the richer for it,
and yet it is here said to be given into their hand; for we must
reckon that most our own which we have an opportunity of honouring God
with and employing in his service. Now.
1. The captain of the Lord's host gives directions how the city should
be besieged. No trenches are to be opened, no batteries erected, nor
battering rams drawn up, nor any military preparations made; but the
ark of God must be carried by the priests round the city once a day for
six days together, and seven times the seventh day, attended by the men
of war in silence, the priests all the while blowing with trumpets of
This was all they were to do.
2. He assures them that on the seventh day before night they should,
without fail, be masters of the town. Up on a signal given, they must
all shout, and immediately the wall should fall down, which would not
only expose the inhabitants, but so dispirit them that they would not
be able to make any resistance,
God appointed this way,
(1.) To magnify his own power, that he might be exalted in his own
not in the strength of instruments. God would hereby yet further make
bare his own almighty arm for the encouragement of Israel and the
terror and confusion of the Canaanites.
(2.) To put an honour upon his ark, the instituted token of his
presence, and to give a reason for the laws by which the people were
obliged to look upon it with the most profound veneration and respect.
When, long after this, the ark was brought into the camp without orders
from God, it was looked upon as a profanation of it, and the people
paid dearly for their presumption,
1 Samuel 4:3,
&c. But now that it was done by the divine appointment it was an honour
to the ark of God, and a great encouragement to the faith of Israel.
(3.) It was likewise to put honour upon the priests, who were appointed
upon this occasion to carry the ark and sound the trumpets. Ordinarily
the priests were excused from war, but that this privilege, with other
honours and powers that the law had given them, might not be grudged
them, in this service they are principally employed, and so the people
are made sensible what blessings they were to the public and how well
worthy of all the advantages conferred upon them.
(4.) It was to try the faith, obedience, and patience, of the people,
to try whether they would observe a precept which to human policy
seemed foolish to obey and believe a promise which in human probability
seemed impossible to be performed. They were also proved whether they
could patiently bear the reproaches of their enemies and patiently wait
for the salvation of the Lord. Thus by faith, not by force, the walls
of Jericho fell down.
(5.) It was to encourage the hope of Israel with reference to the
remaining difficulties that were before them. That suggestion of the
evil spies that Canaan could never be conquered because the cities were
walled up to heaven
would by this be for ever silenced. The strongest and highest walls
cannot hold out against Omnipotence; they needed not to fight, and
therefore needed not to fear, because God fought for them.
6 And Joshua the son of Nun called the priests, and said unto
them, Take up the ark of the covenant, and let seven priests bear
seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark of the LORD.
7 And he said unto the people, Pass on, and compass the city,
and let him that is armed pass on before the ark of the LORD.
8 And it came to pass, when Joshua had spoken unto the people,
that the seven priests bearing the seven trumpets of rams' horns
passed on before the LORD, and blew with the trumpets: and the
ark of the covenant of the LORD followed them.
9 And the armed men went before the priests that blew with the
trumpets, and the rereward came after the ark, the priests
going on, and blowing with the trumpets.
10 And Joshua had commanded the people, saying, Ye shall not
shout, nor make any noise with your voice, neither shall any
word proceed out of your mouth, until the day I bid you shout;
then shall ye shout.
11 So the ark of the LORD compassed the city, going about it
once: and they came into the camp, and lodged in the camp.
12 And Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took
up the ark of the LORD.
13 And seven priests bearing seven trumpets of rams' horns
before the ark of the LORD went on continually, and blew with the
trumpets: and the armed men went before them; but the rereward
came after the ark of the LORD, the priests going on, and
blowing with the trumpets.
14 And the second day they compassed the city once, and
returned into the camp: so they did six days.
15 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early
about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the
same manner seven times: only on that day they compassed the city
16 And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests
blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for
the LORD hath given you the city.
We have here an account of the cavalcade which Israel made about
Jericho, the orders Joshua gave concerning it, as he had received them
from the Lord and their punctual observance of these orders. We do not
find that he gave the people the express assurances God had given him
that he would deliver the city into their hands; but he tried whether
they would obey orders with a general confidence that it would end
well, and we find them very observant both of God and Joshua.
I. Wherever the ark went the people attended it,
The armed men went before it to clear the way, not thinking it any
disparagement to them, though they were men of war, to be pioneers to
the ark of God. If any obstacle should be found in crossing the roads
that led to the city (which they must do in walking round it) they
would remove it; if any opposition should be made by the enemy, they
would encounter it, that the priests' march with the ark might be easy
and safe. It is an honour to the greatest men to do any good office to
the ark and to serve the interests of religion in their country. The
rereward, either another body of armed men, or Dan's squadron,
which marched last through the wilderness, or, as some think, the
multitude of the people who were not armed or disciplined for war (as
many of them as would) followed the ark, to testify their respect to
it, to grace the solemnity, and to be witnesses of what was done. Every
faithful zealous Israelite would be willing to undergo the same
fatigues and run the same hazard with the priests that bore the
II. Seven priests went immediately before the ark, having trumpets in
their hands, with which they were continually sounding,
The priests were God's ministers, and thus in his name,
1. They proclaimed war with the Canaanites, and so stuck a terror upon
them; for by terrors upon their spirits they were to be conquered and
subdued. Thus God's ministers, by the solemn declarations of his wrath
against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, must blow the
trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in the holy mountain, that the
sinners in Zion may be afraid. They are God's heralds to denounce war
against all those that go on still in their trespasses, but say, "We
shall have peace, though we go on."
2. They proclaimed God's gracious presence with Israel, and so put life
and courage into them. It was appointed that when they went to war the
priests should encourage them with the assurance of God's presence with
And particularly their blowing with trumpets was to be a sign to the
people that they should be remembered before the Lord Their God in the
day of battle,
It encouraged Abijah,
2 Chronicles 13:12.
Thus God's ministers, by sounding the Jubilee trumpet of the
everlasting gospel, which proclaims liberty and victory, must encourage
the good soldiers of Jesus Christ in their spiritual warfare.
III. The trumpets they used were not those silver trumpets which were
appointed to be made for their ordinary service, but trumpets of rams'
horns, bored hollow for the purpose, as some think. These trumpets were
of the basest matter, dullest sound, and least show, that the
excellency of the power might be of God. Thus by the foolishness of
preaching, fitly compared to the sounding of these rams' horns, the
devil's kingdom is thrown down; and the weapons of our warfare,
though they are not carnal nor seem to a carnal eye likely to bring any
thing to pass, are yet mighty through God to the pulling down of
2 Corinthians 10:4,5.
The word here is trumpets of Jobel, that is, such trumpets as
they used to blow withal in the year of jubilee; so many interpreters
understand it, as signifying the complete liberty to which Israel was
now brought, and the bringing of the land of Canaan into the hands of
its just and rightful owners.
IV. All the people were commanded to be silent, not to speak a word,
nor make any noise
that they might the more carefully attend to the sound of the sacred
trumpets, which they were now to look upon as the voice of God among
them; and it does not become us to speak when God is speaking. It
likewise intimates their reverent expectation of the event.
Be silent, O all flesh, before the Lord.
God shall fight, and you shall hold your peace.
V. They were to do this once a day for six days together and seven
times the seventh day, and they did so,
God could have caused the walls of Jericho to fall upon the first
surrounding of them, but they must go round them thirteen times before
they fall, that they might be kept waiting patiently for the Lord.
Though they had lately come into Canaan, and their time was very
precious (for they had a great deal of work before them), yet they must
linger so many days about Jericho, seeming to do nothing, nor to make
any progress in their business. As promised deliverances must be
expected in God's way, so they must be expected in his time. He that
believes does not make haste, not more haste than God would have
him make. Go yet seven times, before any thing hopeful appears,
1 Kings 18:43.
VI. One of these days must needs be a sabbath day, and the Jews say
that it was the last, but this is not certain; however, if he that
appointed them to rest on the other sabbath days appointed them to walk
on this, that was sufficient to justify them in it; he never intended
to bind himself by his own laws, but that when he pleased he might
dispense with them. The impotent man went upon this principle when he
He that made me whole (and therefore has a divine power) said
unto me, Take up thy bed. And, in this case here, it was an honour
to the sabbath day, by which our time is divided into weeks, that just
seven days were to be spent in this work, and seven priests were
employed to sound seven trumpets, this number being, on this occasion,
as well as many others, made remarkable, in remembrance of the six
day's work of creation and the seventh day's rest from it. And,
besides, the law of the sabbath forbids our own work, which is servile
and secular, but this which they did was a religious act. It is
certainly no breach of the sabbath rest to do the sabbath work, for the
sake of which the rest was instituted; and what is the sabbath work but
to attend the ark in all its motions?
VII. They continued to do this during the time appointed, and seven
times the seventh day, though they saw not any effect of it, believing
that at the end the vision would speak and not lie,
If we persevere in the way of duty, we shall lose nothing by it in the
long run. It is probable they walked at such a distance from the walls
as to be out of the reach of the enemies' arrows and out of the hearing
of their scoffs. We may suppose the oddness of the thing did at first
amuse the besieged, but by the seventh day they had grown secure,
feeling no harm from that which perhaps they looked upon as an
enchantment. Probably they bantered the besiegers, as those mentioned
"What do these feeble Jews? Is this the people we thought so
formidable? Are these their methods of attack?" Thus they cried peace
and safety, that the destruction might be the more terrible when it
came. Wicked men (says bishop Hall) think God in jest when he
is preparing for their judgment; but they will be convinced of
their mistake when it is too late.
VIII. At last they were to give a shout, and did so, and immediately
the walls fell,
This was a shout for mastery, a triumphant shout; the shout of a
king is among them,
This was a shout of faith; they believed that the walls of Jericho
would fall, and by this faith the walls were thrown down. It was a shot
of prayer, an echo to the sound of the trumpets which proclaimed the
promise that God would remember them; with one accord, as one man, they
cry to heaven for help, and help comes in. Some allude to this to show
that we must never expect a complete victory over our own corruptions
till the very evening of our last day, and then we shall shout in
triumph over them, when we come to the number and measure of our
perfection, as bishop Hall expresses it. A good heart (says
he) groans under the sense of his infirmities, fain would be rid of
them, and strives and prays, but, when all is done, until the end of
the seventh day it cannot be; then judgment shall be brought forth
unto victory. And at the end of time, when our Lord shall descend from
heaven with a shout, and the sound of a trumpet, Satan's kingdom shall
be completely ruined, and not till then, when all opposing rule,
principality, and power, shall be effectually and eternally put
|Jericho Destroyed; Preservation of Rahab.
||B. C. 1451.|
17 And the city shall be accursed, even it, and all that
are therein, to the LORD: only Rahab the harlot shall live, she
and all that are with her in the house, because she hid the
messengers that we sent.
18 And ye, in any wise keep yourselves from the accursed
thing, lest ye make yourselves accursed, when ye take of the
accursed thing, and make the camp of Israel a curse, and trouble
19 But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron,
are consecrated unto the LORD: they shall come into the
treasury of the LORD.
20 So the people shouted when the priests blew with the
trumpets: and it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of
the trumpet, and the people shouted with a great shout, that the
wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city,
every man straight before him, and they took the city.
21 And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both
man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with
the edge of the sword.
22 But Joshua had said unto the two men that had spied out the
country, Go into the harlot's house, and bring out thence the
woman, and all that she hath, as ye sware unto her.
23 And the young men that were spies went in, and brought out
Rahab, and her father, and her mother, and her brethren, and all
that she had; and they brought out all her kindred, and left them
without the camp of Israel.
24 And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was
therein: only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass
and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD.
25 And Joshua saved Rahab the harlot alive, and her father's
household, and all that she had; and she dwelleth in Israel
even unto this day; because she hid the messengers, which
Joshua sent to spy out Jericho.
26 And Joshua adjured them at that time, saying, Cursed be
the man before the LORD, that riseth up and buildeth this city
Jericho: he shall lay the foundation thereof in his firstborn,
and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it.
27 So the LORD was with Joshua; and his fame was noised
throughout all the country.
The people had religiously observed the orders given them concerning
the besieging of Jericho, and now at length Joshua had told them
"The Lord hath given you the city, enter and take possession."
Accordingly in these verses we have,
I. The rules they were to observe in taking possession. God gives it to
them, and therefore may direct it to what uses and intents, and clog it
with what provisos and limitations he thinks fit. It is given to them
to be devoted to God, as the first and perhaps the worst of all the
cities of Canaan.
1. The city must be burnt, and all the lives in it sacrificed without
mercy to the justice of God. All this they knew was included in those
The city shall be a cherem, a devoted thing, at and all therein,
to the Lord. No life in it might be ransomed upon any terms; they must
all be surely put to death,
So he appoints from whom as creatures they had received their lives,
and to whom as sinners they had forfeited them; and who may dispute his
sentence? Is God unrighteous, who thus taketh vengeance?
God forbid we should entertain such a thought! There was more of God
seen in the taking of Jericho than of any other of the cities of
Canaan, and therefore that must be more than any other devoted to him.
And the severe usage of this city would strike a terror upon all the
rest and melt their hearts yet more before Israel. Only, when this
severity is ordered, Rahab and her family are excepted: She shall
live and all that are with her. She had distinguished herself from
her neighbours by the kindness she showed to Israel, and therefore
shall be distinguished from them by the speedy return of that kindness.
2. All the treasure of it, the money and plate and valuable goods, must
be consecrated to the service of the tabernacle, and brought into the
stock of dedicated things, the Jews say because the city was taken on
the sabbath day. Thus God would be honoured by the beautifying and
enriching of his tabernacle; thus preparation was made for the
extraordinary expenses of his service; and thus the Israelites were
taught not to set their hearts upon worldly wealth nor to aim at
heaping up abundance of it for themselves. God had promised them a land
flowing with milk and honey, not a land abounding with silver
and gold; for he would have them live comfortably in it, that they
might serve him cheerfully, but not covet either to trade with distant
countries or to hoard for after times. He would likewise have them to
reckon themselves enriched in the enriching of the tabernacle, and to
think that which was laid up in God's house as truly their honour and
wealth as if it had been laid up in their own.
3. A particular caution is given them to take heed of meddling with the
forbidden spoil; for what was devoted to God, if they offered to
appropriate it to their own use, would prove accursed to them;
"In any wise keep yourselves from the accursed thing; you will
find yourselves inclined to reach towards it, but check yourselves, and
frighten yourselves from having any thing to do with it." He speaks as
if he foresaw the sin of Achan, which we have an account of in the next
chapter, when he gives this reason for the caution, lest you make
the camp of Israel a curse and trouble it, as it proved that Achan
II. The entrance that was opened to them into the city by the sudden
fall of the walls, or at least that part of the wall over against which
they then were when they gave the shout
The wall fell down flat, and probably killed abundance of
people, the guards that stood sentinel upon it, or others that crowded
about it, to look at the Israelites that were walking round. We read of
thousands killed by the fall of a wall,
1 Kings 20:30.
That which they trusted to for defence proved their destruction. The
sudden fall of the wall, no doubt, put the inhabitants into such a
consternation that they had no strength nor spirit to make any
resistance, but they became an easy prey to the sword of Israel, and
saw to how little purpose it was to shut their gates against a people
that had the Lord on the head of them,
Note, The God of heaven easily can, and certainly will, break down all
the opposing power of his and his church's enemies. Gates of brass and
bars of iron are, before him, but as straw and rotten wood,
Who will bring me into the strong city? Wilt not thou, O God?
Thus shall Satan's kingdom fall, nor shall any prosper that harden
themselves against God.
III. The execution of the orders given concerning this devoted city.
All that breathed were put to the sword; not only the men that were
found in arms, but the women, and children, and old people. Though they
cried for quarter, and begged ever so earnestly for their lives, there
was no room for compassion, pity must be forgotten: they utterly
If they had not had a divine warrant under the seal of miracles for
this execution, it could not have been justified, nor can it justify
the like now, when we are sure no such warrant can be produced. But,
being appointed by the righteous Judge of heaven and earth to do it,
who is not unrighteous in taking vengeance, they are to be applauded in
doing it as the faithful ministers of his justice. Work for God was
then bloody work; and cursed was he that did it deceitfully, keeping
back his sword from blood,
But the spirit of the gospel is very different, for Christ came not to
destroy men's lives but to save them,
Christ's victories were of another nature. The cattle were put to death
with the owners, as additional sacrifices to the divine justice. The
cattle of the Israelites, when slain at the altar, were accepted as
sacrifices for them, but the cattle of these Canaanites were
required to be slain as sacrifices with them, for their iniquity
was not to be purged with sacrifice and offering: both were for the
glory of God.
2. The city was burnt with fire, and all that was in it,
The Israelites, perhaps, when they had taken Jericho, a large and
well-built city, hoped they should have that for their head-quarters;
but God will have them yet to dwell in tents, and therefore fires this
nest, lest they should nestle in it.
3. All the silver and gold, and all those vessels which were capable of
being purified by fire, were brought into the treasury of the house of
the Lord; not that he needed it but that he would be honoured by it, as
the Lord of hosts, of their hosts in particular, the God that gave the
victory and therefore might demand the spoil, either the whole, as
here, or, as sometimes, a tenth,
IV. The preservation of Rahab the harlot, or inn-keeper, who
perished not with those that believed not,
The public faith was engaged for her safety by the two spies, who acted
therein as public persons; and therefore, though the hurry they were in
at the taking of the town was no doubt very great, yet Joshua took
effectual care for her preservation. The same persons that she had
secured were employed to secure her,
They were best able to do it who knew her and her house, and they were
fittest to do it, that it might appear it was for the sake of her
kindness to them that she was thus distinguished and had her life given
her for a prey. All her kindred were saved with her; like Noah she
believed to the saving of her house; and thus faith in Christ
brings salvation to the house,
Some ask how her house, which is said to have been upon the wall
escaped falling with the wall; we are sure it did escape, for she and
her relations were safe in it, either though it joined so near to the
wall as to be said to be upon it, yet it was so far off as not
to fall either with the wall or under it; or, rather, that part of the
wall on which her house stood fell not. Now being preserved alive,
1. She was left for some time without the camp to be purified from the
Gentile superstition, which she was to renounce, and to be prepared for
her admission as a proselyte.
2. She was in due time incorporated with the church of Israel, and she
and her posterity dwelt in Israel, and her family was remarkable long
after. We find her the wife of Salmon, prince of Judah, mother of Boaz,
and named among the ancestors of our Saviour,
Having received Israelites in the name of Israelites, she had an
Israelite's reward. Bishop Pierson observes that Joshua's saving Rahab
the harlot, and admitting her into Israel, were a figure of Christ's
receiving into his kingdom, and entertaining there, the publicans and
Or it may be applied to the conversion of the Gentiles.
V. Jericho is condemned to a perpetual desolation, and a curse
pronounced upon the man that at any time hereafter should offer to
Joshua adjured them, that is, the elders and people of Israel,
not only by their own consent, obliging themselves and their posterity
never to rebuild this city, but by the divine appointment, God himself
having forbidden it under the sever penalty here annexed.
1. God would hereby show the weight of a divine curse; where it rests
there is no contending with it nor getting from under it; it brings
ruin without remedy or repair.
2. He would have it to remain in its ruins a standing monument of his
wrath against the Canaanites when the measure of their iniquity was
full, and of his mercy to his people when the time had come for their
settlement in Canaan. The desolations of their enemies were witnesses
of his favour to them, and would upbraid them with their ingratitude to
that God who had done so much for them. The situation of the city was
very pleasant, and probably its nearness to Jordan was an advantage to
it, which would tempt men to build upon the same spot; but they are
here told it is at their peril if they do it. Men build for their
posterity, but he that builds Jericho shall have no posterity to enjoy
what he builds; his eldest son shall die when he begins the work, and
if he take not warning by that stroke to desist, but will go on
presumptuously, the finishing of his work shall be attended with the
funeral of his youngest, and we must suppose all the rest cut off
between. This curse, not being a curse causeless, did come upon
that man who long after rebuilded Jericho
(1 Kings 16:34),
but we are not to think it made the place ever the worse when it was
built, or brought any hurt to those that inhabited it. We find Jericho
afterwards graced with the presence, not only of those two great
prophets Elijah and Elisha, but of our blessed Saviour himself,
Matt. xx. 29.
Note, It is a dangerous thing to attempt the building up of that which
God will have to be destroyed. See
Lastly, All this magnified Joshua and raised his reputation
it made him not only acceptable to Israel, but formidable to the
Canaanites, because it appeared that God was with him of a truth: the
Word of the Lord was with him, so the Chaldee, even Christ himself, the
same that was with Moses. Nothing can more raise a man's reputation,
nor make him appear more truly great, than to have the evidences of
God's presence with him.