- Divers passages of this psalm, do not agree to Solomon, nor to any other king but the Messiah. It must therefore be acknowledged, that, this is a mixt psalm, belonging to Solomon imperfectly, but to Christ, clearly and fully: diverse expressions being so ordered, that the reader might be led by them to the contemplation of Christ, and of his kingdom. Which was the more necessary for the support of God's true Israel, because the spirit of God foresaw Solomon's dreadful apostacy, and the great miscarriages and calamities of his successors, and of the kingdom under their hands, and therefore was pleased to fortify their hearts with that glorious condition, which they should certainly enjoy under the Messiah. It is probable, David dictated this psalm, a little before he died, when he gave orders to proclaim Solomon king. After a short prayer for his successor, he foretells the glories of his reign, verse 1-17.
- And concludes with praise to the God of Israel, verse 18-20.
- A psalm for Solomon.
Judgments - He saith judgments in the plural number, because though the office of judging and ruling was but one, yet there were divers parts and branches, of it; in all which he begs that Solomon may be directed to do as God would have him to do.
Thy afflicted ones - For such are thine in a special manner, thou art their judge and patron.
The mountains - Which are so dangerous to passengers, in regard of robbers and wild beasts. Hereby it is implied, that other places should do so too, and that it should be common and universal.
Judge - Vindicate them from their oppressors.
Thee - Thee, O God, this shall be another blessed fruit of this righteous government, that together with peace, true religion shall be established, and that throughout all generations, which was begun in Solomon's days, but not fully accomplished 'till Christ came.
He shall come - Christ did come down from heaven, and brought or sent down from heaven his doctrine, (which is often compared to rain) and the sweet and powerful influences of his spirit.
Dominion - From one sea to another, or in all the parts of the habitable world. This was accomplished in Christ, and in him only. The river - Euphrates: which was the eastern border of the kingdom of Canaan, allotted by God, but enjoyed only by David, Solomon, and Christ. Of whose kingdom this may be mentioned, as one of the borders; because the kingdom of Christ is described under the shadow of Solomon's kingdom.
The sea - Of remote countries, to which they used to go from Canaan by sea; which are frequently called isles in scripture; the kings that rule by sea or by land.
All nations - Which cannot be said of Solomon with any truth or colour, but was unquestionably verified in Christ,
Deceit and violence - The two ways whereby the lives of men are usually destroyed. Precious - He will not be prodigal of the lives of his subjects, but like a true father of his people, will tenderly preserve them, and severely avenge their blood upon those who shall shed it.
Live - Long and prosperous, as Solomon: yea, eternally as Christ. Gold - This was done to Solomon, 1 Kings 10:15, and to Christ, Matthew 2:11. But such expressions as these being used of Christ and his kingdom, are commonly understood in a spiritual sense.
A handful - This intimates the small beginnings of his kingdom; and therefore does not agree to Solomon, whose kingdom was in a manner as large at the beginning of his reign, as at the end, but it exactly agrees to Christ. The earth - Sown in the earth. Mountains - In the most barren grounds. Shake - It shall yield such abundance of corn, that the ears being thick and high, shall, when they are shaken with the wind, make a noise not unlike that which the tops of the trees of Lebanon, sometimes make. Of the city - The citizens of Jerusalem, which are here put for the subjects of this kingdom.
The prayer - This psalm is the last which David composed: for this was wrote but a little before his death.