- Their march from Kadesh-barnea, verse 1-3.
- A charge not to trouble the Edomites, verse 4-8.
- Nor the Moabites, verse 9-12.
- (They pass the river Zered, verse 13-16.
- Nor the Ammonites, verse 17-23.
- A command to attack Sihon, verse 24-26.
- The conquest of his kingdom, verse 27-37
Mount Seir - The mountainous country of Seir or Edom. Many days - Even for thirty eight years.
Northward - Towards the land of the Amorites and Canaanites.
Buy meat - For thongh the manna did yet rain upon them, they were not forbidden to buy other meats when they had opportunity, but only were forbidden greedily to hunger after them when they could not obtain them. Buy water - For water in those parts was scarce, and therefore private persons did severally dig pits for their particular use.
The Lord hath blessed thee - By God's blessing thou art able to buy thy conveniences, and therefore thy theft and rapine will be inexcusable, because without any pretence of necessity. He knoweth - Heb. He hath known, that is, observed, or regarded with care and kindness, which that word often notes. Which experience of God's singular goodness to thee, should make thee rely on him still, and not use any unjust practice to procure what thou wantest or desirest.
We turned - From our direct road which lay through Edom.
Ar - The chief city of the Moabites, here put for the whole country which depended upon it. The children of Lot - So called to signify that this preservation, was not for their sakes, for they were a wicked people, but for Lot's sake whose memory God yet honours.
The Emims - Men terrible for stature and strength, as their very name imparts, whose expulsion by the Moabites is here noted as a great encouragement to the Israelites, for whose sake he would much more drive out the wicked and accursed Canaanites.
Which the Lord gave - The past tense is here put for the future, will give after the manner of the prophets.
The Caphtorim - A people a-kin to the Philistines, Genesis 10:14, and confederate with them in this enterprize, and so dwelling together, and by degrees uniting together by marriages, they became one people. Caphtor - Which is by the learned thought to be Cappadocia: whither these people might make an expedition out of Egypt, either because of the report of the great riches of part of that country which drew others thither from places equally remote, or for some other reason now unknown.
Under heaven - The following words rest rain the sentence to those nations that heard of them.
On my feet - Or, with my company who are on foot: which is added significantly, because if their army had consisted as much of horsemen as many other armies did, their passage through his land might have been more mischievous and dangerous.
As the children of Esau did - They did permit them to pass quietly by the borders, though not through the heart of their land, and in their passage the people sold them meat and drink, being it seems more kind to them than their king would have had them; and therefore they here ascribe this favour not to the king, though they are now treating with a king, but to the people, the children of Esau.
Hardened his spirit - That is, suffered it to be hardened.
Utterly destroyed - By God's command, these being a part of those people who were devoted by the Lord of life and death, to utter destruction for their abominable wickedness.
Of Jabbok - That is, beyond Jabbok: for that was the border of the Ammomites.