The Fourfold Gospel
16:1 These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be caused to stumble1.
- These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be caused to stumble. Jesus warned his disciples of coming persecutions in order
that those persecutions might not shake their faith.
16:2 They shall put you out of the synagogues1: yea, the hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you shall think that he offereth service unto God2.
- They shall put you out of the synagogues. See John 9:35. On the synagogue, see Mark 1:39.
- Yea, the hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you shall think that he offereth service unto God. Persecutors would not only take away
religious privileges, but even life itself, and they would do this as a
religious act, esteeming Christians such enemies of God that God would
take pleasure in their death. Paul gives us an illustration of this
fanatical zeal (Acts 26:9; Galatians 1:13,14).
16:3 And these things will they do, because they have not known the Father, nor me1.
- And these things will they do, because they have not known the Father, nor me. The disciples being but few, and finding the vast
majority of the nation against them, and being but unlearned Galileans,
and finding the leaders--the wise, the cultured, the mighty--against
them, would be tempted to doubt the correctness of their course, and to
ask, "May we not, after all, be mistaken: may not those who know more
be better judges in this matter than we who are so ignorant"? To
forestall and prevent such questioning, Jesus asserts that the
ignorance is with the rulers. Knowledge of himself and of his Father is
the great and supreme knowledge, and the apostles having this were
wiser than those with all other learning.
16:4 But these things have I spoken unto you, that when their hour is come, ye may remember them, how that I told you1. And these things I said not unto you from the beginning, because I was with you2.
- But these things have I spoken unto you, that when their hour is come, ye may remember them, how that I told you. It would also
strengthen their faith to remember that the Lord's divine wisdom had
foreseen all this trouble.
- And these things I said not unto you from the beginning, because I was with you. While he was with his disciples they were in no danger,
for he himself bore the brunt of persecution. In the beginning,
therefore, of his ministry he did not deem it expedient to dishearten
his disciples by foretelling trials which were then remote. When he
began to announce his approaching death, then he also began to declare
that the disciple must be willing to lose his life if he would find it.
See notes at Section 70, Subdivision C, at Mark 8:31-38. Some think
that Matthew 5:10-12 forms a contradiction to our Lord's statement here.
While the words in Matthew were spoken early enough to be classified as
"from the beginning", their import is to general to permit of their
being brought into contrast with this direct and personal prediction of
16:5 But now I go unto him that sent me; and none of you asketh me1, Whither goest thou?
- But now I go unto him that sent me; and none of you asketh me,
- Whither goest thou? The disciples had asked the Lord whither he was going (John 13:36; John 14:5), but their question had a very different
meaning from that which Jesus here suggests to them. They asked it to
ascertain whether his departure would a withdrawal from the world in
which they could accompany him. The question which he suggests has
reference to the place to which he was about to journey, that place
being the home and presence of his Father. The question asked was
selfish, as if the apostles had asked, "What will your departure mean
to us"? The question suggested was generous, intimating that the
apostles should have asked, "What will this departure mean to you"?
16:6 But because I have spoken these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.
- Because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. Viewing his departure from a selfish standpoint filled their
hearts with sorrow; but viewing it from a generous standpoint would
have filled them with sympathetic joy, because of the supreme happiness
which it would bring to their Master (John 14:28). But even from a
selfish standpoint the apostles would have had reason to rejoice
because of the advantage which would accrue to them through the Lord's
departure, for that departure would result in the advent of the Holy
16:7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth: It is expedient for you that I go away; for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I go, I will send him unto you1.
- For if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I go, I will send him unto you. Space does not permit us to discuss
why the Spirit could not come until the Lord had departed, but the
verses which follow give us one good and sufficient reason, for they
show that his work had to do with the conviction of human hearts
through the preaching of a completed gospel, and the ascension or
return of Christ to heaven, and his enthronement in glory there, are
essential parts of the completed gospel.
16:8 And he, when he is come, will convict the world1 in respect of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment2:
- And he, when he is come, will convict the world. It would be the work of the Holy Spirit to take the truths respecting Christ, and,
using the apostles as mouthpieces (Acts 2:1-37), to convince the world
as to these truths.
- In respect of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment. This convincing work was entirely in relation to Christ, the sin of
disbelieving him, the righteousness revealed in him, and the power of
judgment conferred upon him.
16:9 of sin, because they believe not on me1;
- Of sin, because they believe not on me. Sin, righteousness, and a day of judgment with its reward upon one and its punishment upon the
other, are three cardinal doctrines of the gospel. The Spirit convinces
the world that disbelief in Christ is its fatal sin, for belief in
Christ leads to forgiveness, and to the unbelieving there is no
forgiveness. The least sin is a sin unto death, and is a sin eternal
unless forgiven. The greatest sin, if forgiven, becomes harmless and is
as if it had never been. Until the world is convinced of this great
truth it feels no need of a gospel.
16:10 of righteousness, because I go to the Father, and ye behold me no more;
- Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye behold me no more. Again, Christianity teaches that righteousness is prerequisite
to the attainment of the presence of God. Without righteousness we can
never behold him, nor can we ever hope to stand before him. But this
required righteousness was found in Jesus, for he returned to the
Father, and abides with the Father, being seen by us no more. The Holy
Spirit convinces the world that those who are found in Christ, having
his righteousness, shall attain unto the presence of the Father.
16:11 of judgment, because the prince of this world hath been judged1.
- Of judgment, because the prince of this world hath been judged. Lastly, the Spirit convinces the world that Jesus is commissioned as
its judge. Our Lord's resurrection is the assurance of this fact
(Acts 17:31). The resurrection is such an assurance because it is an
evidence of the judgment and condemnation of Satan, the head and leader
in sinful rebellion against God, and he that hath power to judge the
head thereby shows he had power to judge the body. Satan held the power
of death over humanity, but Jesus judged him and brought him to naught
by taking away this power (Hebrews 2:14,15). The cross of Christ as
the source of life asserted his superiority over all other powers
(Colossians 2:14,15), which implies an ability to judge them.
16:12 I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.
- I have yet many things unto say to you, but ye cannot bear them now. The doctrines of the gospel were necessarily obscure and largely
incomprehensible to the apostles until time had developed the gospel
facts. Jesus, therefore, forbore to speak of many things at this time,
lest by doing so he should confuse the minds of his followers.
16:13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he shall guide you into all the truth1: for he shall not speak from himself2; but what things soever he shall hear, [these] shall he speak: and he shall declare unto you the things that are to come.
- Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he shall guide you into all the truth. The Holy Spirit was to bring no absolutely new
- For he shall not speak from himself. The Son of God here claims for himself all that the Holy Spirit taught even to the declaration of
things to come.
16:14 He shall glorify me: for he shall take of mine, and shall declare [it] unto you1.
- He shall glorify me: for he shall take of mine, and shall declare [it] unto you. The Spirit would bring to mind and republish in the
"minds" of the apostles all the words which Jesus had spoken, and would
add those things which, being now in the mind of Jesus, were really
part of his teaching, but which he at this present forbore to utter,
the apostles not being able to bear them.
16:15 All things whatsoever the Father hath are mine1: therefore said I, that he taketh of mine, and shall declare [it] unto you2.
- All things whatsoever the Father hath are mine. The Son's unity of interest with the Father made him possessor of all the Father's truth,
as well as all the Father's counsel as to the future.
- Therefore said I, that he taketh of mine, and shall declare [it] unto you. As Jesus, therefore, might at this time have uttered all
which the Holy Spirit subsequently taught, he rightfully claimed all
the teaching of the Spirit as his.
16:16 A little while, and ye behold me no more; and again a little while1, and ye shall see me.
- A little while, and ye behold me no more; and again a little while,
- and ye shall see me. Having finished his digression about the Holy Spirit, Jesus here returns to his point of departure, the theme of
resurrection, but the seeing here spoken of refers more especially to
that spiritual communion with him previously mentioned (John 14:19-23).
16:17 [Some] of his disciples therefore said one to another, What is this that he saith unto us1, A little while, and ye behold me not; and again a little while, and ye shall see me: and, Because I go to the Father?
- What is this that he saith unto us, etc. Having been unable to entertain the idea of our Lord's burial and resurrection, no wonder the
apostles were mystified by these allusions to it.
16:19 Jesus perceived1 that they were desirous to ask him, and he said unto them, Do ye inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said, A little while, and ye behold me not, and again a little while, and ye shall see me?
- Jesus perceived. By his divine insight (John 2:24,25; John 6:61
16:20 Verily, verily1, I say unto you, that ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice: ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy2.
- Verily, verily. See John 1:51.
- But your sorrow shall be turned into joy. The death of Jesus "truly" brought gladness to his enemies (Luke 22:5), and sorrow to his
friends (John 20:11), but the sorrow was indeed turned to joy
16:21 A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow1, because her hour is come: but when she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for the joy that a man is born into the world.
- A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, etc. The simile here is very apropos, according with Scriptural ideals (Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1:5).
16:22 And ye therefore now have sorrow: but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no one taketh away from you1.
- And your joy no one taketh away from you. See Luke 24:52,53. The joyful hopes which come to us through the resurrection of Jesus are
beyond the reach of the despoiling hand of man.
16:23 And in that day ye shall ask me no question1. Verily, verily2, I say unto you, if ye shall ask anything of the Father, he will give it you in my name3.
- And in that day ye shall ask me no question. The coming of the Spirit would make all things clear, and the mysteries about which come
to us through the resurrection of Jesus are beyond the reach of the
despoiling hand of man.
- Verily, verily. See John 1:51.
- If ye shall ask anything of the Father, he will give it you in my name. Having spoken of his departure, and of what the Spirit would do
during his absence, he now speaks of the work which he would do himself
do while absent. He entered heaven as our high priest (Hebrews 9:24),
and part of his priestly office is to make intercession for his people
16:24 Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name1: ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be made full.
- Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name. The use of Christ's name for intercessory purposes was new to the apostles, since it was only
thus employed after his ascension.
16:25 These things have I spoken unto you in dark sayings: the hour cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in dark sayings, 1but shall tell you plainly of the Father.
- The hour cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in dark sayings, but shall tell you plainly of the Father
- . This closing discourse was full of "dark sayings" which the disciples did not
understand, but when the gospel facts were completed and when the
Spirit came on the day of Pentecost, then Christ through the Spirit
made all things plain to them.
16:26 In that day ye shall ask in my name1: and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you;
- In that day ye shall ask in my name. Fullness of knowledge would lead them to look readily to Christ as intercessor.
16:27 for the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from the Father1.
- For the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from the Father. While the apostles
did not believe in the voluntary exit of Jesus, it having not yet taken
place, they did believe that he had come into the world as a divine
being, and for this belief the Father loved them, and this love of the
Father was not to be lost sight of in considering the mediatory work of
Christ. In short, the Father must be looked upon as one who does not
need to be interceded with because of a lack of love. Though, according
to the divine plan and order, Jesus is intercessor (1 Timothy 2:5
1 John 2:1,2), yet the office is not self-assumed for the purpose of
counteracting any spirit of severity in the Father, but is, on the
contrary, undertaken by direct appointment of the Father, made because
of the Father's love (John 3:16). Failing to recognize the Father as
the fountain and source of grace, love, and mercy has led the Roman
Church into gross errors. The Father being suspected of undue rigor, a
like suspicion arose also as to the Son because of his nearness to the
Father. Therefore the Virgin Mary was called in to intercede with and
soften the obduracy of the Son. Since the deification of the Virgin
Mary in 1853, she also has been looked upon with growing distrust, and
the tendency has been to call upon Joseph to intercede with Mary to
intercede with the Son to intercede with the Father. Thus that
wonderful love of God which passes all understanding is made less than
that of mere mortals who never manifested a measure of philanthropy
above what is common. Against such errors Jesus guards us by causing
us to understand that, if the love of the Father alone were to be
considered, there would be no need for him to intercede at all.
16:28 I came out from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the world, and go unto the Father1.
- I came out from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the world, and go unto the Father. Birth and death are alike
beyond our control. That Jesus had a divine as well as a human nature
is shown by the fact that his entrance into and exit from the world
were both governed by his own violation, as was also his resurrection
16:29 His disciples say, Lo, now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no dark saying1.
- Lo, now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no dark saying. They now clearly understood that as Jesus came from heaven so would he
return to heaven, but they did not understand the process by which this
return would be effected.
16:30 Now know we that thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask thee: by this we believe that thou camest forth from God.
- Now know we that thou knowest all things . . . by this we believe that thou camest forth from God. The miraculous manner in which he had
just read their thoughts caused them to boldly declare their faith in
16:32 Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is come1, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone2: and [yet] I am not alone, because the Father is with me3.
- Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is come. He contrasts the faith which his disciples then professed with that utter lack of it which they
would manifest in a few hours.
- That ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone. All their confidence in his divinity would vanish when they saw
him arrested, etc., and they would seek their own safety, leaving him
to his fate.
- And [yet] I am not alone, because the Father is with me. Much as he would feel their desertion, he would not be left utterly comfortless,
because the Father would be with him. Paul speaks in a similar strain
(2 Timothy 4:16-18).
16:33 These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye may have peace1. In the world ye have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.
- These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye may have peace. Christ's return to the Father and his throne is the Christian source of
peace. As none of the accumulations of evil which came upon Christ
prevented him from attaining his goal, so the Christian feels that in
the conquering power of Christ, he too shall rise superior to all his
troubles, and this feeling brings him peace.