- Job's honour is turned into contempt, verse 1-14.
- His prosperity, into fears, pains, and a sense of the wrath of God, verse 15-22.
- He looks for nothing but death, verse 23.
- And rest therein, verse 24.
- Reflects on his former sympathy with the afflicted, verse 25.
- And describes his own present calamities, verse 26-31.
Younger - Whom both universal custom, and the light of nature, taught to reverence their elders and betters. Whose fathers - Whose condition was so mean, that in the opinion, of the world, they were unworthy to be my shepherds the companions of my dogs which watch my flocks.
Solitary - Although want commonly drives persons to places of resort for relief, yet they were so conscious of their own guilt, that they shunned company, and for fear or shame fled into, and lived in desolate places.
Who cut - Bitter herbs, which shews their extreme necessity. Juniper - Possibly the word may signify some other plant, for the Hebrews themselves are at a loss for the signification of the names of plants.
Brayed - Like the wild asses, for hunger or thirst. Thorns - Under which they hide themselves, that they might not be discovered when they are sought out for justice.
Spit - Not literally, for they kept far from him, but figuratively, they use all manner of reproachful expressions, even to my face. Herein, also we see a type of Christ, who was thus made a reproach of men, and despised of the people.
He - God. Cord - Hath slackened the string of my bow, and so rendered my bow and arrows useless; he hath deprived me of my strength or defence. Let loose - They cast off all former restraints of humanity, or modesty, and do those things before mine eyes, which formerly they trembled lest they should come to my ears.
Right hand - This was the place of adversaries or accusers in courts of justice. The youth - Heb. young striplings, who formerly hid themselves from my presence, chap. 29:8. Push - Metaphorically, they endeavour to overwhelm me. Ways - Cause-ways, or banks: so it is a metaphor from soldiers, who cast up banks, against the city which they besiege. Destruction - To destroy me.
Mar - As I am in great misery, so they endeavour to stop all my ways out of it. Set forward - Increasing it by their invectives, and censures. Even they - Who are themselves in a forlorn and miserable condition.
Waste place - In the waste place; in that part of the bank which was broken down. They rolled - As the waters, come rolling in at the breach.
Terrors - If he endeavoured to shake them off, they turned furiously upon him: if he endeavoured to out run them, they pursued his soul, as swiftly and violently as the wind.
I stand - I pray importunately and continually.
Turned - As if thou hadst changed thy very nature, which is kind, and merciful, and gracious.
Thou - Thou exposest me, to all sorts of storms and calamities; so that I am like chaff or stubble lifted up to the wind, and violently tossed hither and thither in the air. Substance - By which, my body is almost consumed, and my heart is melted within me.
House appointed - The grave is a narrow, dark, cold house, but there we shall rest and be safe. It is our home, for it is our mother's lap, and in it we are gathered to our fathers. It is an house appointed for us, by him that has appointed the bounds of all our habitations. And it is appointed for all living. It is the common receptacle for rich and poor: we must all be brought thither, and that shortly.
To the grave - The hand of God's wrath will not follow me beyond death; I shall then be safe and easy: Tho' men cry in his destruction: tho' most men cry and are affrighted, while they are dying, while the body is sinking into destruction; yet I desire it, I have nothing to fear therein, since I know that my redeemer liveth.
Did not I - Have I now judgment without mercy, because I afforded no mercy to others in misery? No; my conscience acquits me from this inhumanity: I did mourn over others in their miseries.
Upon me - Yet trouble came upon myself, when I expected it not.
Affliction - Came upon me suddenly, and unexpectedly, when I promised myself peace and prosperity.
Without the sun - Heb. black, not by the sun. My very countenance became black, tho' not by the sun, but by the force of my disease.
A brother - By imitation of their cries: persons of like qualities are often called brethren. Dragon - Which howl and wail mournfully in the deserts.