Laws about Animals for Food
1 The LORD spoke again to Moses and to Aaron, saying to them, 2 "Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, `These R276 are the creatures which you may eat from all the animals that are on the earth. 3 `Whatever divides a hoof, thus making split hoofs, and chews the cud, among the animals, that you may eat. 4 `Nevertheless, you R277 are not to eat of these, among those which chew the cud, or among those which divide the hoof: the camel, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you. 5 `Likewise, the shaphan, F108 for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you; 6 the rabbit F109 also, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you; 7 and the pig, for though it divides the hoof, thus making a split hoof, it does not chew cud, it is unclean to you. 8 `You shall not eat of their flesh nor touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you.
9 `These R278 you may eat, whatever is in the water: all that have fins and scales, those in the water, in the seas or in the rivers, you may eat. 10 `But R279 whatever is in the seas and in the rivers that does not have fins and scales among all the teeming life of the water, and among all the living creatures that are in the water, they are detestable things to you, 11 and they shall be abhorrent F110 to you; you may not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses you shall detest. 12 `Whatever in the water does not have fins and scales is abhorrent F111 to you.
Avoid the Unclean
13 `These, moreover, you R280 shall detest among the birds; they are abhorrent, F112 not to be eaten: the eagle F113 and the vulture and the buzzard, F114 14 and the kite and the falcon in its kind, 15 every raven in its kind, 16 and the ostrich and the owl and the sea gull and the hawk in its kind, 17 and the little owl and the cormorant and the great F115 owl, 18 and the white owl and the pelican F116 and the carrion vulture, 19 and the stork, the heron in its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat.
20 `All the winged F117 insects that walk on all fours are detestable to you. 21 `Yet these you may eat among all the winged F118 insects which walk on all fours: those which have above their feet jointed legs with which to jump on the earth. 22 `These of them you may eat: the locust in its kinds, and the devastating locust in its kinds, and the cricket in its kinds, and the grasshopper in its kinds. 23 `But all other winged F119 insects which are four-footed are detestable to you.
24 `By these, moreover, you will be made unclean: whoever touches their carcasses becomes unclean until evening, 25 and whoever R281 picks up any of their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening. 26 `Concerning all the animals which divide the hoof but do not make a split hoof, or which do not chew cud, they are unclean to you: whoever touches them becomes unclean. 27 `Also whatever walks on its paws, among all the creatures that walk on all fours, are unclean to you; whoever touches their carcasses becomes unclean until evening, 28 and the one who picks up their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; they are unclean to you.
29 `Now these are to you the unclean among the swarming things which swarm on the earth: the mole, and the mouse, and the great F120 lizard in its kinds, 30 and the gecko, and the crocodile, F121 and the lizard, and the sand F122 reptile, and the chameleon. 31 `These are to you the unclean among all the swarming things; whoever touches them when they are dead becomes unclean until evening. 32 `Also anything on which one of them may fall when they are dead becomes unclean, including any wooden article, or clothing, or a skin, or a sack--any article of F123 which use is made--it R282 shall be put in the water and be unclean until evening, then it becomes clean. 33 `As for any earthenware R283 vessel into which one of them may fall, whatever is in it becomes unclean and you shall break the F124 vessel. 34 `Any of the food F125 which may be eaten, on which water comes, shall become unclean, and any liquid F125 which may be drunk in every vessel shall become unclean. 35 `Everything, moreover, on which part of their carcass may fall becomes unclean; an oven or a stove F126 shall be smashed; they are unclean and shall continue as unclean to you. 36 `Nevertheless a spring or a cistern collecting F127 water shall be clean, though the one who touches their carcass shall be unclean. 37 `If a part of their carcass falls on any seed for sowing which is to be sown, it is clean. 38 `Though if water is put on the seed and a part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.
39 `Also if one of the animals dies which you have for food, the one who touches its carcass becomes unclean until evening. 40 `He R284 too, who eats some of its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening, and the one who picks up its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening.
41 `Now R285 every swarming thing that swarms on the earth is detestable, not to be eaten. 42 `Whatever crawls on its belly, and whatever walks on all fours, whatever has many feet, in respect to every swarming thing that swarms on the earth, you shall not eat them, for they are detestable. 43 `Do R286 not render yourselves F128 detestable through any of the swarming things that swarm; and you shall not make yourselves unclean with them so that you become unclean. 44 `For I R287 am the LORD your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be R288 holy, for I am holy. And you shall not make yourselves unclean with any of the swarming things that swarm on the earth. 45 `For R289 I am the LORD who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God; thus you R290 shall be holy, for I am holy.' "
46 This is the law regarding the animal and the bird, and every living thing that moves in the waters and everything that swarms on the earth, 47 to R291 make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the edible creature and the creature which is not to be eaten.
F108: A small, shy, furry animal (Hyrax syriacus) found in the peninsula of the Sinai, northern Israel, and the region round the Dead Sea; KJV coney, orig NASB rock badger
F109: Or hare
F110: Lit detestable things
F111: Lit detestable things
F112: Lit a detestable thing
F113: Or vulture
F114: Or black vulture
F115: Specifically, great horned owl
F116: Or owl or jackdaw
F117: Lit swarming things with wings
F118: V 20, note 1
F119: V 20, note 1
F120: Or thorn-tailed lizard
F121: Or lizard
F122: Species as yet undefined
F123: Lit with which work is done
F124: Lit it
F125: I.e. if touched by a carcass; cf vv 29-32
F125: I.e. if touched by a carcass; cf vv 29-32
F126: Lit hearth for supporting (two) pots
F127: Lit of a gathering of
F128: Lit your souls
R276: Deuteronomy 14:3-21
R277: Acts 10:14
R278: Deuteronomy 14:9
R279: Deuteronomy 14:10
R280: Deuteronomy 14:12-19
R281: Leviticus 11:40
R282: Leviticus 15:12
R283: Leviticus 6:28; 15:12
R284: Leviticus 17:15; 22:8; Deuteronomy 14:21; Ezekiel 44:31
R285: Leviticus 11:29
R286: Leviticus 20:25
R287: Exodus 6:7; 16:12; 23:25; Isaiah 43:3; 51:15
R288: Leviticus 19:2; 1 Peter 1:16
R289: Exodus 6:7; 20:2; Leviticus 22:33; 25:38; 26:45
R290: Leviticus 19:2; 1 Peter 1:16
R291: Leviticus 10:10; Ezekiel 22:26; 44:23