Easton's Bible Dictionary
Heb. nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace (2 Chronicles 28:7; Compare 1 Kings 4:6), chief of the temple (1 Chronicles 9:11; Jeremiah 20:1), the leader of the Aaronites (1 Chronicles 12:27), keeper of the sacred treasury (26:24), captain of the army (13:1), the king (1 Samuel 9:16), the Messiah (Daniel 9:25).
Heb. nasi, raised; exalted. Used to denote the chiefs of families (Numbers 3:24,30,32,35); also of tribes (2:3; 7:2; 3:32). These dignities appear to have been elective, not hereditary.
Heb. pakid, an officer or magistrate. It is used of the delegate of the high priest (2 Chronicles 24:11), the Levites (Nehemiah 11:22), a military commander (2 Kings 25:19), Joseph's officers in Egypt (Genesis 41:34).
Heb. shallit, one who has power, who rules (Genesis 42:6; Ezra 4:20; Eccl 8:8; Daniel 2:15; 5:29).
Heb. aluph, literally one put over a thousand, i.e., a clan or a subdivision of a tribe. Used of the "dukes" of Edom (Genesis 36), and of the Jewish chiefs (Zechariah 9:7).
Heb. moshel, one who rules, holds dominion. Used of many classes of rulers (Genesis 3:16; 24:2; 45:8; Psalms 105:20); of the Messiah (Micah 5:2); of God (1 Chronicles 29:12; Psalms 103:19).
Heb. sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use. It is used of the chief baker of Pharaoh (Genesis 40:16); of the chief butler (40:2, etc. See also Genesis 47:6; Exodus 1:11; Daniel 1:7; Judges 10:18; 1 Kings 22:26; 20:15; 2Kings 1:9; 2Sam 24:2). It is used also of angels, guardian angels (Daniel 10:13,20,21; 12:1; 10:13; 8:25).
, I.e., friend of the king; adjutant; governor of a province (2 Kings 18:24; Isaiah 36:9; Jeremiah 51:: 57; Ezekiel 23:6,23; Daniel 3:2; Esther 3:: 12), or a perfect (Nehemiah 3:7; 5:14; Ezra 5:3; Haggai 1:1). This is a foreign word, Assyrian, which was early adopted into the Hebrew idiom (1 Kings 10:15).
The Chaldean word
Is applied to the governors of the Babylonian satrapies (Daniel 3:2,27; 6:7); the prefects over the Magi (2:48). The corresponding Hebrew word
Is used of provincial rulers (Jeremiah 51:23,28,57); also of chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem (Ezra 9:2; Nehemiah 2:16; 4:14,19; 5:7,17; 7:5; 12:40).
In the New Testament there are also different Greek words rendered thus.
Meaning an ethnarch (2 Corinthians 11:32), which was an office distinct from military command, with considerable latitude of application.
The procurator of Judea under the Romans (Matthew 27:2). (Compare Luke 2:2, where the verb from which the Greek word so rendered is derived is used.)
Steward (Galatians 4:2).
Governor of the feast (John 2:9), who appears here to have been merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to have presided at the marriage banquet in his stead.
A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, (James 3:4).
These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain, copy freely.
Easton, Matthew George. "Entry for 'Governor'". "Easton's Bible Dictionary".