1 Aaron and his sons are set apart for the priest's office.
2 Holy garments are appointed.
6 The ephod and girdle.
15 The breast-plate with twelve precious stones.
30 The Urim and Thummim.
31 The robe of the ephod, with pomegranates and bells.
36 The plate of the mitre.
39 The embroidered coat.
40 The garments for Aaron's sons.
And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.
- Leviticus 8:2; Numbers 16:9-11; 17:2-9; 2 Chronicles 26:18-21; Hebrews 5:1-5
- 41; 29:1,9,44; 30:30; 31:10; 35:19; Numbers 18:7; Deuteronomy 10:6; 1 Chronicles 6:10; 2 Chronicles 11:14; Luke 1:8
- 6:23; 24:1,9; Leviticus 10:1,12; Numbers 2:4; 26:61; 1 Chronicles 24:1-4
And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.
- holy garments
- 29:5-9,29,30; 31:10; 39:1,2; 40:13; Leviticus 8:7-9,30; Numbers 20:26-28; Psalms 132:9,16; Isaiah 61:3,10; 64:6; Zechariah 3:3,4; Romans 3:22; 13:14; Galatians 3:27; Hebrews 7:26; Revelation 19:8
- 40; 19:5,6; Numbers 27:20,21; Job 40:10; Psalms 90:16,17; 96:6; 149:4; Isaiah 4:2; Jeremiah 9:23,24; John 1:14; 1 Corinthians 1:30,31; Hebrews 2:9; 2 Peter 1:17; 1 John 3:2; Revelation 5:10; 19:8
And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
- wise hearted
- 31:3-6; 35:30,35; 36:1,2; Proverbs 2:6; Isaiah 28:24-26
- Deuteronomy 34:9; Isaiah 11:2; 1 Corinthians 12:7-11; Ephesians 1:17; James 1:17
And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
- a breastplate
- Choshen, in Hebrew is used for the square breast-plate of the high priest, in which were set twelve precious stones, each being engraved with the name of one of the sons of Jacob.
- 15; 39:8-21; Isaiah 59:17; Ephesians 6:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:8; Revelation 9:17
- The ephod seems to have been a short cloak, without sleeves.
- 6-14; 39:2-5,21,22; Leviticus 8:7,8; 1 Samuel 2:18; 22:18; 23:6; 30:7; 2 Samuel 6:14
- a robe
- The word meil, from Ôlah, to ascend, go up on, may be considered as an upper garment that goes up or over the rest, a surtout.
- 31-34; 39:25,26
- 29,40; Leviticus 8:7
- a mitre
- 39:28; Leviticus 8:9
- a girdle
- Isaiah 11:5
And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen.
- 25:3,4; 39:2,3
And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.
It shall have the two shoulderpieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together.
And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
- or, embroidered.
- 27,28; 29:5; 39:20,21; Leviticus 8:7; Isaiah 11:5; 1 Peter 1:13; Revelation 1:13
And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel:
- 20; 39:13; Genesis 2:12; Job 28:16; Ezekiel 28:13
- 36; 39:6; 2 Chronicles 2:7; Song of Solomon 8:6; Isaiah 49:16
Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth.
- according to their birth
- 1:1-4; Genesis 43:33
With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold.
- engravings of a signet
- 21,36; Jeremiah 22:24; Zechariah 3:9; Ephesians 1:13; 4:30; 2 Timothy 2:19; Revelation 7:2
- ounces of gold
- 13,14,25; 39:6,13,18
And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a memorial.
- the shoulders
- 7; Psalms 89:19; Isaiah 9:6; 12:2; Zechariah 6:13,14; Hebrews 7:25-28
- Aaron shall bear
- 29; 39:6,7
- for a memorial
- 12:14; 13:9; 39:7; Genesis 9:12-17; Leviticus 24:7; Numbers 16:40; 31:54; Joshua 4:7; Isaiah 62:6; Zechariah 6:14; Luke 1:54,72; Acts 10:4
And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches.
- chains of
- 24; 39:15
- of wreathen
- 22-25; 39:17,18; 1 Kings 7:17; 2 Kings 25:17; 2 Chronicles 4:12,13
And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.
- the breastplate
- 4,30; 39:8; Leviticus 8:8
- 6; 26:1
And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this shall be the first row.
- thou shalt
- 9,11; 39:10-21; Malachi 3:17
- set in it settings of stones
- Heb. fill in its fillings of stone. the first row.
- Ezekiel 28:13; Revelation 21:19-21
- a sardius, or, ruby
- The Hebrew odem, from adam, to be red, ruddy, seems to denote the ruby; as adam does in Persian a beautiful gem, of a fine deep red colour, with a mixture of purple.
- Job 28:18; Proverbs 3:15; 8:11; 20:15; 31:10; Lamentations 4:7
- a topaz
- Pitdah, is constantly rendered by the LXX. [topazion] and Vulgate, topazius, with which agrees Josephus. The topaz is a precious stone, of a pale, dead green, with a mixture of yellow, sometimes of a fine yellow; and hence called chrysolyte by the moderns, from its gold colour.
- Job 28:19; Revelation 21:20
- a carbuncle
- Bareketh, from barak, to lighten, glitter, a very elegant gem, of a deep red colour, with a mixture of scarlet.
- Isaiah 54:11,12
And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.
- Nophech, an emerald, the same with the ancient smaragdus; one of the most beautiful of all the gems, and of a bright green colour, without any mixture.
- 39:11; Ezekiel 27:16
- 24:10; Job 28:6,16; Song of Solomon 5:14; Ezekiel 1:26; 10:1; Revelation 4:3
- Jeremiah 17:1; Ezekiel 28:13
And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.
- a ligure
- an agate
- Isaiah 54:12
And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their inclosings.
- a beryl
- Ezekiel 1:16; 10:9; Daniel 10:6; Revelation 21:20
- an onyx
- See on ver.
- a jasper
- Revelation 4:3; 21:11,18-20
- Heb. fillings.
And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes.
- according to the twelve
- 1 Kings 18:31; Luke 22:30; James 1:1; Revelation 7:4-8; 21:12
And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.
And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod before it.
- wreathen chains
- 14; 39:15
- on the shoulder pieces
- of the ephod
And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod.
- the curious girdle
And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod.
- a lace
- 31,37; 39:30,31; Numbers 15:38
And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the LORD continually.
- in the
- 12; Jeremiah 30:21; Romans 10:1
- Song of Solomon 8:6; Isaiah 49:15,16
And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.
- the Urim and Thummim
- [^Mymth taw Myrwa ta^] the Urim and Thummim, lights and perfections; rendered by the LXX. [~dhlwsiv kai alhyeia~] manifestation and truth; and, by the Vulgate, doctrina et veritas, doctrine and truth. Among the various and contradictory opinions respecting the form and substance of these mysterious appendages, the most probable seems to be that of Josephus, Philo, Bp. Patrick, Parkhurst, and the Jewish writers generally; who state, that they were no other than the twelve precious stones of the high priest's breastplate. In support of this statement, it is observed, 1. That in the description of the high priest's breastplate, Exod. 39:8, et seq., the Urim and Thummim are not mentioned, but only the rows of stones; and on the contrary, in Lev. 8:8, the Urim and Thummim are expressly mentioned, but not a word is said of the four rows of stones. 2. As Moses has given such a particular description of every thing relative to the high priest's dress, these would certainly have been described had they been different from what was previously mentioned.
- Leviticus 8:8; Numbers 27:21; Deuteronomy 33:8; Judges 1:1; 20:18,23,27,28; 1 Samuel 23:9-12; 1 Samuel 28:6; 30:7,8; Ezra 2:63; Nehemiah 7:65
- bear the judgment
- Zechariah 6:13
- upon his heart
- 2 Corinthians 6:11,12; 7:3; 12:15; Philippians 1:7,8; Hebrews 2:17; 4:15; 9:12,24
And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.
- 4,28; 39:22; Leviticus 8:7
And there shall be an hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof: it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.
- as it were
- 39:28; 2 Chronicles 26:14; Nehemiah 4:16; Job 41:26
- that it be not rent
- John 19:23,24; Ephesians 4:3-16
And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about:
- or, skirts. pomegranates.
- 1 Kings 7:18; 2 Kings 25:17
- Zechariah 14:20
A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.
- Psalms 89:15; Song of Solomon 2:3; 4:3,13; 6:7,11; 8:2; John 15:4-8,16; Colossians 1:5,6,10
And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD, and when he cometh out, that he die not.
- goeth in
- Leviticus 16:2; Hebrews 9:12
And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.
- a plate of pure gold
- The word tzitz, which we translate a plate, properly signifies a flower. It is rendered by the LXX. [petalon] a leaf, and is called nezer, a crown in ch. 29:6 and [diadema] a diadem, by the author of the book of Wisdom, ch. 28:24. Josephus says that it was adorned with three rows of the flower which the Greeks call [kyanos.] It was two fingers broad, of a circular form, suited to the shape of the head, and so long that it reached from ear to ear, and was fastened upon a blue lace or ribband, which was tied behind the head; and as the plate reached only half round the head, the remaining part of the ribband was highly ornamented with artificial flowers.
- grave upon it
- 39:30; Leviticus 8:9; 10:3; 19:2; Psalms 93:5; Ezekiel 43:12; Zechariah 14:20; Hebrews 7:26; Hebrews 12:14; 1 Peter 1:15,16; 2:9; Revelation 21:27
And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be.
- 28,31; Numbers 15:38
- the mitre it
- 4; 29:6; 39:30,31; Leviticus 8:9; Zechariah 3:5
And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.
- bear the iniquity
- 43; Leviticus 10:17; 22:9; Numbers 18:1; Isaiah 53:6,11,12; Ezekiel 4:4-6; John 1:29; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 9:28; 1 Peter 2:24; 3:18
- Leviticus 1:4; 22:27; 23:11; Isaiah 56:7; 60:7; Ephesians 1:6; 1 Peter 2:5
And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of needlework.
- the girdle
- Psalms 45:14
And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty.
- 4; 39:27,29,41; Leviticus 8:13; Ezekiel 44:17,18
- 2; 1 Timothy 2:9,10; 6:9-11; Titus 2:7,10; 1 Peter 3:3,4; 5:5
And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
- anoint them
- 29:7; 30:23-30; 40:15; Leviticus 10:7; Isaiah 10:27; 61:1; John 3:34; 2 Corinthians 1:21,22; 1 John 2:20,27
- and consecrate them
- Heb. fill their hand.
- 29:9,24,35; Leviticus 8:1-36; Numbers 3:3; Ezekiel 43:26; Hebrews 5:4; 7:28
And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach:
- 20:26; 39:28; Leviticus 6:10; 16:4; Ezekiel 44:18; Revelation 3:18
- their nakedness
- Heb. flesh of their nakedness. reach. Heb. be.
And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.
- unto the altar
- bear not iniquity
- Leviticus 5:1,17; 20:19,20; 22:9; Numbers 9:13; 18:22; Matthew 22:12,13
- a statute
- 27:21; Leviticus 17:7