Were often cast by the Jews, as well as other ancient nations, with the expectation, when God was appealed to, that he would so control them as to give a right direction in doubtful cases, Psalms 22:18 16:11 18:18. They were often used by the divine appointment. The portions of the twelve tribes were thus assigned to them; and hence each tribe’s portion was called "the lot of its inheritance," Numbers 26:55,56 Psalms 125:3 Acts 8:21. The scapegoat was to be selected, and the other of the priests’ service determined by lot, Leviticus 16:8 1 Chronicles 24:5 25:8. By the same means Achan, Jonathan, and Jonah were discovered, Joshua 7:14 1 Samuel 14:41,42 Jonah 1:7; and thus Matthias was designated by Christ to be an apostle in the place of Judas, Acts 1:26. A common mode of casting lots was by the use of pebbles, one or more of them being marked, and all of them being shaken together in some fold of a garment, an urn, or a helmet, before drawing, Proverbs 16:33 John 19:24. As the use of lots by one who believes in the particular providence of God involves a solemn appeal to the Disposer of all events, they should never be used on trivial occasions; and in this day, a case can hardly occur when such an appeal would be warranted. See PURIM.