1:3 If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD.
1:4 And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.
(1) typifies Christ offering Himself without spot to God in delight to do His Father's will even in death.
(2) it is atoning because the believer has not had this delight in the will of God; and
(3) substitutionary (Leviticus 1:4) because Christ did it in the sinner's stead. But the thought of penalty is not prominent. ; Hebrews 9:11-14; 10:5-7; Psalms 40:6-8; Philippians 2:8. The emphatic words Leviticus 1:3-5 are "burnt-sacrifice," "voluntary," "it shall be accepted for him," and "atonement." The creatures acceptable for sacrifice are five:
(1) The bullock, or ox, typifies Christ as the patient and enduring Servant 1 Corinthians 9:9,10; Hebrews 12:2,3 "obedient unto death" ; Isaiah 52:13-15; Philippians 2:5-8. His offering in this character is substitutionary, for this we have not been.
(2) The sheep, or lamb, typifies Christ in unresisting self-surrender to the death of the cross Isaiah 53:7; Acts 8:32-35.
(3) The goat typifies the sinner Matthew 25:33 and, when used sacrificially, Christ, as "numbered with the transgressors" ; Isaiah 53:12; Luke 23:33 and "made sin," and "a curse" ; Galatians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:21 as the sinner's substitute.
(4,5) The turtle-dove or pigeon. Naturally a symbol of mourning innocency Isaiah 38:14; 59:11; Matthew 23:37; Hebrews 7:26 is associated with poverty in Leviticus 5:7 and speaks of Him who for our sakes become poor Luke 9:58 and whose pathway of poverty which began with laying aside "the form of God," ended in the sacrifice through which we became rich ; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Philippians 2:6-8. The sacrifice of the poor Man becomes the poor man's sacrifice. Luke 2:24. These grades of typical sacrifice test the measure of our apprehension of the varied aspects of Christ's one sacrifice on the cross. The mature believer should see Christ crucified in all these aspects.
1:8 And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar:
put his hand upon
The laying of the offerer's hand signified acceptance and identification if himself with his offering. In type it answered to the believer's faith accepting and identifying himself with Christ Romans 4:5; 6:3-11. The believer is justified by faith, and his faith is reckoned for righteousness, because his faith identifies him with Christ, who died as his sin-offering ; 2 Corinthians 5:21; 1 Peter 2:24.
(See Scofield "Exodus 29:33") .
1:9 But his inwards and his legs shall he wash in water: and the priest shall burn all on the altar, to be a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
Fire. Essentially as symbol of God's holiness. As such it expresses God in three ways:
(1) In judgment upon that which His holiness utterly condemns (e.g.) Genesis 19:24; Mark 9:43-48; Revelation 20:15.
(2) in the manifestation of Himself, and of that which He approves Exodus 3:2; 1 Peter 1:7; Exodus 13:21
and (3) in purification (e.g) 1 Corinthians 3:12-14; Malachi 3:2,3. So, in Leviticus, the fire which only manifests the sweet savour of the burnt-, meal-, and peace- offerings, wholly consumes the sin-offering.
That which burns most quickly -- devotedness, zeal.
The sweet savour offerings are so called because they typify Christ in His own perfections, and in His affectionate devotion to the Father's will. The non-sweet savour offerings typify Christ as bearing the whole demerit of the sinner. Both are substantial. In our place Christ, in the burnt-offering, makes good our lack of devotedness, and, in the sin- and trespass-offerings, suffers because of our disobediences.