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Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology

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Additional Resources
 
Concordances
• Nave's Topical Bible
New creature
New moon
• Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Kingdom; blessings
New, moon, year
• Torrey's Topical Textbook
Feast of the New Moon, The
New Birth, The
Dictionaries
• Baker's Evangelical Dictionary
Birth, New
Command, New
Covenant, the New
Creation, New
Earth, New
Heaven, New
Life, New
Man, New
Moon, New, Festival of
Name, New
New Birth
New Command
New Covenant
New Creation
New Heavens and a New Earth
New Jerusalem
New Life
New Man
New Moon
New Order
New Self
New Song
Old Testament in the New Testament, the
Order, New
Self, New
Song, New
• Easton's Bible Dictionary
New Moon, Feast of
New Testament
• Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Canon of the New Testament
New Moon
New Testament
• Smith's Bible Dictionary
Moon, New
New Moon
New Testament
New Year
Testament, New
Versions, Ancient, of the Old and New Testaments
Encyclopedias
• International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
Adam in the New Testament
Babylon in the New Testament
Birth, New
Canon of the New Testament
Chronology of the New Testament
Commandment, the New
Covenant, in the New Testament
Covenant, the New
Decease, in New Testament
Divorce in the New Testament
Earth, the New
Elder in the New Testament
Eschatology of the New Testament, I-V
Eschatology of the New Testament, Vi-X
Eve in the New Testament
Heavens, New (and Earth, New)
Jerusalem, New
Language of the New Testament
Law in the New Testament
Man, New
Manuscripts of the New Testament
Moon, New
New Birth
New Commandment
New Covenant
New Earth
New Heavens
New Jerusalem
New Man
New Moon
New Testament
New Testament Canon
New Testament Language
New Testament Text
New Year
New, Newness
Poetry, New Testament
Priesthood in the New Testament
Quotations in the New Testament
Sacrifice, in the New Testament, 1
Sacrifice, in the New Testament, 2
Sons of God (new Testament)
Stranger and Sojourner (in the Apocrypha and the New Testament)
Testament, New, Canon of the
Testament, New, Text and Manuscripts of the
Text and Manuscripts of the New Testament
Lexicons
Greek - new
Greek - new wine
Greek - new, new things, things new
Greek - new convert
Greek - new moon
Greek - new, new man, new self
Greek - new
Hebrew - new, new thing, New, new things, something new
Hebrew - new moon, new moons
Hebrew - new owners
Hebrew - new wine
Hebrew - new grass, new growth
Hebrew - new grass
Hebrew - new thing, entirely new thing
Hebrew - new growth
Hebrew - new fruit
Hebrew - new wine
Hebrew - new
Hebrew - renew, gain new, renewed, sprouts anew
Hebrew - new
New -

Word used in the New Testament to contrast and compare both the quantitative concept of the recent with the former and the qualitative idea of the better with the inferior. The theological connotation of the word is used with both these meanings in phrases such as "new covenant" (Luke 22:20; 2 Cor 3:6; Heb 8:8, 13; 9:15), "new creation" (2 Cor 5:17), "new commandment" (John 13:34), and "new self" (Eph 2:15; 4:24; Col 3:10).

Two words are employed in the Greek New Testament to convey these ideas. The word kainos [καινός] appears more than forty times and the word neos [νέος] is used more than twenty times. Efforts have been made to differentiate these by ascribing to the former a qualitative meaning such as "fresh" and to the latter a quantitative or temporal meaning such as "new" or "recent." According to this distinction Jesus introduced a new covenant (kaine, Luke 22:20) in the sense of its being a fresh understanding of the former covenant rather than a different and supplanting one.

However, there are places where the two words seem to be used synonymously. For example, Hebrews 8:8, 13 refers to the new covenant with the word kaine while 12:24 calls it a neos [νέος] covenant. Mark 2:21-22 speaks of sewing a new (kainon) patch on an old garment and putting new neos [νέος] wine in old wineskins. Thus, it is probable that the words are virtually synonymous in the New Testament unless contextually differentiated.

Generally the word "new" is used to draw a contrast with the old. Jesus' teaching was contrasted with that of the scribes by some who heard him, calling it "new" (Mark 1:21-27). The new aspect was that Jesus taught with authority. Paul wrote that "if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come!" (2 Cor 5:17). John looked for new heavens and a new earth, because the first ones had passed away (Rev 21:1).

Most of what Jesus taught was rooted in the Hebrew Scriptures and was new only in point of emphasis or application. He reaffirmed the teaching of Hebrew Scripture that centralized the Shema as the heart of Jewish religion: "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength" (Deut 6:5-6). To this Jesus added the corollary: "Love your neighbor as yourself" (Matt 22:39). He said these two commandments fulfilled the Law and the Prophets.

Jesus made love for one another the mark of discipleship: "A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another" (John 13:34-35). His command to love one's enemies seems to be an innovation (Matt 5:44).

John McRay

 


Copyright Statement
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell Copyright 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of Baker Book House Company, PO Box 6287, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49516-6287. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

Bibliography Information
Elwell, Walter A. "Entry for 'New'". "Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology".
<http://classic.studylight.org/dic/bed/view.cgi?number=T503>. 1897.

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