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The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Chapter Overview
 
1Jonathan loves David.
5Saul envies his praise;
10seeks to kill him in his fury;
12fears him for his good success;
17offers him his daughters for a snare.
23David persuaded to be the king's son-in-law, gives two hundred foreskins of the Philistines for Michal's dowry.
28Saul's hatred and David's glory increase.
 
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Chapter 18

Verse 1
And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.


the soul of Jonathan
The modesty, piety, and courage of David were so congenial to the character of the amiable Jonathan, that they attracted his most cordial esteem and affection; so that the most intimate friendship subsisted between them from that time, and they loved each other with pure hearts fervently. Their friendship could not be affected by the common vicissitudes of life; and it exemplifies by fact what the ancients have written on the subject; [Ten philian isoteta einai, kai mian psychen ton philon heteron auton.] "Friendship is an entire sameness, and one soul: a friend is another self."
14:1-14,45; Genesis 44:30; Judges 20:11; 1 Chronicles 12:17; Psalms 86:11; Colossians 2:2
loved him
3; 19:2; 20:17; Deuteronomy 13:6; 2 Samuel 1:26; Proverbs 18:24

Verse 2
And Saul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his father's house.
took him
16:21-23; 17:15

Verse 3
Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul.
made a covenant
20:8-17,42; 23:18; 2 Samuel 9:1-3; 21:7

Verse 4
And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle.
stripped himself
Presents of clothes or rich robes, as tokens of respect or friendship, are frequent in the East.
Genesis 41:42; Esther 6:8,9; Isaiah 61:10; Luke 15:22; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Philippians 2:7,8

Verse 5
And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.
behaved
or, prospered.
14,15,30; Genesis 39:2,3,23; Psalms 1:3; Acts 7:10
wisely
Matthew 10:16; Ephesians 5:17; Colossians 4:5
the men of war
13:2; 14:52

Verse 6
And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.
Philistine
or, Philistines. the women.
Exodus 15:20; Judges 11:34; Psalms 68:25; Jeremiah 31:11-13
instruments of music
Heb. three stringed instruments. The original shalishim, is rendered by the Vulgate sistris. The sistrum was an ancient Egyptian instrument made of brass, with three, and sometimes more brass rods across; which, being loose in their holes, made a jingling noise when shaken.

Verse 7
And the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.
answered
Exodus 15:21; Psalms 24:7,8
Saul
21:11; 29:5

Verse 8
And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the kingdom?
the saying
Esther 3:5; Proverbs 13:10; 27:4; Ecclesiastes 4:4; James 4:5
displeased him
Heb. was evil in his eyes.
Numbers 11:1; 22:34; *margins
and what
13:14; 15:28; 16:13; 20:31; 1 Kings 2:22

Verse 9
And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
eyed David
Genesis 4:5,6; 31:2; Matthew 20:15; Mark 7:22; Ephesians 4:27; James 5:9

Verse 10
And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and there was a javelin in Saul's hand.
the evil spirit
16:14,15; 19:9; 26:19
and he prophesied
Wyyithnabbai, rather, "and he pretended to prophesy; for the verb is in HithpaŽl, the signification of which conjugation is not only reflex action, but also affectation of the action: Jer 29:26, 27. The meaning seems to be, that Saul, influenced by the evil spirit, feigned to be prophesying, the better to conceal his murderous intentions, and to render David unsuspicious.
19:24; 1 Kings 18:29; 22:12,20-23; Jeremiah 28:2-4,11; Zechariah 13:2-5; Acts 16:16; 2 Thessalonians 2:11
played
16:16,23
and there was
Wehachanith beyad Shšool, rather, "and the javelin was in the hand of Saul;" for the javelin or spear was the emblem of regal authority; and kings had it always in their hand, as may be seen represented on ancient monuments. In ancient times, says Justin, kings used a spear instead of a sceptre.

Verse 11
And Saul cast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David even to the wall with it. And David avoided out of his presence twice.
cast the javelin
19:9,10; 20:33; Proverbs 27:4; Isaiah 54:17
And David
Psalms 37:32,33; Isaiah 54:17; Luke 4:30; John 8:59; 10:39

Verse 12
And Saul was afraid of David, because the LORD was with him, and was departed from Saul.
afraid
15,20,29; 16:4; Psalms 48:3-6; 53:5; Mark 6:20; Luke 8:37; Acts 24:25
the Lord
16:13,18; 22:13; Acts 7:9
departed
16:14; 28:15; Psalms 51:11; Hosea 9:12; Matthew 25:41

Verse 13
Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a thousand; and he went out and came in before the people.
removed
17,25; 8:12; 22:7
he went out
16; Numbers 27:16,17; 2 Samuel 5:2; Psalms 121:8; Saul was sensible that the Lord was departed from him; while he perceived, with evident sorrow of heart, that the Lord had given David peculiar wisdom, and that he was with him to prosper all his undertakings. This increased the disquietude of his malevolent mind, and his dread of David as a prevailing rival: he therefore removed him from his presence. This impolitic step, however, served the more to ingratiate David with the people, by affording him the opportunity of leading them forth to victory over their enemies.

Verse 14
And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the LORD was with him.
behaved
or, prospered.
the Lord
10:7; 16:18; Genesis 39:2,3,23; Joshua 6:27; Matthew 1:23; 28:20; Acts 18:10

Verse 15
Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely, he was afraid of him.
wisely
Psalms 112:5; Daniel 6:4,5; Colossians 4:5; James 1:5; 3:17

Verse 16
But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.
all Israel
5; Luke 19:48; 20:19
he went
Numbers 27:17; 2 Samuel 5:2; 1 Kings 3:7

Verse 17
And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and fight the LORD'S battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.
her will I give
17:25; Psalms 12:2; 55:21
valiant
Heb. a son of valour. the Lord's.
17:47; 25:28; Numbers 32:20,27,29
Let not mine
21,25; Deuteronomy 17:7; 2 Samuel 11:15; 12:9

Verse 18
And David said unto Saul, Who am I? and what is my life, or my father's family in Israel, that I should be son in law to the king?
Who am I
23; 9:21; Exodus 3:11; Ruth 2:10; 2 Samuel 7:18; Proverbs 15:33; 18:12; Jeremiah 1:6

Verse 19
But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.
Adriel
Judges 14:20; 2 Samuel 21:8
Meholathite
Judges 7:22

Verse 20
And Michal Saul's daughter loved David: and they told Saul, and the thing pleased him.
loved David
pleased him
Heb. was right in his eyes.

Verse 21
And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him. Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt this day be my son in law in the one of the twain.
a snare
Exodus 10:7; Psalms 7:14-16; 38:12; Proverbs 26:24-26; 29:5; Jeremiah 5:26; 9:8
the hand
17; 19:11,12
this day

Verse 22
And Saul commanded his servants, saying, Commune with David secretly, and say, Behold, the king hath delight in thee, and all his servants love thee: now therefore be the king's son in law.
commanded
Psalms 36:1-3; 55:21
servants
2 Samuel 13:28,29; Proverbs 29:12

Verse 23
And Saul's servants spake those words in the ears of David. And David said, Seemeth it to you a light thing to be a king's son in law, seeing that I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed?
a light
1 John 3:1
a poor man
9:21; Proverbs 14:20; 19:6,7; Ecclesiastes 9:15,16
and lightly
Psalms 119:141

Verse 24
And the servants of Saul told him, saying, On this manner spake David.
On this manner
Heb. According to these words.

Verse 25
And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.
dowry
Genesis 29:18; 34:12; Exodus 22:16,17
but an hundred
That is, Thou shalt slay one hundred Philistines, and thou shalt produce their foreskins as a proof, not only that thou hast killed one hundred men, but that these are of the uncircumcised Philistines.
foreskins
17:26,36; Genesis 17:11-14; Joshua 5:3
to be avenged
14:24
thought
17; 2 Samuel 17:8-11

Verse 26
And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to be the king's son in law: and the days were not expired.
the days
expired
Heb. fulfilled.

Verse 27
Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins, and they gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king's son in law. And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.
his men
slew
Judges 14:19; 2 Samuel 3:14
two hundred men
The Septuagint has only [ ] one hundred men; and as Saul covenanted for a hundred, as David himself says, (2 Sa 3:14,) that he espoused Michal for a hundred, it is very probable that this is the true reading.

Verse 28
And Saul saw and knew that the LORD was with David, and that Michal Saul's daughter loved him.
24:20; 26:25; Genesis 30:27; 37:8-11; 39:3; Revelation 3:9

Verse 29
And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became David's enemy continually.
yet the
12,15; Psalms 37:12-14; Ecclesiastes 4:4; James 2:19
Saul became
Genesis 4:4-8; John 11:53; 1 John 3:12-15

Verse 30
Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to pass, after they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by.
the princes
Of this war we know no more than that David, whose military skill was greater, was more successful in it, than all the other officers of Saul.
went forth
2 Samuel 11:1
behaved himself
5; Psalms 119:99; Daniel 1:20; Luke 21:15; Ephesians 5:15
set by
Heb. precious.
2:30; 26:21; 2 Kings 1:13; Psalms 116:15; 1 Peter 2:4,7


Copyright Statement
These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". <http://classic.studylight.org/com/tsk/view.cgi?book=1sa&chapter=018>.  

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