The absence of natural light, Genesis 1:2, and hence figuratively a state of misery and adversity, Job 18:6 Psalms 107:10 Isaiah 8:22 9:1; also the absence of the sun and stars, and hence the fall of chief men and national convulsions, Isaiah 13:10 Acts 2:20. "Works of darkness," are the impure mysteries practiced in heathen worship, Ephesians 5:11. "Outer darkness" illustrates the gloom of those on whom the gates of heaven are closed, Matthew 8:12. The darkness in Egypt, Exodus 10:21-23, was miraculous; also that which covered all Judea with sympathetic gloom at the crucifixion of Christ, Luke 23:43. This could not have been caused by an eclipse of the sun; for at Passover the moon was full, and on the opposite side of the earth from the sun.