Jerusalem was walled round, but it was not as yet fully inhabited, and
therefore was weak and despicable. Nehemiah's next care is to bring
people into it; of that we have here an account.
I. The methods taken to replenish it,
II. The principal persons that resided there, of Judah and Benjamin
of the priests and Levites,
III. The several cities and villages of Judah and Benjamin that were
peopled by the rest of their families,
|The Re-peopling of Jerusalem.
||B. C. 444.|
1 And the rulers of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: the rest of
the people also cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in
Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts to dwell in other
2 And the people blessed all the men, that willingly offered
themselves to dwell at Jerusalem.
3 Now these are the chief of the province that dwelt in
Jerusalem: but in the cities of Judah dwelt every one in his
possession in their cities, to wit, Israel, the priests, and
the Levites, and the Nethinims, and the children of Solomon's
4 And at Jerusalem dwelt certain of the children of Judah,
and of the children of Benjamin. Of the children of Judah;
Athaiah the son of Uzziah, the son of Zechariah, the son of
Amariah, the son of Shephatiah, the son of Mahalaleel, of the
children of Perez;
5 And Maaseiah the son of Baruch, the son of Colhozeh, the son
of Hazaiah, the son of Adaiah, the son of Joiarib, the son of
Zechariah, the son of Shiloni.
6 All the sons of Perez that dwelt at Jerusalem were four
hundred threescore and eight valiant men.
7 And these are the sons of Benjamin; Sallu the son of
Meshullam, the son of Joed, the son of Pedaiah, the son of
Kolaiah, the son of Maaseiah, the son of Ithiel, the son of
8 And after him Gabbai, Sallai, nine hundred twenty and eight.
9 And Joel the son of Zichri was their overseer: and Judah
the son of Senuah was second over the city.
10 Of the priests: Jedaiah the son of Joiarib, Jachin.
11 Seraiah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son of
Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, was the ruler of
the house of God.
12 And their brethren that did the work of the house were
eight hundred twenty and two: and Adaiah the son of Jeroham, the
son of Pelaliah, the son of Amzi, the son of Zechariah, the son
of Pashur, the son of Malchiah,
13 And his brethren, chief of the fathers, two hundred forty
and two: and Amashai the son of Azareel, the son of Ahasai, the
son of Meshillemoth, the son of Immer,
14 And their brethren, mighty men of valour, a hundred twenty
and eight: and their overseer was Zabdiel, the son of one of
the great men.
15 Also of the Levites: Shemaiah the son of Hashub, the son of
Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Bunni;
16 And Shabbethai and Jozabad, of the chief of the Levites,
had the oversight of the outward business of the house of God.
17 And Mattaniah the son of Micha, the son of Zabdi, the son of
Asaph, was the principal to begin the thanksgiving in prayer:
and Bakbukiah the second among his brethren, and Abda the son of
Shammua, the son of Galal, the son of Jeduthun.
18 All the Levites in the holy city were two hundred
fourscore and four.
19 Moreover the porters, Akkub, Talmon, and their brethren that
kept the gates, were a hundred seventy and two.
Jerusalem is called here the holy city
because there the temple was, and that was the place God had chosen to
put his name there; upon this account, one would think, the holy seed
should all have chosen to dwell there and have striven for a habitation
there; but, on the contrary, it seems they declined dwelling there,
1. Because a greater strictness of conversation was expected from the
inhabitants of Jerusalem than from others, which they were not willing
to come up to. Those who care not for being holy themselves are shy of
dwelling in a holy city; they would not dwell in the New
Jerusalem itself for that reason, but would wish to have a
continuing city here upon earth. Or,
2. Because Jerusalem, of all places, was most hated by the heathen
their neighbours, and against it their malicious designs were levelled,
which made that the post of danger (as the post of honour usually is)
and therefore they were not willing to expose themselves there. Fear of
persecution and reproach, and of running themselves into trouble, keeps
many out of the holy city, and makes them backward to appear for God
and religion, not considering that, as Jerusalem is with a special
malice threatened and insulted by its enemies, so it is with a special
care protected by its God and made a quiet habitation,
3. Because it was more for their worldly advantage to dwell in the
country. Jerusalem was no trading city, and therefore there was no
money to be got there by merchandise, as there was in the country by
corn and cattle. Note, All seek their own, not the things that are
It is a general and just complaint that most people prefer their own
wealth, credit, pleasure, ease, and safety, before the glory of God and
the public good. People being thus backward to dwell at Jerusalem, now
that it was poor, we are here told,
I. By what means it was replenished.
1. The rulers dwelt there,
That was the proper place for them to reside in, because there were
set the thrones of judgment
and thither, in all difficult matters, the people resorted with their
last appeals. And if it were an instance of eminent affection to the
house of God, zeal for the public good, and of faith, and holy courage,
and self-denial, to dwell there at this time, the rulers would be
examples of these to their inferiors. Their dwelling there would invite
and encourage others to dwell there too. Magnates magnetes--the
mighty are magnetic. When great men choose the holy city for their
habitation their example brings holiness into reputation, and their
zeal will provoke very many.
2. There were some that willingly offered themselves to dwell at
Jerusalem, nobly foregoing their own secular interest for the public
It is upon record, to their honour, that when others were shy of
venturing upon difficulty, loss, and danger, they sought the good of
Jerusalem, because of the house of the Lord their God. Those shall
prosper that thus love Zion,
It is said, The people blessed them. They praised them; they
prayed for them; they praised God for them. Many that do not appear
forward themselves for the public good will yet give a good word to
those that do. God and man will bless those that are public blessings,
which should encourage us to be zealous in doing good.
3. They, finding that yet there was room, concluded upon a
review of their whole body to bring one in ten to dwell in Jerusalem;
who they should be was determined by lot, the disposal whereof, all
knew, was of the Lord. This would prevent strife, and would be a great
satisfaction to those on whom the lot fell to dwell at Jerusalem, that
they plainly saw God appointing the bounds of their habitation. They
observed the proportion of one in ten, as we may suppose, to bring the
balance between the city and country to a just and equal poise; so it
seems to refer to the ancient rule of giving the tenth to God; and what
is given to the holy city he reckons given to himself.
II. By what persons it was replenished. A general account is here given
of the inhabitants of Jerusalem because the governors of Judah
looked upon them as their strength in the Lord of hosts their
God, and valued them accordingly,
1. Many of the children of Judah and Benjamin dwelt there; for,
originally, part of the city law in the lot of one of those tribes and
part in that of the other; but the greater part was in the lot of
Benjamin, and therefore here we find of the children of Judah only 468
families in Jerusalem
but of Benjamin 928,
Thus small were its beginnings, but afterwards, before our Saviour's
time, it grew much more populous. Those of Judah all descended from
Perez, or Pharez, that son of Judah of whom, as concerning the flesh,
Christ came. And, though the Benjamites were more in number, yet of the
men of Judah it is said
that they were valiant men, fit for service, and able to defend the
city in case of an attack. Judah has not lost its ancient character of
a lion's whelp, bold and daring. Of the Benjamites that dwelt in
Jerusalem we are here told who was overseer, and who was second,
For it is as necessary for a people to have good order kept up among
themselves as to be fortified against the attacks of their enemies from
abroad, to have good magistrates as to have good soldiers.
2. The priests and Levites did many of them settle at Jerusalem; where
else should men that were holy to God dwell, but in the holy city?
(1.) Most of the priests, we may suppose, dwelt there, for their
business lay where the temple was. Of those that did the work of the
house in their courses here were 822 of one family, 242 of another, and
128 of another,
It was well that those labourers were not few. It is said of some of
them that they were mighty men of valour
it was necessary that they should be so, for the priesthood was not
only a work, which required might, but a warfare, which required
valour, especially now. Of one of these priests it is said that he was
the son of one of the great men. It was no disparagement to the
greatest man they had to have his son in the priesthood; he might
magnify his office, for his office did not in the least diminish him.
(2.) Some of the Levites also came and dwelt at Jerusalem, yet but few
in comparison, 284 in all
with 172 porters
for much of their work was to teach the good knowledge of God up
and down the country, for which purpose they were to be scattered in
Israel. As many as there was occasion for attended at Jerusalem; the
rest were doing good elsewhere.
[1.] It is said of one of the Levites that he had the oversight of
the outward business of the house of God,
The priests were chief managers of the business within the temple
gates; but this Levite was entrusted with the secular concerns of God's
house, that were in ordine ad spiritualia--subservient to its
spiritual concerns, the collecting of the contributions, the
providing of materials for the temple service, and the like, which it
was necessary to oversee, else the inward business would have been
starved and have stood still. Those who take care of the ta
exo--the outward concerns of the church, the serving of
its tables, are as necessary in their place as those who take care of
its ta eso--its inward concerns, who give
themselves to the word and prayer.
[2.] It is said of another that he was the principal to begin the
thanksgiving in prayer. Probably he had a good ear and a good
voice, and was a scientific singer, and therefore was chosen to lead
the psalm. He was precentor in the temple. Observe, Thanksgiving is
necessary in prayer; they should go together; giving thanks for former
mercies is a becoming way of begging further mercies. And care should
be taken in public service that every thing be done in the best manner,
decently and in good order-- in prayer, that one speak and the
rest join--in singing, that one begin and the rest follow.
|The Distribution of the People.
||B. C. 444.|
20 And the residue of Israel, of the priests, and the
Levites, were in all the cities of Judah, every one in his
21 But the Nethinims dwelt in Ophel: and Ziha and Gispa were
over the Nethinims.
22 The overseer also of the Levites at Jerusalem was Uzzi the
son of Bani, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Mattaniah, the son
of Micha. Of the sons of Asaph, the singers were over the
business of the house of God.
23 For it was the king's commandment concerning them, that a
certain portion should be for the singers, due for every day.
24 And Pethahiah the son of Meshezabeel, of the children of
Zerah the son of Judah, was at the king's hand in all matters
concerning the people.
25 And for the villages, with their fields, some of the
children of Judah dwelt at Kirjath-arba, and in the villages
thereof, and at Dibon, and in the villages thereof, and at
Jekabzeel, and in the villages thereof,
26 And at Jeshua, and at Moladah, and at Beth-phelet,
27 And at Hazar-shual, and at Beer-sheba, and in the villages
28 And at Ziklag, and at Mekonah, and in the villages thereof,
29 And at En-rimmon, and at Zareah, and at Jarmuth,
30 Zanoah, Adullam, and in their villages, at Lachish, and
the fields thereof, at Azekah, and in the villages thereof. And
they dwelt from Beer-sheba unto the valley of Hinnom.
31 The children also of Benjamin from Geba dwelt at Michmash,
and Aija, and Bethel, and in their villages,
32 And at Anathoth, Nob, Ananiah,
33 Hazor, Ramah, Gittaim,
34 Hadid, Zeboim, Neballat,
35 Lod, and Ono, the valley of craftsmen.
36 And of the Levites were divisions in Judah, and in
Having given an account of the principal persons that dwelt in
Jerusalem (a larger account of whom he had before,
1 Chronicles 9:2-34,
Nehemiah, in these verses, gives us some account of the other cities,
in which dwelt the residue of Israel,
It was requisite that Jerusalem should be replenished, yet not so as to
drain the country. The king himself is served of the field,
which will do little service if there be not hands to manage it. Let
there therefore be no strife, no envy, no contempt, no ill will,
between the inhabitants of the cities and those of the villages; both
are needful, both useful, and neither can be spared.
1. The Nethinims, the posterity of the Gibeonites, dwelt in Ophel,
which was upon the wall of Jerusalem
because they were to do the servile work of the temple, which therefore
they must be posted near to, that they might be ready to attend,
2. Though the Levites were dispersed through the cities of Judah, yet
they had an overseer who resided in Jerusalem, superior of their order
and their provincial, to whom they applied for direction, who took care
of their affairs and took cognizance of their conduct, whether they did
3. Some of the singers were appointed to look after the necessary
repairs of the temple, being ingenious men, and having leisure between
their hours of service; they were over the business of the house of
And, it seems, the king of Persia had such a kindness for their office
that he allotted a particular maintenance for them, besides what
belonged to them as Levites,
4. Here is one that was the king's commissioner at Jerusalem. He was of
the posterity of Zerah
for of that family of Judah there were some new settled in
Jerusalem, and not all of Pharez, as appears by that other catalogue,
1 Chronicles 9:6.
He is said to be at the king's hand, or on the king's
part, in all matters concerning the people, to determine
controversies that arose between the king's officers and his subjects,
to see that what was due to the king from the people was duly paid in
and what was allowed by the king for the temple service was duly paid
out, and happy it was for the Jews that one of themselves was in this
5. Here is an account of the villages, or country towns, which were
inhabited by the residue of Israel--the towns in which the children of
those that were inhabited by the children of Benjamin
and divisions for the Levites among both,
We will now suppose them safe and easy, though few and poor, but by the
blessing of God they were likely to increase in wealth and power, and
they would have been more likely if there had not been that general
profaneness among them, and lukewarmness in religion, with which they
were charged in God's name by the prophet Malachi, who, it is supposed,
prophesied about this time, and in whom prophecy ceased for some ages,
till it revived in the great prophet and his forerunner.