The Fourfold Gospel
8:1 but Jesus went unto the mount of Olives1.
- But Jesus went unto the mount of Olives. Probably crossing the mountain to the house of Lazarus and sisters.
8:2 And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them1.
- And he sat down, and taught them. As an authoritative teacher did. See Matthew 5:1.
8:3 And the scribes and the Pharisees bring a woman taken in adultery1; and having set her in the midst,
- And the scribes and the Pharisees bring a woman taken in adultery. The woman had probably been brought to the rulers for trial, and they
had seen in her case what appeared to be a promising means of
8:4 they say unto him, Teacher, this woman hath been taken in adultery, in the very act1.
- Teacher, this woman hath been taken in adultery, in the very act. In the presence of the woman and the form of their accusation we see
their coarse brutality. The case could have been presented to Jesus
without the presence of the woman and without a detailed accusation.
8:5 Now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such1: what then sayest thou of her?
- Now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such. Such was the case under Deuteronomy 22:22. Stoning was the legal method of capital punishment.
8:6 And this they said, trying him, that they might have [whereof] to accuse him1. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground2.
- And this they said, trying him, that they might have [whereof] to accuse him. They were placing Jesus in a dilemma. They reasoned that
he could not set aside the law of Moses and clear the woman without
losing the confidence and favor of the people as to frustrate his
claims to be Messiah. They though he would therefore be compelled to
condemn the woman. But if he order her to be put to death, he would be
assuming authority which belonged only to the Roman rulers, and could
therefore be accused and condemned as a usurper.
- But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. His act was intended to make them vehement, and to give his answer
greater effect. What he wrote is unimportant and immaterial, and hence
was not told.
8:7 But when they continued asking him1, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her2.
- But when they continued asking him. They insisted on an answer, hoping that he would so explain away the seventh commandment
(Exodus 20:14) as to encourage them in breaking the sixth (Exodus 20:13).
- He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. Under the law (Deuteronomy 17:7) the witnesses were to cast the first stone.
Jesus maintained and vindicated the law, but imposed a condition which
they had overlooked. The one who executed the law must be free from the
same crime, lest by stoning the woman he condemn himself as worthy of a
like death. There is no doubt that the words of Jesus impressed upon
them the truth that freedom from the outward act did not imply inward
purity or sinlessness (Matthew 5:27,28).
8:8 And again he stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground1.
- And again he stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. Thus giving them the opportunity to retire without the embarrassment
of being watched.
8:9 And they, when they heard it, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest, [even] unto the last1: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the midst2.
- And they, when they heard it, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest, [even] unto the last. The oldest was first to be convicted
of his conscience, because his experience of life's sinfulness was
necessarily the fullest.
- And Jesus was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the midst. That is, in the midst of the court, where the crowd had been.
8:10 And Jesus lifted up himself, and said unto her, Woman, where are they? did no man condemn thee?
- Woman, where are they? did no man condemn thee? This question is asked to pave the way for the dismissal of the woman.
8:11 And she said, No man, Lord1. And Jesus said, Neither do I condemn thee: go thy way; from henceforth sin no more.]
- And she said, No man, Lord. "Lord" is ambiguous; it may mean "Master" or simply "sir".
- And Jesus said, Neither do I condemn thee: go thy way; from henceforth sin no more]. The woman did not ask forgiveness, so no
words of pardon are spoken. Compare this case with Luke 12:14. Jesus
did not come as an earthly judge; neither did he come to condemn, but
to save (John 3:17). The narrative shows how Jesus could deal with
malice and impurity in a manner so full of delicacy and dignity as to
demonstrate the divine wisdom which dwelt within him.
8:12 Again therefore Jesus spake unto them, saying, I am the light of the world1: he that followeth me shall not walk in the darkness, but shall have the light of life.
MESSIANIC CLAIMS MET BY ATTEMPT TO STONE JESUS.
(Jerusalem. October, A.D. 29.)
- I am the light of the world. The metaphor of light was common, and signified knowledge and life; darkness is opposed to light, being the
symbol of ignorance and death.
8:13 The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest witness of thyself; thy witness is not true1.
- Thou bearest witness of thyself; thy witness is not true. The Pharisees perhaps recalled the words of Jesus at John 5:31.
8:14 Jesus answered and said unto them, Even if I bear witness of myself, my witness is true1; for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye know not whence I come, or whither I go.
- Even if I bear witness of myself, my witness is true. No man can bear testimony of his own nature, for he knows neither its origin nor
its end. The Jews could not judge as to Christ's nature--that he was
the source of light and life, because of their ignorance as to him. But
Jesus, having complete knowledge as to his eternal existence, was
qualified to testify. These are truths about Deity to which Deity alone
can testify, and as to the truth of which Deity alone is fully
competent to judge.
8:15 Ye judge after the flesh1; I judge no man.
- Ye judge after the flesh. That is, carnally, superficially, according to appearances. Carnal tests are not suited to spiritual
8:16 Yea and if I judge, my judgment is true1; for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me.
- Yea and if I judge, my judgment is true. Jesus contrasts his spirit with theirs. They came upon him eager to condemn, but he had come not
to condemn, but to save (John 3:17). As an exception to his general
course, he might at intervals condemn a sinner; but should be do so the
sentence would be just, for it would be the judgment of the Father, and
hence devoid of any personal resentment or other biasing, perverting
influence; the Father being lifted above and removed from the heats of
argument in which the Son engaged.
8:17 Yea and in your law it is written, that the witness of two men is true1.
- Yea and in your law it is written, that the witness of two men is true. Jesus here returns to the point raised in John 8:13. He
cites the law as to two witnesses, found at Deuteronomy 19:15, and calls the
law "their" law because they had arrogantly claimed possession of it
8:18 I am he that beareth witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me1.
- I am he that beareth witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me. The Father had borne witness to the Son by the
prophets, including John the Baptist, by his voice at the baptism and
transfiguration, by the works wrought by Jesus, and by the very nature
of the life manifested by our Lord throughout his entire ministry. If
the witness of two "men" establishes truth, much more the witness of
the two divine voices--those of the Father and of the Son.
8:19 They said therefore unto him, Where is thy Father1? Jesus answered, Ye know neither me, nor my Father: if ye knew me, ye would know my Father also2.
- They said therefore unto him, Where is thy Father? They evidently thought that Jesus referred to the testimony of some earthly parent
(John 8:27), and appeal to him to produce this absent, unseen
witness. It was according to their carnal or fleshly judgment to thus
- Jesus answered, Ye know neither me, nor my Father: if ye knew me, ye would know my Father also. If they had really known the Son they
would have recognized in him the Father, and vice versa (John 14:6,8).
8:20 These words spake he in the treasury, as he taught in the temple1: and no man took him; because his hour was not yet come2.
- These words spake he in the treasury, as he taught in the temple. The treasury, or place where the chests for offerings were placed, was
in the court of the women, the most public part of the Jewish temple.
It was near the hall Gazith, where the Sanhedrin met.
- And no man took him; because his hour was not yet come. Though he taught in a place so suited to his arrest, he was not taken. There is
evidently a pause after this verse, but probably not a very long one.
8:21 He said therefore again unto them, I go away, and ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sin: whither I go, ye cannot come1.
- Whither I go, ye cannot come. See John 7:34. Seeking their Messiah as an earthly and not as a spiritual deliverer, they would not
find him, and hence would die unforgiven, and therefore could not come
to the land whither Jesus went, since the unforgiven cannot enter
8:22 The Jews therefore said, Will he kill himself, that he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come1?
- Will he kill himself, that he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come? Jesus had made "their" sins the ground of separation between him and
them, but they assumed that they could go wherever he went, unless he
went "some place" for self-murder. Thus they adroitly attempt to make
"his sin" the cause of the separation.
8:23 And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world1.
- Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world. Jesus replies that they are even now separated by their
origin and nature, and that theirs is the sinful nature, and that they
shall dies in it unless delivered from it through faith in him.
8:25 They said therefore unto him, Who art thou1? Jesus said unto them, Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning2.
- They said therefore unto him, Who art thou? Jesus' bold call to them to believe in him leads them to make a counter demand that he
confess himself to them.
- Jesus said unto them, Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning. But Jesus had all along confessed himself to them
as the Son of the Father, the bread and water of life, the light of the
world, etc., and had no new confession to make.
8:26 I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you1: howbeit he that sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him, these speak I unto the world.
- I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you. Up to this point Jesus had sought to reveal himself; from this point on he would
reveal his enemies also, and though the revelation would be
displeasing, it was from the Father, and hence would be spoken.
8:27 They perceived not that he spake to them of the Father1.
- They perceived not that he spake to them of the Father. The words which he was about to speak would seem to them to be prompted by
8:28 Jesus therefore said, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am [he]1, and [that] I do nothing of myself, but as the Father taught me, I speak these things.
- When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am [he], etc. Misconstruing his words as spoken in this spirit, the Jews
would crucify him; but when their rage had accomplished his death and
spent itself, they would look back upon his life--especially the
closing scenes of it--and see that his soul contained no bitterness
toward them, that what he had said was true, and was spoken at the
dictation of his Father. At the day of Pentecost and the season which
followed it, the repentance of the Jews amply fulfilled this prophecy.
8:30 As he spake these things, many believed on him1.
- As he spake these things, many believed on him. The tender manner in which Jesus spoke these words convinced many that he was filled with
the spirit of loving good will, and they believed him. Among these
converts were some of the Jewish hierarchy, which had been but even now
opposing him. The succeeding verses shows how Jesus tried to correct
their false views of his Messiahship, and to raise their faith to a
higher level, and how their faith utterly broke down under the test.
8:31 Jesus therefore said to those Jews1 that had believed him2, If ye abide in my word, [then] are ye truly my disciples3;
- Jesus therefore said to those Jews. Those of the hierarchy.
- That had believed him. The words indicate a less faith than the "believed on him" of John 8:30.
- If ye abide in my word, [then] are ye truly my disciples. Discipleship is an abiding condition--a life, not an act. The
prejudices and preconceived notions of these Jews would prevent them
from believing on him.
8:32 and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free1.
- And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. Freedom consists in conformity to that which, in the realm of
intellect, is called truth, and in the realm of morality, law. The only
way in which we know truth is to obey it, and God's truth gives freedom
from sin and death.
8:34 Jesus answered them, Verily, verily1, I say unto you, Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin2.
- Verily, verily. See John 1:51.
- Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin. Jesus here shows that the freedom of which he spoke was spiritual--a relief from
the distress mentioned in John 8:21,24.
8:35 And the bondservant abideth not in the house for ever1: the son abideth for ever2.
- And the bondservant abideth not in the house for ever. For light on this passage read Galatians 5:19-21. Slaves have no permanent relationship
to a house, and may be changed at will. God was about to dismiss the
Jews as unfaithful slaves.
- The son abideth for ever. Sons, on the contrary, have a permanent relationship to the house, and if a son take one into fraternal
adoption, he communicates to such a one his own perpetuity. See
8:36 If therefore the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed1.
- If therefore the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. See John 8:32.
8:37 I know that ye are Abraham's seed1: yet ye seek to kill me, because my word hath not free course in you2.
- I know that ye are Abraham's seed. Outwardly and carnally ye are Abraham's seed, but ye are not so inwardly and spiritually, for he was
the friend of God (James 2:23).
- Yet ye seek to kill me, because my word hath not free course in you. But ye are the enemies of God's Son, even seeking to kill him because
ye are so corrupt that his words are distasteful to you, and ye resist
8:38 I speak the things which I have seen with [my] Father1: and ye also do the things which ye heard from [your] father.
- I speak the things which I have seen with [my] Father. An introductory statement leading up to John 8:44. In the discourse
which follows, Jesus discloses two households, two sets of children,
and two styles of language or thought--one divine, the other diabolic.
8:39 They answered and said unto him, Our father is Abraham1. Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham2.
- They answered and said unto him, Our father is Abraham. Seeing that he was distinguishing between his parentage and their parentage, they
reassert for themselves the fatherhood of Abraham, leaving him to find
a better one if he could.
- Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham. Jesus here asserts that true descent is spiritual
--a common nature manifesting itself in a similarity of works.
8:40 But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth1, which I heard from God: this did not Abraham.
- But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth,
- which I heard from God: this did not Abraham. The works of the Jews disproved their claim to be derived from Abraham.
8:41 Ye do the works of your father1. They said unto him, We were not born of fornication; we have one Father, [even] God2.
- Ye do the works of your father. This refers back to John 8:38 and shows that in distinguishing between his and their parentage Jesus
had not allotted them the parentage of Abraham which they so gliby
- They said unto him, We were not born of fornication; we have one Father, [even] God. Perceiving that he spoke of spiritual parentage,
and recognizing the fact that he had shattered their claim of spiritual
derivation from Abraham, they fell back upon the citadel of Jewish
confidence and pride--spiritually they were begotten of God; they were
not begotten of an idolatrous but of a godly stock. Fornication is here
used as a the common symbol for idolatry (Exodus 34:15,16; Hosea 1:2; Hosea 2:4).
8:42 Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me1: for I came forth and am come from God; for neither have I come of myself, but he sent me.
- If God were your Father, ye would love me. If ye were God's children, ye would recognize me as of the same household, and love me
accordingly, for I am both God-derived and God-sent.
8:43 Why do ye not understand my speech1? [Even] because ye cannot hear my word2.
- Why do ye not understand my speech? By "speech" here Jesus means the outward form or expression of an idea.
- [Even] because ye cannot hear my word. By "word" he means the inner thought or substance--the idea itself. Throughout this whole dialogue
the Jews had failed to understand the verbiage of Jesus, because his
thoughts were so utterly unfamiliar that no words could make them
plain. Minds filled with ideas of the devil find it difficult to
comprehend the thoughts of God, no matter how plainly expressed.
8:44 Ye are of [your] father the devil1, and the lusts of your father it is your will to do2. He was a murderer from the beginning3, and standeth not in the truth, because there is no truth in him4. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar5, and the father thereof.
- Ye are of [your] father the devil. By your hatred of the truth and your desire to commit murder, which are notable lusts of the devil, you
show that you are spiritually derived from him.
- And the lusts of your father it is your will to do. Wishes, desires.
- He was a murderer from the beginning. For he brought sin into the world, which caused death (Romans 5:12).
- And standeth not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. He shrinks from the truth as you do, because it meets no response in
- When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar,
- and the father thereof. When he speaks a lie, he speaks of his own offspring, for he is a liar and the father of lying.
8:45 But because I say the truth, ye believe me not.
- And because I tell [you] the truth, ye believe me not. As children of Satan, they were used to his flattering speech;
hence they rejected the word of Jesus because it was the bitter
truth, and convicted them of sin.
8:46 Which of you convicteth me of sin1? If I say truth, why do ye not believe me2?
- Which of you convicteth me of sin? If you cannot convict me of sin, then what I say must be true.
- If I say truth, why do ye not believe me? Why, then, do you not believe me?
8:47 He that is of God heareth the words of God1: for this cause ye hear [them] not, because ye are not of God2.
- He that is of God heareth the words of God. The word "hear" is used in the sense of receive.
- For this cause ye hear [them] not, because ye are not of God. Children of God love the honesty of God, but children of the devil
prefer to be deceived. The saying is akin to John 3:20,21.
8:48 The Jews answered and said unto him1, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a demon2?
- The Jews answered and said unto him. The same Jews mentioned in
- Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a demon? They present this piece of scorn as though it were a current saying; but it
was probably suggested by the distinction in parentage which Jesus had
just made. See John 8:38. He had shown they were no true sons of either
Abraham or God, and they retaliate by calling him a Samaritan, swayed
by diabolical influences. Jesus had visited Samaria (John 4:5) and
had just come through Samaria to this feast (Luke 9:52); these things,
coupled with his bitter charges against the sons of Abraham, were
sufficient to suggest the slanderous accusation.
8:49 Jesus answered, I have not a demon; but I honor my Father, and ye dishonor me1.
- I have not a demon; but I honor my Father, and ye dishonor me. He did not deny the charge of being a Samaritan, not choosing to recognize
the difference which they attached to race (John 4:39-42; Luke 10:33
8:50 But I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth1.
- But I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth. I do not mind your abuse, for I do not seek my own glory.
My Father seeks it, and judges those in whom he finds it not. See
8:51 Verily, verily1, I say unto you, If a man keep my word, he shall never see death2.
- Verily, verily. See John 1:51.
- If a man keep my word, he shall never see death. Jesus here re-states the thought in John 8:31,32. "To keep" here means to
cherish and obey. Sin is bondage, and its wages is death. The fleshly
body of the Christian dies, but the spirit within him does not. His
eternal life begins in this world. See John 5:24.
8:52 The Jews said unto him, Now we know that thou hast a demon1. Abraham died, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my word, he shall never taste of death2.
- Now we know that thou hast a demon. They thus construed his words as a confirmation of their former accusation (John 8:48).
- Abraham died, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my word, he shall never taste of death. The argument is this: God's word
spoken to Abraham and the prophets had not preserved their lives, yet
you claim power of life for your words greater than God's, yet surely
you will not claim even to be as great as Abraham. Such wild talk is
8:53 Art thou greater than our father Abraham, who died? and the prophets died: whom makest thou thyself1?
- Whom makest thou thyself? They expected Jesus to disclaim the high position to which he seemed to have exalted himself.
8:54 Jesus answered, If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing1: it is my Father that glorifieth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God;
- If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. He prefaces his answer by showing that his words are not spoken in a spirit of self-exaltation,
but in accordance with the will of his Father.
8:55 and ye have not known him: but I know him; and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be like unto you, a liar1: but I know him, and keep his word2.
- Like unto you, a liar. Referring back to John 8:44.
- But I know him, and keep his word. Jesus here makes plain as sunlight his entire discourse by showing that he has used the word
"Father" where they would have used the word "God". There is a
distinction, too, between the "known" and the "know" used by Jesus. The
first ("ye have not known him") represents knowledge which is acquired.
The Jews had not acquired a knowledge of God from their Scriptures. The
second ("but I know him") indicates that which is grasped intuitively,
by direct personal cognition.
8:56 Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day1; and he saw it, and was glad.
- Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day. "My day" means the mediatorial manifestation of Messiah. Abraham saw it by faith in the
8:57 The Jews therefore said unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham1?
- Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? They continue to persist in a literal interpretation, and even wrest the
words of Jesus; for Abraham might well have seen him as the seed of
promise, without his fleshly eyes ever seeing Abraham. Fifty years
indicated the prime of life. It had been two thousand years since the
time of Abraham, and Jesus was not yet a mature man as estimated by
8:58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily1, I say unto you, Before Abraham was born, I am2.
- Verily, verily. See John 1:51.
- Before Abraham was born, I am. "I was" would simply have expressed priority, but "I am" marks timeless existence. It draws the contrast
between the created and the uncreated, the temporal and the eternal.
Compare Exodus 3:14.
8:59 They took up stones therefore to cast at him1: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple2.
- They took up stones therefore to cast at him. Judging him to be a blasphemer.
- But Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple. He doubtless drew back into the crowd and was concealed by his friends.