- Their disobedience to the prophets reproved, verse 1-7.
- The seventy years of captivity foretold, verse 8-11.
- and after that the destruction of Babylon, verse 12-14.
- By a cup of wine is foreshewn the destruction of all nations, verse 15-33.
- The howling of the shepherds, verse 34-38.
Nebuchadnezzar - In this work shall be my servant; though you will not be my servants in obeying my commands.
Moreover - Nay, I will not only deprive you of your mirth, but of those things that are necessary for you, as necessary as bread and light, the millstone shall not move, you shall not have the light so much as of a candle.
Accomplished - Counted from the time that the Jews were carried away in the time of Jeconiah or Jehoiakim, 2 Kings 24:15,16. Desolations - This was fulfilled by Darius, the king of Persia, Daniel 4:31, of these seventy Nebuchadnezzar reigned thirty six, 2 Kings 25:27. Evil-merodach thirty two, and Belshazzar at least two, Daniel 8:1.
The cup - God made Jeremiah to see the appearance of such a cup in a vision.
Of Uz - Some part of Arabia Petraea, near to Idumaea. Of the Philistines - Uzzah, Ekron, Ashdod, and Askelon, were four of their cities, the fifth which was Gath is not here named. For before this time it was destroyed, either by Psammeticus, father to Pharaoh Necho, or by Tartan, captain general to Sargon, king of Assyria, of whom read, Isaiah 20:1, that he took Ashdod, which may be the reason that here mention is made of no more than the remnant of Ashdod.
Beyond the sea - Probably those parts of Syria that coasted upon the mid-land sea.
Tema - Tema descended from Ishmael, Genesis 25:15, his posterity inhabited in Arabia, Isaiah 21:13,14, where they are joined with those of Dedan. Buz - Buz was one of the posterity of Nahor, Genesis 22:21. These were people mixed with the Saracens or Arabians.
Zimri - Those descended from Zimran, Abraham's son by Keturah, Genesis 25:2. Elam - The Persians. The Medes - The Medes came from Madai the son of Japhet.
The north - All under the government of the Chaldeans. Of Sheshach - And the king of Babylon, who was last of all to drink of this cup of the Lord's fury.
Shepherds - Shepherds and the principal of the flock, in this place mean civil rulers. A pleasant vessel - Like a crystal glass, or some delicate vessel, which breaks in pieces and cannot again be set together.
Because - The effects of this rising up of God out of his covert is the desolation of the land through the fierceness of the enemy, caused by the fierce anger of God.