Robertson's Word Pictures of the New TestamentRevelation 13:16
- He causeth all (same use of poiew as in 12,15).
- Note article here with each class (the small and the great, etc.).
- That there be given them (ina dwsin autoiv).
- Same use of ina after poiew as in 12,15, only here with indefinite plural dwsin (second aorist active subjunctive), "that they give themselves," as in 10:11; 12:6; 16:15.
- A mark (xaragma).
- Old word from xarassw, to engrave, in Acts 17:29 of idolatrous images, but in Rev. (Revelation 13:16,17; 14:9,11; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4) of the brand of the beast on the right hand or on the forehead or on both. Deissmann (Bible Studies, pp. 240ff.) shows that in the papyri official business documents often have the name and image of the emperor, with the date as the official stamp or seal and with xaragma as the name of this seal. Animals and slaves were often branded with the owner's name, as Paul (Galatians 6:17) bore the stigmata of Christ. Ptolemy Philadelphus compelled some Alexandrian Jews to receive the mark of Dionysus as his devotees (III Macc. 3:29). The servants of God receive on their foreheads the stamp of the divine seal (Revelation 7:3). Charles is certain that John gets his metaphor from the tepillin (phylacteries) which the Jew wore on his left hand and on his forehead. At any rate, this "mark of the beast" was necessary for life and all social and business relations. On the right hand, that is in plain sight.
- Upon their forehead (epi to metwpon autwn).
- Accusative with epi, though genitive just before with xeirov (hand). See already 7:3; 9:4 (genitive epi twn metwpwn). Only in the Apocalypse in N.T.