- The apostacy of Israel and Samaria from God, verse 1-8.
- Their ruin, verse 9, 10.
- The apostacy of Judah and Jerusalem from God, verse 11-21.
- Their ruin, verse 22-35.
- The joint wickedness of them both, verse 36-44.
- And their joint ruin, verse 45-49.
Two women - Judah, and Israel, two kingdoms.
Whoredoms - Idolatry.
Aholah - That is, his own tabernacle; for Israel falling off from the house of David, fell off from the tabernacle, or temple of God; so that all the temple they had was of their own making. The elder - Greater for number of tribes, and for power, wealth, and for multitudes of people. Aholibah - That is, my tabernacle in her: the two tribes had the temple of God with them. Mine - By solemn marriage-covenant. Bare sons - Were fruitful and brought forth children to me; they increased in numbers of people; and among these, some there were that were children of God by faith, love, and obedience.
Played the harlot - United in idolatry, with the Assyrians. Mine - When under my government, and protection.
Horsemen - Skillful in riding, and well furnished with choice horses.
With all - Other nations, with whom she had commerce.
Discovered - Stript her naked, and exposed her to shame. Took her sons - Captives. Slew her - The kingdom of Israel, under Hoshea, was by Salmanesar utterly destroyed. They - The Assyrians, had executed God's just displeasure upon her.
Girded - With soldiers belts, which includes the rest of the habit of soldiers. In dyed attire - Both rich, comely, large, and of divers colours. Princes - Of princely aspect and majesty.
Alienated - She grew weary of the Chaldeans.
Discovered - Made it appear to all, far and near.
By - Remembering her idolatries in Egypt, her alliance with it in days past, which she now resolved to act over again.
Paramours - The nations, that were confederate with the Egyptians.
Pekod - Pekod is the province between Tigris, and Lycus; in this was old Nineveh. Shoa - Either Sia in Armenia, or the Sohia, among which were the Adiabeni, and this contained the middle part of the kingdom of Babylon. Koa - This bordered upon Media, the inhabitants were called Kohai, and dwelt about Arbela. And all - All subjects of the Assyrian monarchy.
And wheels - Lest in their march the carriage wheels should break, a store of these were provided. An assembly - A mighty confluence of people. I will set - Give them a power in right of conquest over their rebels, as well as mine, and I will give them a spirit of judgment to discern the greatness of this people's sins. Judge - Condemn, and execute sentence upon thee. According - To their will, power, wrath, and custom, against rebels; for these are their rules of judgment.
I will set my jealousy - As a jealous provoked husband, I will be as much against thee as they are. Thy residue - Either the people, who hid themselves in vaults and cellars, or what the Chaldeans cannot carry away, all this shall be devoured by fire.
Take away - Deprive thee of the comfortable use of all thy labour, which they will exact of thee in captivity.
It - Is large, and contains what will last many years, even 'till the seventy years be expired.
Thou - Shalt stagger with sorrows, that shall intoxicate, and astonish. Suck it out - The dregs shalt thou drink, and multiply thine own sorrows. Break the sheards - To suck out what remains. And pluck - Revenging thyself upon thyself.
Bear thou - The guilt, I will impute it, the punishment, I will not pardon it.
In the same day - When they had newly polluted themselves with idolatry and murder, they thrust into the temple.
My house - Nay, these things have been in my house.
Wash thyself - After the manner of harlots.
Sattest - Prepared to feast them. A stately bed - A magnificent bed, on which women sat to feast, when men leaned on their sides. Incense - Offered to their idols.
A voice - A shout for joy, that there was a treaty of peace between the Jews, and the Chaldeans.
Righteous men - Men that keep the law of their God.
Upon them - Against the Jews, the children of this Aholibah.
The company - The Babylonian army.
Lewdness - Idolatry. And indeed we do not read of any after their return out of this captivity.
They - The Babylonians. The sins - The guilt of worshipping idols; and you shall bear the punishment of idolaters.