The ceremonial law is described by the apostle
to consist, not only "in gifts and sacrifices," which hitherto have
been treated of in this book, but "in meats, and drinks, and divers
washings" from ceremonial uncleanness, the laws concerning which begin
with this chapter, which puts a difference between some sorts of
flesh-meat and others, allowing some to be eaten as clean and
forbidding others as unclean. "There is one kind of flesh of men."
Nature startles at the thought of eating this, and none do it but such
as have arrived at the highest degree of barbarity, and become but one
remove from brutes; therefore there needed no law against it. But there
is "another kind of flesh of beasts," concerning which the law directs
"another of fishes"
"another of birds"
and "another of creeping things," which are distinguished into two
sorts, flying creeping things
and creeping things upon the earth,
And the law concludes with the general rule of holiness, and reasons
Leviticus 11:44-47, &c.
|Distinction of Meats.
||B. C. 1490.|
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,
2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the
beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the
3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and
cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.
4 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the
cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he
cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto
5 And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not
the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
6 And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not
the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
7 And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be
clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you.
8 Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye
not touch; they are unclean to you.
Now that Aaron was consecrated a high priest over the house of God, God
spoke to him with Moses, and appointed them both as joint-commissioners
to deliver his will to the people. He spoke both to Moses and to Aaron
about this matter; for it was particularly required of the priests that
they should put a difference between clean and unclean, and teach the
people to do so. After the flood, when God entered into covenant with
Noah and his sons, he allowed them to eat flesh
whereas before they were confined to the productions of the earth. But
the liberty allowed to the sons of Noah is here limited to the sons of
Israel. They might eat flesh, but not all kinds of flesh; some they
must look upon as unclean and forbidden to them, others as clean and
allowed them. The law in this matter is both very particular and very
strict. But what reason can be given for this law? Why may not God's
people have as free a use of all the creatures as other people?
1. It is reason enough that God would have it so: his will, as it is
law sufficient, so it is reason sufficient; for his will is his wisdom.
He saw good thus to try and exercise the obedience of his people, not
only in the solemnities of his altar, but in matters of daily
occurrence at their own table, that they might remember they were under
authority. Thus God had tried the obedience of man in innocency, by
forbidding him to eat of one particular tree.
2. Most of the meats forbidden as unclean are such as were really
unwholesome, and not fit to be eaten; and those of them that we think
wholesome enough, and use accordingly, as the rabbit, the hare, and the
swine, perhaps in those countries, and to their bodies, might be
hurtful. And then God in this law did by them but as a wise and loving
father does by his children, whom he restrains from eating that which
he knows will make them sick. Note, The Lord is for the body, and it
is not only folly, but sin against God, to prejudice our health for the
pleasing of our appetite.
3. God would thus teach his people to distinguish themselves from other
people, not only in their religious worship, but in the common actions
of life. Thus he would show them that they must not be numbered among
the nations. It should seem there had been, before this, some
difference between the Hebrews and other nations in their food, kept up
by tradition; for the Egyptians and they would not eat together,
And even before the flood there was a distinction of beasts into clean
and not clean
which distinction was quite lost, with many other instances of
religion, among the Gentiles. But by this law it is reduced to a
certainty, and ordered to be kept up among the Jews, that thus, by
having a diet peculiar to themselves, they might be kept from familiar
conversation with their idolatrous neighbours, and might typify God's
spiritual Israel, who not in these little things, but in the temper of
their spirits, and the course of their lives, should be governed by a
sober singularity, and not be conformed to this world. The learned
observe further, That most of the creatures which by this law were to
be abominated as unclean were such as were had in high veneration among
the heathen, not so much for food as for divination and sacrifice to
their gods; and therefore those are here mentioned as unclean, and an
abomination, which yet they would not be in any temptation to eat, that
they might keep up a religious loathing of that for which the Gentiles
had a superstitious value. The swine, with the later Gentiles, was
sacred to Venus, the owl to Minerva, the eagle to Jupiter, the dog to
Hecate, &c., and all these are here made unclean. As to the beasts,
there is a general rule laid down, that those which both part the hoof
and chew the cud were clean, and those only: these are particularly
mentioned in the repetition of this law
where it appears that the Israelites had variety enough allowed them,
and needed not to complain of the confinement they were under. Those
beasts that did not both chew the cud and divide the hoof were
unclean, by which rule the flesh of swine, and of hares, and of
rabbits, was prohibited to them, though commonly used among us.
Therefore, particularly at the eating of any of these, we should give
thanks for the liberty granted us in this matter by the gospel, which
teaches us that every creature of God is good, and we are to
call nothing common or unclean. Some observe a significancy in
the rule here laid down for them to distinguish by, or at least think
it may be alluded to. Meditation, and other acts of devotion done by
the hidden man of the heart, may be signified by the chewing of the
cud, digesting our spiritual food; justice and charity towards men, and
the acts of a good conversation, may be signified by the dividing of
the hoof. Now either of these without the other will not serve to
recommend us to God, but both must go together, good affections in the
heart and good works in the life: if either be wanting, we are not
clean, surely we are not clean. Of all the creatures here forbidden as
unclean, none has been more dreaded and detested by the pious Jews than
swine's flesh. Many were put to death by Antiochus because they would
not eat it. This, probably, they were most in danger of being tempted
to, and therefore possessed themselves and their children with a
particular antipathy to it, calling it not by its proper name, but a
strange thing. It should seem the Gentiles used it superstitiously
they eat swine's flesh; and therefore God forbids all use of it
to his people, lest they should learn of their neighbours to make that
ill use of it. Some suggest that the prohibition of these beasts as
unclean was intended to be a caution to the people against the bad
qualities of these creatures. We must not be filthy nor wallow in the
mire as swine, nor be timorous and faint-hearted as hares, nor dwell in
the earth as rabbits; let not man that is in honour make himself like
these beasts that perish. The law forbade, not only the eating of them,
but the very touching of them; for those that would be kept from any
sin must be careful to avoid all temptations to it, and every thing
that looks towards it or leads to it.
9 These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters:
whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and
in the rivers, them shall ye eat.
10 And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in
the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living
thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination
11 They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat
of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.
12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that
shall be an abomination unto you.
13 And these are they which ye shall have in abomination
among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an
abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
14 And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;
15 Every raven after his kind;
16 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the
hawk after his kind,
17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,
18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,
19 And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing,
and the bat.
1. A general rule concerning fishes, which were clean and which not.
All that had fins and scales they might eat, and only those odd sorts
of water-animals that have not were forbidden,
The ancients accounted fish the most delicate food (so far were they
from allowing it on fasting-days, or making it an instance of
mortification to eat fish); therefore God did not lay much restraint
upon his people in them; for he is a Master that allows his servants
not only for necessity but for delight. Concerning the prohibited fish
it is said, They shall be an abomination to you
that is, "You shall count them unclean, and not only not eat of them,
but keep at a distance from them." Note, Whatever is unclean should be
to us an abomination; touch not the unclean thing. But observe,
It was to be an abomination only to Jews; the neighbouring nations were
under none of these obligations, nor are these things to be an
abomination to us Christians. The Jews were honoured with peculiar
privileges, and therefore, lest they should be proud of those,
Transeunt cum onere--They were likewise laid under peculiar
restraints. Thus God's spiritual Israel, as they are dignified
above others by the gospel-covenant of adoption and friendship, so they
must be mortified more than others by the gospel-commands of
self-denial and bearing the cross.
2. Concerning fowls here is no general rule given, but a particular
enumeration of those fowls that they must abstain from as unclean,
which implies an allowance of all others. The critics here have their
hands full to find out what is the true signification of the Hebrew
words here used, some of which still remain uncertain, some sorts of
fowls being peculiar to some countries. Were the law in force now, we
should be concerned to know with certainty what are prohibited by it;
and perhaps if we did, and were better acquainted with the nature of
the fowls here mentioned, we should admire the knowledge of Adam, in
giving them names expressive of their natures,
But the law being repealed, and the learning in a great measure lost,
it is sufficient for us to observe that of the fowls here forbidden,
(1.) Some are birds of prey, as the eagle, vulture, &c., and God would
have his people to abhor every thing that is barbarous and cruel, and
not to live by blood and rapine. Doves that are preyed upon were fit to
be food for man and offerings to God; but kites and hawks that prey
upon them must be looked upon as an abomination to God and man; for the
condition of those that are persecuted for righteousness' sake appears
to an eye of faith every way better than that of their persecutors.
(2.) Others of them are solitary birds, that abide in dark and desolate
places, as the owl and the pelican
and the cormorant and raven
for God's Israel should not be a melancholy people, nor affect sadness
and constant solitude.
(3.) Others of them feed upon that which is impure, as the stork on
serpents, others of them on worms; and we must not only abstain from
all impurity ourselves, but from communion with those that allow
themselves in it.
(4.) Others of them were used by the Egyptians and other Gentiles in
their divinations. Some birds were reckoned fortunate, others ominous;
and their soothsayers had great regard to the flights of these birds,
all which therefore must be an abomination to God's people, who must
not learn the way of the heathen.
20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an
abomination unto you.
21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that
goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap
withal upon the earth;
22 Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind,
and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his
kind, and the grasshopper after his kind.
23 But all other flying creeping things, which have four
feet, shall be an abomination unto you.
24 And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the
carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.
25 And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall
wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
26 The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and
is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto
you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean.
27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of
beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso
toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.
28 And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his
clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto
29 These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping
things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and
the tortoise after his kind,
30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the
snail, and the mole.
31 These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever
doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the
32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth
fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or
raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein
any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be
unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.
33 And every earthen vessel, whereinto any of them falleth,
whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.
34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water
cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every
such vessel shall be unclean.
35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase
falleth shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for
pots, they shall be broken down: for they are unclean, and
shall be unclean unto you.
36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of
water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase
shall be unclean.
37 And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing seed
which is to be sown, it shall be clean.
38 But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of
their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you.
39 And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth
the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.
40 And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his
clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the
carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the
41 And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall
be an abomination; it shall not be eaten.
42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon
all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping
things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they
are an abomination.
Here is the law,
1. Concerning flying insects, as flies, wasps, bees, &c.; these they
might not eat
nor indeed are they fit to be eaten; but there were several sorts of
locusts which in those countries were very good meat, and much used:
John Baptist lived upon them in the desert, and they are here allowed
2. Concerning the creeping things on the earth; these were all
for it was the curse of the serpent that upon his belly he should
go, and therefore between him and man there was an enmity put
which was preserved by this law. Dust is the meat of the creeping
things, and therefore they are not fit to be man's meat.
3. Concerning the dead carcasses of all these unclean animals.
(1.) Every one that touched them was to be unclean until the evening,
This law is often repeated, to possess them with a dread of every thing
that was prohibited, though no particular reason for the prohibition
did appear, but only the will of the Law-maker. Not that they were to
be looked upon as defiling to the conscience, or that it was a sin
against God to touch them, unless done in contempt of the law: in many
cases, somebody must of necessity touch them, to remove them; but it
was a ceremonial uncleanness they contracted, which for the time
forbade them to come into the tabernacle, or to eat of any of the holy
things, or so much as to converse familiarly with their neighbours. But
the uncleanness continued only till the evening, to signify that all
ceremonial pollutions were to come to an end by the death of Christ in
the evening of the world. And we must learn, by daily renewing our
repentance every night for the sins of the day, to cleanse ourselves
from the pollution we contract by them, that we may not lie down in our
uncleanness. Even unclean animals they might touch while they were
alive without contracting any ceremonial uncleanness by it, as horses
and dogs, because they were allowed to use them for service; but they
might not touch them when they were dead, because they might not eat
their flesh; and what must not be eaten must not be touched,
(2.) Even the vessels, or other things they fell upon, were thereby
made unclean until the evening
and if they were earthen vessels they must be broken,
This taught them carefully to avoid every thing that was polluting,
even in their common actions. Not only the vessels of the sanctuary,
but every pot in Jerusalem and Judah, must be holiness to the
The laws in these cases are very critical, and the observance of them
would be difficult, we should think, if every thing that a dead mouse
or rat, for instance, falls upon must be unclean; and if it were an
oven, or ranges for pots, they must all be broken down,
The exceptions also are very nice,
&c. All this was designed to exercise them to a constant care and
exactness in their obedience, and to teach us, who by Christ are
delivered from these burdensome observances, not to be less circumspect
in the more weighty matters of the law. We ought as industriously to
preserve our precious souls from the pollutions of sin, and as speedily
to cleanse them when they are polluted, as they were to preserve and
cleanse their bodies and household goods from those ceremonial
43 Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping
thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean
with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.
44 For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify
yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall
ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that
creepeth upon the earth.
45 For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of
Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am
46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of
every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every
creature that creepeth upon the earth:
47 To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and
between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be
I. The exposition of this law, or a key to let us into the meaning of
it. It was not intended merely for a bill of fare, or as the directions
of a physician about their diet, but God would hereby teach them to
sanctify themselves and to be holy,
1. They must hereby learn to put a difference between good and evil,
and to reckon that it could not be all alike what they did, when it was
not all alike what they ate. 2. To maintain a constant observance of
the divine law, and to govern themselves by that in all their actions,
even those that are common, which ought to be performed after a
3 John 1:6.
Even eating and drinking must be by rule, and to
the glory of God,
1 Corinthians 10:31.
3. To distinguish themselves from all their neighbours, as a people set
apart for God, and obliged not to walk as the Gentiles: and all this is
holiness. Thus these rudiments of the world were their tutors
to bring them to that which is the revival of our first state in Adam
and the earnest of our best state with Christ, that is,
holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord. This is
indeed the great design of all the ordinances, that by them we may
sanctify ourselves and learn to be holy. Even This law concerning
their food, which seemed to stoop so very low, aimed thus high, for it
was the statute-law of heaven, under the Old Testament as well as the
New, that without holiness no man shall see the Lord. The
is, You shall not make yourselves abominable. Note, By having
fellowship with sin, which is abominable, we make ourselves abominable.
That man is truly miserable who is in the sight of God abominable; and
none are so but those that make themselves so. The Jewish writers
themselves suggest that the intention of this law was to forbid them
all communion by marriage, or otherwise, with the heathen,
And thus the moral of it is obligatory on us, forbidding us to have
fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness; and, without this
real holiness of the heart and life, he that offereth an
oblation is as if he offered swine's blood
and, if it was such a provocation for a man to eat swine's flesh
himself, much more it must be so to offer swine's blood at God's altar;
II. The reasons of this law; and they are all taken from the Law-maker
himself, to whom we must have respect in all acts of obedience.
1. I am the Lord your God,
"Therefore you are bound to do thus, in pure obedience." God's
sovereignty over us, and propriety in us, oblige us to do whatever he
commands us, how much soever it crosses our inclinations. 2. I am
If God be holy, we must be so, else we cannot expect to be accepted of
him. His holiness is his glory
and therefore it becomes his house for ever,
This great precept, thus enforced, though it comes in here in the midst
of abrogated laws, is quoted and stamped for a gospel precept,
1 Peter 1:16,
where it is intimated that all these ceremonial restraints were
designed to teach us that we must not fashion ourselves according to
our former lusts in our ignorance,
3. I am the Lord that bringeth you out of the land of Egypt,
This was a reason why they should cheerfully submit to distinguishing
laws, having of late been so wonderfully dignified with distinguishing
favours. He that had done more for them than for any other people might
justly expect more from them.
III. The conclusion of this statute: This is the law of the beasts,
and of the fowl, &c.,
This law was to them a statute for ever, that is, as long as that
economy lasted; but under the gospel we find it expressly repealed by a
voice from heaven to Peter
as it had before been virtually set aside by the death of Christ, with
the other ordinances that perished in the using: Touch not, taste
not, handle not,
And now we are sure that meat commends us not to God
(1 Corinthians 8:8),
and that nothing is unclean of itself
nor does that defile a man which goes into his mouth, but that which
comes out from the heart,
Let us therefore,
1. Give thanks to God that we are not under this yoke, but that to us
every creature of God is allowed as good, and nothing to be refused. 2.
Stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ has made us free, and
take heed of those doctrines which command to abstain from
meats, and so would revive Moses again,
1 Timothy 4:3,4.
3. Be strictly and conscientiously temperate in the use of the good
creatures God has allowed us. If God's law has given us liberty, let us
lay restraints upon ourselves, and never feed ourselves without fear,
lest our table be a snare. Set a knife to thy throat, if thou be a
man given to appetite; and be not desirous of dainties or
Nature is content with little, grace with less, but lust with