The Fourfold Gospel
16:1 And he said also unto the disciples1, There was a certain rich man, who had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he was wasting his goods2.
SECOND GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES.
(Probably in Perea.)
E. PARABLE OF THE UNRIGHTEOUS STEWARD.
- And he said also unto the disciples. If we remember that many publicans were now taking their stand among Jesus' disciples, we will
more readily understand why Jesus addressed to them a parable about an
unjust man, They would be more readily affected by such a story.
- There was a certain rich man, who had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he was wasting his goods. "Wasted" is the same
verb as found at Luke 15:13. The attitude of the two brethren to their
father's estate, as set forth in the previous parable, introduced
thoughts as to the proper relation which a man bears to his
possessions, and these relations Jesus discusses in this parable. While
no parable has been so diversely explained, yet the trend of
interpretation has been in the main satisfactory. The Lord himself
gives the key to the parable in Luke 16:8, which is that the children
of light, in the conduct of their affairs, should emulate the wisdom
and prudence of the children of the world in the conduct of their
affairs. The difficulty of the parable is more apparent than real. The
whole parabolic machinery is borrowed from worldly and irreligious
life, where dishonest cunning and rascality are freely tolerated. The
child of light is equally shrewd and wise in the management of his
affairs; "using, however, only those means and methods which are
permissible in his sphere of action". God's word, of course, nowhere
teaches that sinful methods are permitted to him whom it calls to lead
a sinless life. While the steward's conduct teaches valuable lessons,
the steward himself is condemned as an "unrighteous" man in Luke 16:8.
16:2 And he called him, and said unto him, What is this that I hear of thee1? render the account of thy stewardship; for thou canst be no longer steward2.
- What is this that I hear of thee? An indignant expression of surprise arising from abused confidence.
- Render the account of thy stewardship; for thou canst be no longer steward. Ordinarily the stewards were slaves; but this was evidently
a free man, for he was neither punished nor sold, but discharged.
16:3 And the steward said within himself, What shall I do, seeing that my lord taketh away the stewardship from me? I have not strength to dig1; to beg I am ashamed2.
- I have not strength to dig. Being too weak in body because of my luxurious living. Digging refers generally to agricultural labor.
- To beg I am ashamed. Being too strong in pride because of my exalted manner of life.
16:4 I am resolved what to do1, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they2 may receive me into their houses.
- I am resolved what to do. A way of escape comes to him in a sudden flash of discovery.
- They. The lord's debtors.
16:6 And he said, A hundred measures of oil1. And he said unto him, Take thy bond2, and sit down quickly and write fifty3.
- A hundred measures of oil. The measure mentioned here is the Hebrew "bath", which corresponded roughly to a firkin, or nine gallons.
- Take thy bond. Literally, writings.
- And sit down quickly and write fifty. The amount remitted here-- 450 gallons of olive oil--represented a large sum of money. Such a
reduction would put the debtor under great obligation to the steward.
16:7 Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, A hundred measures of wheat. He saith unto him, Take thy bond, and write fourscore2.
- An hundred measures of wheat. The measure here is the Hebrew "cor", which contains ten baths, or ephahs, or, more exactly, 86.7 gallons.
- Take thy bond, and write fourscore. The amount remitted was about two hundred sixty-seven bushels, and the debtor himself altered the
writings, that he might be in no uncertainty about it. Scholars
disagree as to whether these debtors were tenants or traders; that is,
purchasers of produce who had given their bonds or notes for the same.
Meyer, Trench, Godet, and others favor this latter view, but the
language used and the customs of the land rather indicate that the
former is correct. In the East rents are in proportion to the crop, and
hence they vary as it varies. It was natural, therefore, that the
steward should ask the amount of the rent; and also natural, since
rents were thus payable in kind, that the tenant should answer as to
the very thing owed. A traders would have been held, not for the
"purchase", but for the "price", and would rather have specified the
money due than the quantity or thing bought. Since the price of
produce varies, it has been the immemorial custom everywhere to fix the
amount to be paid for it at the very time it is purchased, and the
amount becomes the debt.
16:8 And his lord commended the unrighteous steward because he had done wisely1: for the sons of this world are for their own generation2 wiser than the sons of the light.
- And his lord commended the unrighteous steward because he had done wisely. Shrewdly.
- For the sons of this world are for their own generation. Their own clan or class.
- Wiser than the sons of light. That is to say, the steward, a worldly-minded rascal, knew better how to deal with a worldly-minded
master above him and dishonest tenants beneath him, than a son of light
knows how to deal with the God over him and his needy brethren about
him. The verse contrasts the sons of two households: the children of
the worldly household exercise more forethought and prudence in gaining
among their brethren friends for the day of need, and in expending
money to that end, than do the children of the light. The "devil's
martyrs" in their skillful prudence, often shame the saints. If the
latter showed a wisdom in their affairs analogous to that which the
unjust employed in his affairs, God would commend them as the lord
commended the steward.
16:9 And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends by means of the mammon of unrighteousness1; that, when it shall fail, they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles2.
- The mammon of unrighteousness. See Matthew 6:24.
- That, when it shall fail, they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles. Worldly possession are the Christian's stewardship. If
he has been wasting them in self-indulgence, he must take warning from
the parable and so employ them in deeds of usefulness and mercy that,
when the stewardship is taken from him, he may have obtained for
himself a refuge for the future. But how can those whom the Christian
had befriended receive him into heaven? The key to the difficulty is
found at Matthew 25:35-40, where our Lord altogether identifies himself
with his poor and unfortunate disciples, and returns on their behalf a
heavenly recompense for any kindness which has been shown them on the
earth. Only in this secondary and subordinate sense can those whom the
Christian has benefited receive him into heaven. Nor does the passage
teach that their is any "merit" in almsgiving, since the thing given is
already the property of another. See Luke 16:12. Almsgiving is only a
phase of the fidelity required of a steward, and the reward of a
steward is not of merit but of grace. See Luke 17:7-10; Matthew 25:21.
16:10 He that is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much1: and he that is unrighteous in a very little is unrighteous also in much2.
- He that is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much. In the administration of small properties entrusted to us on the earth, we
reveal our disposition and temper as stewards quite as well as if we
owned half the universe.
- And he that is unrighteous in a very little is unrighteous also in much. God does not judge by the magnitude of an act, but by the
spiritual principles and motives which lie back of the act. A small
action may discover and lay bare these principles quite as well as a
16:11 If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon1, who will commit to your trust the true [riches]2?
- If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon. The word "unrighteous" is here used to mean "deceitful", as opposed to
- Who will commit to your trust the true [riches]? Worldly riches deceive us by being temporal and transitory, while the true riches are
eternal. See 2 Corinthians 4:18.
16:12 And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own1?
- And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? We are all God's stewards, and
the perishing possessions of earth are not our own, but that which is
given us "forever" is "our own". See 1 Corinthians 3:22.
16:13 No servant can serve two masters1: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.
- No servant can serve two masters. See Matthew 6:24. See also Galatians 1:10; James 4:4.
16:14 And the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things1; and they scoffed at him.
- And the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things;
- and they scoffed at him. The Pharisees derided him with open insolence (Luke 23:35). This was a new phase of their opposition, and showed
that they no longer feared Jesus as formerly, being assured that he
aimed at no earthly dominion. Because of his poverty they may have
regarded him as prejudiced against wealth. At any rate, they regarded
themselves as living contradictions of this to them ridiculous
statement that a man could not be rich and yet religious.
16:15 And he said unto them, Ye are they that justify yourselves in the sight of men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God1.
- For that which is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God. The Pharisees lived in such outward contrast to the publicans
and made such pretensions and claims that men esteemed them righteous,
but they were nonetheless abominable in God's sight. God approves
righteousness when "inward", but despises the mere outward show of it.
16:16 The law and the prophets [were] until John: from that time the gospel of the kingdom of God is preached, and every man entereth violently into it1.
- And every man entereth violently into it. On "the violent take it by force", see Matthew 11:12.
16:17 But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away1, than for one tittle of the law to fall.
- It is easier for heaven and earth to pass away. See Matthew 5:18.
- Than one tittle of the law to fail. See Matthew 5:18. The law and the prophets had been used of God to set up the old dispensation,
and it had been so perverted and abused that in it the Pharisees could
pass for righteous men, though abominable according to its true
standard. Since the days of John the old dispensation has been merging
into the new, and this also has been subjected to violence. But despite
all the changes made, approved, and justified by men, the God-given law
had never changed. Its smallest letter could no more be eliminated than
the universe could be obliterated. But, of course, the Lawgiver could
with notice modify his law.
16:18 Every one that putteth away his wife, and marrieth another1, committeth adultery: and he that marrieth one that is put away from a husband committeth adultery.
- Every one that putteth away his wife, and marrieth another,
- committeth adultery, etc. This precept is inserted here as an illustration of a flagrant violation of the law of God, both
countenanced and practiced by these Pharisees. See Matthew 5:32.
16:19 Now1 there was a certain rich man2, and he was clothed in purple3 and fine linen4, faring sumptuously every day5:
SECOND GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES.
(Probably in Perea.)
F. PARABLE OF THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS.
- Now. The parable we are about to study is a direct advance upon the thoughts in the previous section. We may say generally that if the
parable of the unjust steward teaches how riches are to be used, this
parable sets forth the terrible consequences of a failure to so use
them. Each point of the previous discourse is covered in detail, as
will be shown by the references in the discussion of the parable.
- There was a certain rich man. For convenience's sake, this rich man has been commonly called Dives, which is simply Latin for "rich
man", and is therefore not truly a name, for it is not fitting to name
him whom the Lord left nameless.
- And he was clothed in purple. Along the coast of Tyre there was found a rare shell-fish (Murex purpurarius) from which a costly purple
dye was obtained, each little animal yielding about one drop of it.
Woolen garments dyed with it were worn by kings and nobles, and idol
images were sometimes arrayed in them. This purple robe formed the
outer, and the linen the inner garment.
- And fine linen. The "byssus", or fine linen of Egypt, was produced from flax, which grew on the banks of the Nile. It was dazzlingly
white, and worth twice its weight in gold (Genesis 41:42; Exodus 26:31-33; Exodus 28:5
1 Chronicles 15:27; Ezekiel 27:7).
- Faring sumptuously every day. The mention of these garments and a continual banqueting indicates a life of extreme luxury.
16:20 and a certain beggar1 named Lazarus2 was laid at his gate3, full of sores,
- And a certain beggar. Literally, one who crouches. The Greek word "ptochos" is used thirty-four times in the New Testament, and is
everywhere translated "poor", save here and Luke 16:22; Galatians 4:9. In the
last stages of life Lazarus had become an object of charity, but there
is nothing to indicate that he had been an habitual beggar.
- Named Lazarus. This is the only name which occurs in our Lord's parables. It is derived from Eleazar, which means "God a help". The
name is symbolic of destitution, and many words indicative of beggary
are derived from it.
- Was laid at his gate. In the East, the gates of the rich are still the resorts of the poor.
16:21 and desiring to be fed with the [crumbs] that fell from the rich man's table1; yea, even the dogs come and licked his sores2.
- And desiring to be fed with the [crumbs] that fell from the rich man's table. The contrast here is sharp. Lazarus is naked and clothed
with sores instead of rich apparel, and desires crumbs instead of a
banquet. That he limited his desire to crumbs suggests a freedom from
both worldly lust and envy. Whether he got the crumbs is not stated.
His sufferings may have been as unmitigated on earth as those of the
rich man were in Hades (Luke 16:24), and it is certain that even if
he received the crumbs they did not count as a gift, being mere refuse,
utterly worthless in the sight of the rich man. The very point of the
parable is that the rich man "gave" him nothing.
- Yea, even the dogs come and licked his sores. The dogs also suggest a contrast. The rich man is surrounded by the loyal brethren and
attentive servants, while Lazarus is the companion of dogs, the
scavengers of the streets, who treat him with rude compassion as one of
their number, soothing his sores with their saliva.
16:22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom1: and the rich man also died, and was buried2.
- And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom. It is the office of angels to
minister to the heirs of salvation (Matthew 24:31; Mark 13:27; Hebrews 1:14).
- And the rich man also died, and was buried. In death as well as in life, the two men stand in contrast. The rich man passes from view with
the pomp and pagentry of a burial (2 Chronicles 16:13,14), an earthly honor
suited to a worldly life. But Lazarus passes hence with the angels, a
spiritual triumph suited to one accepted of God.
16:23 And in Hades1 he lifted up his eyes, being in torments2, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom3.
- And in Hades. Hades (Greek) or Sheol (Hebrew) was the name given to the abode of the dead between death and the resurrection.
- He lifted up his eyes, being in torments. In it the souls of the wicked are in torment (Revelation 14:10), and those of the righteous enjoy
a paradise (Luke 23:43).
- And seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. The joys of Paradise were conceived of as those of a feast, and the expression
"Abraham's bosom" is taken from the custom of reclining on couches at
feasts. As a guest leaned upon his left arm, his neighbor on his left
might easily lean upon his bosom. Such a position of respect to the
master of the house was one of special honor, and indicated great
intimacy (John 1:18; John 13:23). What higher honor or joy could the Jew
conceive of than such a condition of intimacy and fellowship with
Abraham, the great founder of their race (Matthew 8:11)?
16:24 And he cried and said1, Father Abraham2, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am in anguish in this flame.
- And he cried and said. In earnest entreaty.
- Father Abraham. The claim of kindred is not denied, but it is unavailing (Luke 3:8).
- Have mercy on me, and send Lazarus that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am in anguish in this flame.
The smallness of the favor asked indicates the greatness of the
distress, as it does in Luke 16:21, where crumbs are desired. There is
a reciprocity also between the desired "crumbs" and the prayed-for
"drop", which contains a covert reference to Luke 16:4,5. Had the rich
man given more, he might now have asked for more. The friendship of
Lazarus might have been easily won, and now the rich man needed that
friendship, but he had neglected the principle set forth in Luke 16:9,
and had abused his stewardship by wasting his substance upon himself.
Again, the former condition of each party is sharply reversed. Lazarus
feasts at a better banquet, and the rich man begs because of a more
dire and insatiable craving. Thus the life despised of men was honored
by God, and the man who was exalted among men is found to have been
abominable unto God (Luke 16:15).
16:25 But Abraham said, Son1, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and Lazarus in like manner evil things2: but now3 here he is comforted and thou art in anguish4.
- But Abraham said, Son. A tender word (Joshua 7:19).
- Remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and Lazarus in like manner evil things. See Proverbs 5:11-14.
- But now. When a different order pertains from that of the earth.
- Here he is comforted and thou art in anguish. The woes received by Lazarus are not spoken of as "his". He neither earned nor deserved
them (Revelation 7:13-17). His was the stewardship of suffering (1 Corinthians 4:9
2 Corinthians 4:7), and in its small details he had shown great faithfulness.
The rich man had the stewardship of wealth, with its accompanying
obligation of generosity. The obligation he had esteemed as too
contemptibly small to deserve his notice; but in neglecting it, he had
inadvertently been unfaithful in much. See Luke 16:10. This has been
the sin of omission on the part of the rich man, and his sin of
commission answered as a complement to it, for he had been guilty of
that money-loving self-indulgence which was condemned by Jesus and
justified by the Pharisees (Luke 16:14,15). No other crime is charged
against the rich man, yet he is found in torment. But the rich man
during his lifetime had been so deceived by his wealth that he had
failed to detect his sin. Moreover, as he indicates in (Luke 16:28),
a like deception was now being practiced upon his brethren. Thus the
parable justifies the term "unrighteous" which Jesus had given to
mammon at Luke 16:9,11.
116:26 And besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that they that would pass from hence to you may not be able, and that none may cross over from thence to us.
- Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that they that would pass from hence to you may not be able, and that none may cross over
from thence to us. We have here a clear statement of the separation
which parts the good from the evil in the future state. But it has been
urged that the coloring and phraseology of this parable is derived from
rabbinical teaching, that our Lord made use of a current but erroneous
Jewish notion to teach a valuable lesson, and that therefore it is not
safe to draw any inferences from the narrative relative to the future
state. But it should be noted that the parables of Jesus never
introduce fictitious conditions, nor do they anywhere violate the order
and course of nature. It is hardly possible that he could have made
this an exception to his rule, especially since it is in a field where
all the wisdom of the world is insufficient to make the slightest
correction. Moreover, it is certainly impossible that he could
exaggerate the differences between the states of the lost and saved in
the hereafter. Nor can the teaching of the parable be set aside on the
ground that it represents merely the intermediate and not the final
condition of things. If the intermediate condition of things is fixed
and established, the final condition must, a fortiori, be more so.
Moreover, the teaching here differs from that of the old rabbis, for,
according to Lightfoot, a wall and not a gulf separated between the
just and the unjust, and they were not "afar off" from each other, the
distance being but a handbreadth. The passage therefore confirms the
doctrine that the righteous are neither homeless nor unconscious during
the period between death and the resurrection (Philippians 1:23), and refutes
the doctrine of universalism, for the gulf is (1) fixed, and (2) cannot
be passed or bridged. The gulf of pride and caste between the rich man
and Lazarus while on earth was easy to cross.
16:27 And he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house1;
- I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house. The double attempt of the rich man to use Lazarus as
his servant shows how hard it was for him to adjust himself to his new
16:28 for I have five brethren1; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment2.
- For I have five brethren. There is no typical significance in the number.
- That he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. Deceived by his wealth, the rich man looked upon his
earthly possessions as real and substantial, and, like rich sinners of
today, had simply disregarded the affairs of the future life. Aroused
by the sudden experience of the awful realities of the future state, he
desires to make it as real to his brethren as it had now become to him.
In endeavoring to carry out his desire, he proceeds on the theory that
the testimony of the dead in reference to the realities of the future
state are more trustworthy and influential than the revelations of God
himself, given through his inspired spokesmen. This dishonoring of God
and his law was to be expected from one who had made mammon his real
master, even though professing (as the context suggests) to serve God.
The singleness of his service is shown in that he, though practically
discharged by one master (mammon), cannot even now speak respectfully
of God. Some commentators make much of the so-called repentance of the
rich man, manifested in this concern for his brethren; but the Lord did
not count kindness shown to kindred as evidence of goodness, much less
of repentance (Luke 6:32-35). Besides the natural feeling for his
brothers, he knew that their presence in torment would add to his own.
His concern for his brethren is not told to indicate repentance. It is
mentioned to bring out the point that the revealed will of God of
itself and without more makes it inexcusable for a man to lead a
16:29 But Abraham saith, They have Moses and the prophets1; let them hear them2.
- They have Moses and the prophets. That is, the entire Old Testament.
- Let them hear them. See Luke 24:27; John 1:45; John 5:39-46. The Scriptures are a sufficient guide to godliness (2 Timothy 3:16,17), and a
failure to live rightly when possession them is due to lack of will,
and not to lack of knowledge.
16:30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one go to them from the dead, they will repent1.
- But if one go to them from the dead, they will repent. With the spirit of a true Pharisee, he sought a sign for his brothers.
See Matthew 12:38. But the guidance of Scripture is better than any
16:31 And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, if one rise from the dead1.
- If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, if one rise from the dead. These words might sound like
an overstatement of the obduracy of unbelief were they not amply
verified by the literal facts. Jesus had already raised at least two
from the dead as witnesses to his divine power, and he was about to
raise a third, who, with startling suggestiveness, would bear this very
name of Lazarus. But despite all these witnesses the majority of the
Jews disbelieved and continued to disbelieve in him; nay, they even
went so far as to seek the death of Lazarus that they might be rid of
his testimony (John 12:10). This is also a reference to Jesus' own
resurrection. It is true that he did not appear in person to those who
disbelieved in him, but they had clear knowledge of his resurrection
(Matthew 28:11-15), and it was considered as proved to all men