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Home > Study Desk
Passage Display[Printer-friendly Verses]   
 1 Samuel 20
  in: using:  
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The New American Standard Bible
   Book of 1 SamuelClick Verse Reference for Study Notes
    20:1-42 - Study Chapter  - Click for Chapter Audio

David and Jonathan Covenant

1 Then David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said R678 to F204 Jonathan, "What have I done? What is my iniquity? And what is my sin before your father, that he is seeking my life?" 2 He said to him, "Far from it, you shall not die. Behold, my father does nothing either great or small without F205 disclosing it to me. So why should my father hide this thing from me? It is not so!" 3 Yet David vowed R679 again, saying, F206 "Your father knows well that I have found favor in your sight, and he has said, `Do not let Jonathan know this, or he will be grieved.' But truly as R680 the LORD lives and as your soul lives, there is hardly F207 a step between me and death." 4 Then Jonathan said to David, "Whatever you F208 say, I will do for you." 5 So David said to Jonathan, "Behold, tomorrow is the R681 new moon, and I ought to R682 sit down to eat with the king. But let me go, that R683 I may hide myself in the field until the third evening. 6 "If your father misses me at all, then say, `David earnestly asked leave of me to run to Bethlehem R684 his city, because it is the R685 yearly sacrifice there for the whole family.' 7 "If he says, F209 `It is good,' your servant will be safe; but if he is very angry, know R686 that he has decided on evil. 8 "Therefore deal kindly with your servant, for you R687 have brought your servant into a covenant of the LORD with you. But if R688 there is iniquity in me, put me to death yourself; for why then should you bring me to your father?" 9 Jonathan said, "Far be it from you! For if I should indeed learn that evil has been decided by my father to come upon you, then would I not tell you about it?" 10 Then David said to Jonathan, "Who will tell me if F210 your father answers you harshly?" 11 Jonathan said to David, "Come, and let us go out into the field." So both of them went out to the field.

12 Then Jonathan said to David, "The LORD, the God of Israel, be witness! When I have sounded out my father about this time tomorrow, or the third day, behold, if there is good feeling toward David, shall I not then send to you and make F211 it known to you? 13 "If it please my father to do you harm, may R689 the LORD do so to Jonathan and more also, if I do not make F212 it known to you and send you away, that you may go in safety. And may R690 the LORD be with you as He has been with my father. 14 "If I am still alive, will you not show me the lovingkindness of the LORD, that I may not die? 15 "You R691 shall not cut off your lovingkindness from my house forever, not even when the LORD cuts off every one of the enemies of David from the face of the earth." 16 So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, "May R692 the LORD require it at the hands of David's enemies." 17 Jonathan made David vow again because of his love for him, because he R693 loved him as he loved his own life.

18 Then Jonathan said to him, "Tomorrow R694 is the new moon, and you will be missed because your seat will be empty. 19 "When you have stayed for three days, you shall go down quickly and come to the place where you hid yourself on that eventful day, and you shall remain by the stone Ezel. 20 "I will shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a target. 21 "And behold, I will send the lad, saying, `Go, find the arrows.' If I specifically say to the lad, `Behold, the arrows are on this side of you, get them,' then come; for there is safety for you and no F213 harm, as the LORD lives. 22 "But if I say F214 to the youth, `Behold, R695 the arrows are beyond you,' go, for the LORD has sent you away. 23 "As R696 for the agreement F215 of which you and I have spoken, behold, the R697 LORD is between you and me forever."

24 So David hid in the field; and when the new moon came, the king sat down to eat food. 25 The king sat on his seat as usual, the seat by the wall; then Jonathan rose up and Abner sat down by Saul's side, but David's R698 place was empty. 26 Nevertheless Saul did not speak anything that day, for he thought, "It is an accident, he R699 is not clean, surely he is not clean." 27 It came about the next day, the second day of the new moon, that David's place was empty; so Saul said to Jonathan his son, "Why has the son of Jesse not come to the meal, either yesterday or today?" 28 Jonathan then answered Saul, "David R700 earnestly asked leave of me to go to Bethlehem, 29 for he said, `Please let F216 me go, since our family has a sacrifice in the city, and my brother has commanded me to attend. And now, if I have found favor in your sight, please let me get away that I may see my brothers.' For this reason he has not come to the king's table."

Saul Is Angry with Jonathan

30 Then Saul's anger burned against Jonathan and he said to him, "You son of a perverse, rebellious woman! Do I not know that you are choosing the son of Jesse to your own shame and to the shame of your mother's nakedness? 31 "For as F217 long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, neither you nor your kingdom will be established. Therefore now, send and bring him to me, for he R701 must F218 surely die." 32 But Jonathan answered Saul his father and said to him, "Why R702 should he be put to death? What has he done?" 33 Then Saul R703 hurled his spear at him to strike him down; so R704 Jonathan knew that his father had decided to put David to death. 34 Then Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did not eat food on the second day of the new moon, for he was grieved over David because his father had dishonored him.

35 Now it came about in the morning that Jonathan went out into the field for the appointment with David, and a little lad was with him. 36 He said to his lad, "Run, R705 find now the arrows which I am about to shoot." As the lad was running, he shot an F219 arrow past him. 37 When the lad reached the place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, Jonathan called after the lad and said, "Is R706 not the arrow beyond you?" 38 And Jonathan called after the lad, "Hurry, be quick, do not stay!" And Jonathan's lad picked up the arrow and came to his master. 39 But the lad was not aware of anything; only Jonathan and David knew about the matter. 40 Then Jonathan gave his weapons to his lad and said to him, "Go, bring them to the city." 41 When the lad was gone, David rose from the south side and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed R707 three times. And they kissed each other and wept together, but David R708 wept the more. 42 Jonathan said to David, "Go R709 in safety, inasmuch as we have sworn to each other in the name of the LORD, saying, `The R710 LORD will be between me and you, and between my descendants F220 and your descendants F220 forever.' " Then F221 he rose and departed, while Jonathan went into the city.

F204: Lit before
F205: Lit and he does not uncover my ear
F206: Lit and said
F207: Lit about
F208: Lit your soul says
F209: Lit says thus
F210: Lit or what
F211: Lit uncover your ear
F212: Lit uncover your ear
F213: Lit there is nothing
F214: Lit say thus
F215: Lit word
F216: Lit send me away
F217: Lit all the days which
F218: Lit is a son of death
F219: Lit the
F220: Lit seed
F220: Lit seed
F221: Ch 21:1 in Heb

R678: 1 Samuel 24:9
R679: Deuteronomy 6:13
R680: 1 Samuel 25:26; 2 Kings 2:6
R681: Numbers 10:10; 28:11-15; Amos 8:5
R682: 1 Samuel 20:24,27
R683: 1 Samuel 19:2
R684: 1 Samuel 17:58
R685: Deuteronomy 12:5; 1 Samuel 9:12
R686: 1 Samuel 25:17
R687: 1 Samuel 18:3; 23:18
R688: 2 Samuel 14:32
R689: Ruth 1:17; 1 Samuel 3:17
R690: Joshua 1:5; 1 Samuel 17:37; 18:12; 1 Chronicles 22:11,16
R691: 2 Samuel 9:1,3
R692: Deuteronomy 23:21; 1 Samuel 25:22
R693: 1 Samuel 18:1
R694: 1 Samuel 20:5,25
R695: 1 Samuel 20:37
R696: 1 Samuel 20:14,15
R697: Genesis 31:49,53; 1 Samuel 20:42
R698: 1 Samuel 20:18
R699: Leviticus 7:20,21; 15:5; 1 Samuel 16:5
R700: 1 Samuel 20:6
R701: 2 Samuel 12:5
R702: Genesis 31:36; 1 Samuel 19:5; Proverbs 31:9; Matthew 27:23
R703: 1 Samuel 18:11; 19:10
R704: 1 Samuel 20:7
R705: 1 Samuel 20:20,21
R706: 1 Samuel 20:22
R707: Genesis 42:6
R708: 1 Samuel 18:3
R709: 1 Samuel 20:22
R710: 1 Samuel 20:15,16,23


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