The Fourfold Gospel
9:1 And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, There are some here of them that stand [by], who shall in no wise taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God come with power1.
- There are some here of them that stand [by], who shall in no wise taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God come with power. The
mention of his final coming suggested one nearer at hand which was to
be accomplished during the life of most of those present, since none
but Jesus himself and Judas were to die previous to that time. The
kingdom was to come and likewise the King. The former coming was
literal, the latter spiritual. Those who refer this expression to the
transfiguration certainly err, for no visible kingdom was established
at that time. The expression refers to the kingdom which was organized
and set in motion on the Pentecost which followed the resurrection of
Jesus. It was set up with power, because three thousand souls were
converted the first day, Acts 2:41, and many other gospel triumphs
9:2 And after six days1 Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John2, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart by themselves3: and he was transfigured before them4;
THIRD WITHDRAWAL FROM HEROD'S TERRITORY.
D. THE TRANSFIGURATION. CONCERNING ELIJAH.
(A Spur of Hermon, near Caesarea Philippi.)
Matthew 17:1-13; Mark 9:2-13; Luke 9:28-36
- And after six days. Mark agrees with Matthew in saying six days. Luke qualifies his estimate by saying "about", Luke 9:28. But if we
regard him as including the day of the "sayings" and also the day of
the transfiguration, and the two as excluding these days, then the
three statements tally exactly.
- Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John. These three, as leaders among the apostles, needed the special encouragement which
was about to be given. For further comment, see Mark 5:37.
- And bringeth them up into a high mountain apart by themselves. A tradition dating from the fourth century fixes upon Mt. Tabor as the
site of the transfiguration, but this is unquestionably a mistake. Mt.
Tabor is in Galilee, while Jesus was still in the region of Caesarea
Philippi (Mark 9:30). Moreover there is little doubt that at that time
and for centuries previous there was an inhabited fortress upon Mt.
Tabor (Joshua 19:12). Moreover, Mt. Tabor is not a high mountain, its
elevation above the sea being but 1,748 feet. Hermon, on the contrary,
is the highest mountain in Palestine, its elevation, according to
Reclus, being 9,400 feet. It was Jesus' custom to withdraw for prayer
by night (Matthew 14:23,24; Luke 6:12; Luke 21:37; Luke 22:39) and the transfiguration
took place at night.
- And he was transfigured before them. That is, transformed; the description shows to what extent.
9:3 and his garments became glistering, exceeding white1, so as no fuller on earth can whiten them.
- And his garments became glistering, exceeding white. We may conceive of the body of Jesus becoming luminous and imparting its light to his
garments. The Christian looks forward to beholding such a
transfiguration and also to participating in it (1 John 3:2).
9:4 And there appeared unto them Elijah with Moses1: and they were talking with Jesus.
- There appeared unto them Elijah with Moses. The three apostles could identify Moses and Elijah by the course of this conversation,
though it is possible that miraculous knowledge may have accompanied
9:5 And Peter answereth and saith to Jesus, Rabbi, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles1; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah2.
- Let us make three tabernacles. Booths, or arbors, made of the branches of trees.
- One for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah. By thus speaking, Peter placed Jesus upon the same level with Moses and Elijah
--all three being worthy of a booth.
9:6 For he knew not what to answer; for they became sore afraid1.
- For he knew not what to answer; for they became sore afraid. Peter's fears overcame his discretion, but did not silence his tongue. Though
he trembled at the fellowship of Moses and Elijah, he also realized the
blessedness of it and could not let them depart without an effort to
detain them, though the best inducement that he could offer was to
build three booths for their and Christ's accommodation.
9:7 And there came a cloud overshadowing them1: and there came a voice out of the cloud, This is my beloved Son: hear ye him2.
- And there came a cloud overshadowing them. Clouds often roll against the sides of Mt. Hermon, but the brightness of this cloud and
the fear which it produced suggests that it was the Shekinah, or cloud
of glory, which was the symbol of God's particular presence
(Exodus 13:21,22; Exodus 19:9,18; Exodus 24:16; Exodus 40:34,35; 1 Kings 8:10).
- This is my beloved Son: hear ye him. This command contains the chief significance of the entire scene. Spoken in the presence of Moses
and Elijah, it gave Jesus that pre-eminence which is a son has over
servants. He is to be heard. His words have pre-eminence over those of
the lawgiver and the prophet (Hebrews 1:1,2). Peter recognized Jesus as
thus honored by this voice (2 Peter 1:16-18).
9:8 And suddenly looking round about, they saw no one any more, save Jesus only with themselves.
- They saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves. Leaders and prophets depart, but Christ abides (Hebrews 3:5,6).
9:9 And as they were coming down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen1, save when the Son of man should have risen again from the dead.
- He charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen. The people were not ready for the publication of such an event.
To have told it now would only have been to raise doubts as to their
9:10 And they kept the saying, questioning among themselves what the rising again from the dead should mean.
- Questioning among themselves what the rising from the dead should mean. Jesus spoke so often in parables and made so frequent use of
metaphors that the apostles did not take his words concerning the
resurrection in a literal sense. They regarded his language as
figurative, and sought to interpret the figure.
9:11 And they asked him, saying, [How is it] that the scribes say that Elijah must first come1?
- [How is it] that the scribes say that Elijah must first come? They were puzzled by the disappearance of Elijah. They looked upon him as
having come to fulfill the prophecy of Malachi (Malachi 4:5,6), but they
marveled that, having come, he should so soon withdraw, and that they
should be forbidden to tell that they had seen him, since the sight of
him would be some sign of Jesus' Messiahship.
9:12 And he said unto them, Elijah indeed cometh first, and restoreth all things1: and how is it written of the Son of man, that he should suffer many things and be set at nought2?
- Elijah indeed cometh first, and restoreth all things. This sentence leads some to think that Elijah will appear again before the second
coming of our Lord, but the words are to be interpreted in connection
with the rest of the passage.
- And how is it written of the Son of man, that he should suffer many things and be set at nought? If the writings concerning Elijah
perplexed the apostles, those concerning the Messiah perplexed them
also. From one set of prophecies they might learn something about the
other. Elijah came, but the Scriptures concerning him were so little
understood that he was put to death. The Messiah also came, and the
prophecies concerning him were so little understood that he, too, would
be set at naught.
9:13 But I say unto you, that Elijah is come, and they have also done unto him whatsoever they would, even as it is written of him1.
- Elijah is come, and they have also done unto him whatsoever they would, even as it is written of him. Malachi used the name of Elijah
figuratively to represent John the Baptist. See John 1:21 and
see Matthew 11:13. That there shall be a second coming of Elijah in
fulfillment of this prophecy is hardly possible, for the office of
Elijah is prophetically outlined as that of the restorer. But Elijah
could not restore Judaism, for that dispensation had been done away
with in Christ. He could hardly have chosen to restore Christianity,
for even if it should ne such a restoration, a Jewish prophet would be
ill-suited to such an office. One of the apostles would be vastly
9:14 And when they came to the disciples1, they saw a great multitude about them2, and scribes questioning with them3.
THIRD WITHDRAWAL FROM HEROD'S TERRITORY.
E. HEALING THE DEMONIAC BOY.
(Region of Caesarea Philippi.)
Matthew 17:14-20; Mark 9:14-29; Luke 9:37-43
- And when they came to the disciples. The nine apostles which had been left behind.
- They saw a great multitude about them. We last heard of the multitude at Mark 8:34. It had not doubt been with Jesus until he
ascended the mount and had remained with his apostles until he came
- And scribes questioning with them. These scribes had caught the apostles in one and perhaps the only case where they had failed to
cure, and they were making full use of the advantageous opportunity to
discredit Christ and his apostles before the people by asking sneering
and sarcastic questions.
9:15 And straightway all the multitude, when they saw him, were greatly amazed, and running to him saluted him1.
- And straightway all the multitude, when they saw him, were greatly amazed, and running to him saluted him. Why were the multitude amazed?
Most commentators answer that it was because the face of Jesus shone
with remaining traces of transfiguration glory, as did that of Moses
(Exodus 34:29), but this can hardly have been so, for it would have
been at variance with the secrecy which Jesus enjoined as to his
transfiguration. Moreover, so important a feature could hardly have
escaped from the narratives of all three evangelists. Undoubtedly the
amazement was caused by the sudden and opportune return of Jesus. Those
who urge that this was not enough to produce amazement show themselves
to be poor students of human nature. The multitude had been listening
to and no doubt enjoying the questions of the scribes. The unexpected
appearance of Jesus therefore impressed them with the sudden sense of
having been detected in wrong-doing which invariably leads to
amazement. Moreover, those who remained loyal to Jesus would be equally
amazed by his approach, since they could not but feel that an exciting
crisis was at hand.
9:16 And he asked them, What question ye with them1?
- What question ye with them? He surprised the scribes by this demand and they saw at once that he knew all and they felt rebuked for their
unwarranted exultation, and so kept silent.
9:17 And one of the multitude answered him1, Teacher, I brought unto thee my son, who hath a dumb spirit2;
- And one of the multitude answered him. When the scribes did not answer, the father of the demoniac boy broke the embarrassing silence
by telling Jesus about the matter in question.
- Teacher, I brought unto thee my son, who hath a dumb spirit. His child was deaf, dumb, and epileptic, but all these physical ailments
were no doubt produced by the demon or evil spirit which possessed him.
9:19 And he answereth them and saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I bear with you? bring him unto me.
- O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I bear with you? As there was no reason to accuse the apostles of
perversity, it is evident that the rebuke of Jesus is addressed
generally to all and not particularly to the disciples. The perverse
faithlessness and infidelity of the scribes had operated upon the
multitude, and the doubts of the multitude had influenced the apostles,
and thus, with the blind leading the blind, all had fallen into the
ditch of impotent disbelief. The disbelief of the people was a constant
grief to Jesus, but it must have been especially so in this case, for
it fostered and perpetrated this scene of weakness, mean-spiritedness,
misery, and suffering which stood out in such sharp contrast with the
peace, blessedness, and glory from which he had just come.
9:20 And they brought him unto him: and when he saw him1, straightway the spirit tare him grievously; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming.
- When he saw him. Saw Jesus.
9:21 And he asked his father, How long time is it since this hath come unto him? And he said, From a child1.
- From a child. By causing the long-standing nature of the case and the malignity of it to be fully revealed, Jesus emphasized the power of
9:23 And Jesus said unto him, If thou canst! All things are possible to him that believeth1.
- If thou canst! All things are possible to him that believeth. Jesus echoed back the "if thou canst do any thing" which the man had uttered
(Mark 9:22). If Jesus marveled at the faith of a Gentile which trusted
the fullness of his divine power, he also marveled at this disbelief of
this Jew which thus coolly and presumptuously questions the sufficiency
of that power. In the remainder of his answer Jesus shows that the lack
of power is not in him, but in those who would be recipients of the
blessings of his power, for those blessings are obtained by faith.
9:24 Straightway the father of the child cried out, and said, I believe; help thou mine unbelief.
- I believe; help thou my unbelief. He confessed his faith, but desired so ardently to have the child healed that he feared lest he
should not have faith enough to accomplish that desire, and therefore
asked for more faith.
9:25 And when Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit2, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I command thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him3.
- When Jesus saw that the multitude came running together. Jesus had found the multitude when he came down from the mountain, but the
excitement in this multitude was evidently drawing men from every
quarter, so that the crowd was momentarily growing greater.
- He rebuked the unclean spirit. A longer conversation with the man might have been beneficial, but to prevent the gathering of any larger
company, Jesus acted at once and spoke the words of command. On unclean
spirits, see Mark 1:23.
- Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I command thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him. Since the demon was manifestly of a most
daring, impudent, and audacious nature, Jesus took the precaution to
forbid it attempting to re-enter its victim, a precaution which the
conduct of the demon abundantly justified.
9:26 And having cried out, and torn him much, he came out1: and [the boy] became as one dead; insomuch that the more part said, He is dead.
- And having cried out, and torn him much, he came out. The malicious effrontery and obstinacy displayed by this demon stands in marked
contrast to the cowed, supplicating spirit shown by the Gergesene
legion. See Mark 5:6,7.
9:27 But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up1; and he arose.
- But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up. See Mark 1:31.
9:29 And he said unto them, This kind can come out by nothing, save by prayer.
- This kind can come forth by nothing, save by prayer. Prayer was the means of increasing faith. Demons, like spirits in the flesh, have
different degrees of will force, some being easier to subdue than
others, and this once, being particularly willful and obstinate,
required more faith to expel it. See Matthew 17:20 for comparison.
9:30 And they went forth from thence1, and passed through Galilee2; and he would not that any man should know it3.
RETURN TO GALILEE. THE PASSION FORETOLD.
Matthew 17:22,23; Mark 9:30-32; Luke 9:43-45
- And they went forth from thence. From the region of Caesarea Philippi.
- And passed through Galilee. On his way to Capernaum.
- And he would not that any man should know it. He was still seeking that retirement which began on the journey to Tyre. See Mark 7:24. This
is the last definite mention of that retirement, but we find it
referred to again at John 7:3,4.
9:31 For he taught his disciples1, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered up into the hands of men2, and they shall kill him; and when he is killed, after three days he shall rise again3.
- For he taught his disciples. The reason for his retirement is here given: he wished to prepare his disciples for his passion.
- The Son of man is delivered up into the hands of men. The present tense is used for the future to express the nearness and certainty of
the event. See Matthew 17:22.
- After three days he shall rise again. See Matthew 12:40.
9:32 But they understood not the saying, and were afraid to ask him2.
- But they understood not that saying. What was told to them was not for their present but their future benefit, and therefore they were
left to puzzle over the words of Jesus.
- And were afraid to ask him. Not so much from any awe with which they regarded him, as from the delicacy of the subject itself, and
their own sorrow, which shrank from knowing it more fully.
9:33 And they came to Capernaum: and when he was in the house1 he asked them, What were ye reasoning on the way2?
FALSE AMBITION VERSUS CHILDLIKENESS.
(Capernaum, Autumn, A.D. 29.)
Matthew 18:1-14; Mark 9:33-50; Luke 9:46-50
- And they came to Capernaum: and when he was in the house. Probably Simon Peter's house.
- He asked them, What were ye reasoning on the way? The Lord with his disciples was now on his way back to Galilee from Caesarea
Philippi, where, some ten days before, he had promised the keys of the
kingdom to Peter (Matthew 16:19), and where he had honored Peter and the
Sons of Zebedee by a mysterious withdrawal into the mount (Matthew 17:1
Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28). These facts, therefore, no doubt started the dispute
as to which should hold the highest office in the kingdom. The fires of
envy thus set burning were not easily quenched. We find them bursting
forth again from time to time down to the very verge of Christ's exit
from the world (Matthew 20:20-24; Luke 22:24).
9:35 And he sat down, and called the twelve; and he saith unto them, If any man would be first, he shall be last of all, and servant of all1.
- If any man would be first, he shall be last of all, and servant of all. The spirit which proudly seeks to be first in place thereby
consents to make itself last in character, for it reverses the graces
of the soul, turning love into envy, humility into pride, generosity
into selfishness, etc.
9:37 Whosoever shall receive one of such little children in my name1, receiveth me: and whosoever receiveth me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me.
- Whosoever shall receive one of such little children in my name,
- receiveth me, etc. Greatness does not consist in place. Disciples who receive those of a childlike spirit and disposition that they may
thereby honor the name of Christ are honored of Christ as the greatest.
The words "in my name" probably suggested to John the incident which
follows. See Matthew 18:4.
9:38 John said unto him, Teacher, we saw one casting out demons in thy name; and we forbade him, because he followed not us2.
- Master, we saw one casting out demons in thy name. This man's actions had excited the jealousy of John. Jealousy as to official
prerogative is very common. His zeal for Jesus reminds us of the
friends of Moses (Numbers 11:27-29).
- And we forbade him, because he followed not us. Was not one of our immediate company.
9:39 But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man who shall do a mighty work in my name, and be able quickly to speak evil of me1.
- Forbid him not: for there is no man who shall do a mighty work in my name, and be able quickly to speak evil of me. Jesus shows that one who
knows enough of him to use his power is not apt to dishonor him.
9:40 For he that is not against us is for us1.
- For he that is not against us is for us. The converse of this statement is found at Matthew 12:30. The two statements taken together
declare the impossibility of neutrality. If a man is in no sense
against Christ, then he is for him; and if he is not for Christ, he is
9:41 For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink, because ye are Christ's, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward1.
- For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink, because ye are Christ's, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward.
Jesus here returns to the discussion of greatness, and reasserts the
doctrine that the smallest act of righteousness, if performed for the
sake of the King, shall be honored in the kingdom. For comment,
see Matthew 10:41.
9:42 And whosoever shall cause one of these little ones that believe on me to stumble1, it were better for him if a great millstone were hanged about his neck2, and he were cast into the sea3.
- And whosoever shall cause one of these little ones that believe on me to stumble. Character depends upon small things. If a small act of
goodness receives its reward, an act of evil, made apparently small by
the trifling insignificance of the person against whom it is committed,
receives just as inevitably its punishment. In short, there is no
smallness in good and evil that men may rely upon, for heavy penalties
may be meted out for what the world judges to be light sin. Those who
cause the weak to lapse into unbelief through their ecclesiastical
arrogance have a heavy reckoning for which to answer.
- It were better for him if a great millstone were hanged about his neck. The Greek word "lithos" indicates a large millstone which was
turned by an ass.
- And he were cast into the sea. Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians were punished by such millstone drowning. But the fate of one who, by
striving for place, causes others to sin, will be worse than that. From
offenses caused by a proud spirit Jesus now passes to discuss offenses
or sins caused by any spirit of evil.
9:43 And if thy hand cause thee to stumble, cut it off: it is good for thee to enter into life maimed, rather than having thy two hands to go into hell, into the unquenchable fire2.
- And if thy hand causeth thee to stumble, cut it off. It is better to deny ourselves all unlawful pleasures, even if the denial be as
painful and distressing as the loss of a member.
- Into hell, into the unquenchable fire. We see from this that "hell" and "eternal fire" (Matthew 18:8) are interchangeable terms, and stand in
contrast to eternal life.
9:44 [where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.]
- [Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched]. The image of the worm is taken from Isaiah 66:24, and refers to those worms
which feed upon the carcasses of men. The fire and worm can hardly be
taken literally, for the two figures are incompatible--worms do not
frequent fires. The two figures depict hell as a state of decay which
is never completed and of burning which does not consume, Some regard
the worm as a symbol of the gnawings of remorse, and the fire as a
symbol of actual punishment.
9:45 And if thy foot cause thee to stumble, cut it off: it is good for thee to enter into life halt, rather than having thy two feet to be cast into hell.
- And if thy foot causeth thee to stumble, cut it off. See Mark 9:43.
9:46 [where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.]
- [Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched]. See Mark 9:44.
9:47 And if thine eye cause thee to stumble, cast it out1: it is good for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell;
- And if thine eye cause thee to stumble, cast it out. See Mark 9:43.
9:48 where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched1.
- Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. See Mark 9:44.
9:49 For every one1 shall be salted with fire2.
- For every one. The sufferers mentioned in Mark 9:48.
- Shall be salted with fire. At this point, many acient authorities add, "and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt". We have here one
of the most difficult passages in the Bible. If the word "fire" were
found in an isolated text it might be taken as a symbol either of
purification or of punishment. But the context here determines its
meaning, for it has just been taken twice as a symbol of punishment
(Mark 9:43,47). Salt is a symbol of that which preserves from decay.
Now, Jesus has just been talking about the future state, with its two
conditions or states of bliss and punishment. In both of these states
the souls of men are salted or preserved by a negative or false salt--a
worm which feeds but does not die, and a fire which consumes but
refuses to go out. Though this state is a condition of life, it is such
a negative and false condition that it is elsewhere termed a second
death (Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6,14; Revelation 21:8). It is therefore rightly called a
"salted" or preserved condition, yet it contradicts the symbolic idea
9:50 Salt is good: but if the salt have lost its saltness, wherewith will ye season it1? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace one with another2.
- Salt is good: but if the salt have lost its saltness, wherewith will ye season it? As we understand it, the difficulty of the passage lies
in this contradictory sense in which the term "salt" is used--a
contradiction in which the term "eternal life" also shares, for eternal
life is the constant contrast to life in hell, though that life also is
spoken of as eternal. The true Christian--the man who offers his body
as "a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God" (Romans 12:1)--is
preserved by the true salt or element of preservation, which is a
divinely begotten life of righteousness within him.
- Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace one with another. This is the good state of preservation which a man is counseled to obtain, and
not to lose, since it will not be restored to him. The passage
summarizes and contrasts the two states of future preservation, one
being the salt of eternal life which preserves a man to enjoy the love
of God in heaven, and the other being the salt of fire which preserves
him in hell to endure the just punishment. See Matthew 5:13 and
see Luke 14:34.