- The judgment of the Ammonites, verse 1-5.
- Their restoration, verse 6.
- The judgment of Edom, verse 7-22.
- Of Damascus, verse 23-27.
- Of Kedar, and Hazor, verse 28-33.
- Of Elam, and its restoration, verse 34-39.
No heir - During the long tract of time that there were wars between the Jews and Ammonites, the land of Gad and Reuben which lay beyond Jordan, fell into the hands of the Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites. Hence it is that the prophet saith, Hath Israel no sons? God had given that country of Gilead to Manasseh, Reuben, and Gad; and as mens estates ought to descend to their heirs, so this land should have descended to their posterity, but the Ammonites had taken and possessed it.
Ai - A city of the Ammonites, not the same mentioned, Joshua 7:2, for that was on the other side Jordan. By the hedges - Where they might be hidden, and not so easily seen.
Flowing - Either flowing with water, or plenty of corn and grass.
Right forth - So that you shall be glad to flee, and never look back. Gather up - None will receive or entertain you.
I will bring - Probably this refers to the conversion of the Ammonites, as well as other Heathens, to Christ.
Edom - The Edomites were the posterity of Esau the eldest son of Isaac, but disinherited; the blessing being given to his younger brother Jacob, who was head of the twelve tribes of Israel. God promised him that he should have a fat, and plentiful country, tho' his brother should be his lord; and foretold, that he should break his brother's yoke from off his neck: the land of Seir was his country. The Edomites coasted southward upon Canaan, the Israelites passed by their coasts to go into Canaan, their way lay thro' Edom, but their king refusing to suffer them to go through, God ordered them to go another way. Balaam prophesied their ruin. They were enemies to the Israelites in the time of Saul, 1 Samuel 14:47, and David, 2 Samuel 8:14, and Amaziah, 2 Kings 14:17, who slew of them ten thousand, and took Selah, calling it Jokteel. Many of the prophets foretold their ruin, Jeremiah in this place, Ezekiel 25:12-14; Joel 3:19; Amos 9:11,12, and others. Teman - Was a city of Edom.
Dedan - Was a city of Arabia joining to Idumea, Isaiah 21:13, they being neighbours to the Edomites are called to flee, and to get into caves, where they might dwell deep in the earth and be in some security.
If - Edom shall be totally destroyed; their destruction should not be like the gleaning of grapes, where the gatherers content themselves with taking the principal clusters: nor yet like the robbings of thieves, who take for their hunger, and when they have got enough leave the rest.
They - The Jews, who in comparison with others did not deserve to drink of the cup, yet have drank of it, and can you think to escape? When an Israelite hath not escaped the justice of God, an Edomite must not expect it.
Bozrah - Edom is expressed under the name of Bozrah, (a part for the whole) Bozrah being its principal city.
An ambassador - He speaks after the manner of earthly princes, who use to send their ambassadors to other princes to declare their minds to them. God hath inclined them to come against Edom.
Behold - The Edomites shall come up fiercely against Nebuchadrezzar, but will suddenly flee, yea even from their own country. Appoint - Into whose hands shall I give that country. For who - For I can do whatsoever I please. Will appoint - And who will appoint me a time to plead with men? Who is - Where is that king or potentate that will stand before me?
Teman - Edom and Teman signify the same thing. The least - The least of Nebuchadrezzar's forces shall drag them out of their lurking places.
Damascus - Being the head of this country, is put for the whole country. Hamath - Hamath and Arpad were two cities also of Syria. On the sea - Their inhabitants that live near the sea shall be troubled.
Of my joy - A city of great renown. The king of Syria is here supposed to speak.
Ben-hadad - Was the common name of the kings of Syria.
Kedar - Was one of the sons of Ishmael, whose posterity inhabited part of Arabia Petraea. Hazor was the head city to several kingdoms in Joshua's time.
They - The Chaldeans.
Flee - These seem to be the prophet's words.
Arise - The result of Nebuchadrezzar's counsels, giving charge to his armies to march against the Kedarens, who lived at ease and took no care, nor had any neighbours that could assist them.
Against Elam - Probably the Persians.
My throne - God calls the throne of Cyrus or Alexander his throne; because he gave it the conqueror.
But - We had the like promise as to Moab, chap. 48:47, and as to Ammon, verse 49:6, the same latter days either signify after many days, or in the time of the Messiah. In the former sense it may refer to Cyrus, who conquered Persia. In the latter sense it refers to the spiritual liberty which some of these poor Heathens were brought into by the gospel. We read Acts 2:9, that some of the Elamites were at Jerusalem at pentecost, and were some of those converted to Christ.