|Matthew, The Gospel According to |
frontGOSPELS for its aspect of Christ compared with the other evangelists.)
Time of writing. As our Lord's words divide Acts (Acts 1:8) into its three parts, "ye shall be witnesses unto Me in Jerusalem, and all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth":
(1) the period in which the church was Jewish, Acts 1-11;
(2) the period when it was Gentile with strong Jewish admixture;
(3) the period when the Gentiles preponderated, Matthew's Gospel answers to the first or Jewish period, ending about A.D. 41, and was written probably in and for Jerusalem and Judea.
The expression (Matthew 27:7-8; Matthew 28:15) "unto this day" implies some interval after Christ's crucifixion. Language. Ancient testimony is unanimous that Matthew wrote in Hebrew Papias, a disciple of John (the Presbyter) and companion of Polycarp (Eusebius, H. E. 3:3), says, "Matthew wrote his oracles (logia) in Hebrew, and each interpreted them in Greek as he could." Perhaps the Greek for "oracles," logia, expresses that the Hebrew Gospel of Matthew was a collection of discourses (as logoi means) rather than a full narrative. Matthew's Gospel is the one of the four which gives most fully the discourses of our Lord. Papias' use of the past tense (aorist) implies that "each interpreting" Matthew's Hebrew was in Papias' time a thing of the past, so that as early as the end of the first century or the beginning of the second the need for each to translate the Hebrew had ceased, for an authoritative Greek translation existed.
The Hellenists (Greek-speaking) Jews would from the first need a Greek version, and Matthew and the church would hardly leave this want unsupplied in his lifetime. Origen, Pantaenus, Eusebius (H. E. 6:25; 5:10; 5:8), and Irenaeus (adv. Haer. 3:1) state the same. Jerome (de Vir. Illustr. 3) adds, "who translated the Hebrew into Greek is uncertain." He identifies Matthew's Hebrew Gospel with "the Gospel of the Nazarenes," which he saw in Pamphilus' library at Caesarea. Epiphanius (Haer. 29, sec. 9) mentions this Nazarene Gospel as written in Hebrew. (Hebruikois grammasin) Probably this Nazarene was the original Hebrew Gospel of Matthew interpolated and modified, yet not so much so as the Ebionite Gospel. This view will account for the strange fact that nothing of the Hebrew Matthew has been preserved. Our Greek Gospel superseded the Hebrew, and was designed by the Holy Spirit (as its early acceptance, universal use, and sole preservation prove) to be the more universal canonical Gospel.
The Judaizing Nazarenes still clung to the Hebrew one; but their heresies and their corruptions of the text brought it into disrepute with the orthodox. Origen (on Prayer, 161:150) argues that epiousion, the Greek word for "daily" in the Lord's prayer, was formed by Matthew himself; Luke adopts the word. Eusebius (Lardher, Cred. 8 note p. 180) remarks that Matthew in quotations of the Old Testament does not follow the Septuagint, but makes his own translation. Quotations in his own narrative (1) pointing out the fulfillment of prophecy Matthew translates from the Hebrew. Quotations (2) of persons introduced, as Christ, are from the Greek Septuagint, even where differing from the Hebrew, e.g. Matthew 3:3; Matthew 13:14. A mere translator would not have done so. An independent writer would do just what Matthew does, namely, in speeches of persons introduced would conform to the apostolic tradition which used the Septuagint, but in his own narrative would translate the Hebrew as he judged best under the Spirit.
These are arguments for Matthew's authorship of the Greek Gospel. Mark apparently alters or explains many passages found in our Matthew, for greater clearness, as if he had the Greek of Matthew before him (Matthew 18:9; Matthew 19:1 with Mark 10:1; Mark 9:47); and if the Greek existed so early it must have come from Matthew himself, not a transistor. The Latinisms (fragellosas, Matthew 27:26; kodranteen, Matthew 5:26) are unlike a translation from Hebrew into Greek, for why not use the Greek terms as Luke (Luke 12:59) does, rather than Graecised Latinisms? The Latinisms are natural to Matthew, as a portitor or gatherer of port dues, familiar with the Roman coin quadrans, and likely to quote the Latin for "scourging" (fragellosas from flagellum) used by the Roman governor in sentencing Jesus. Josephus' writing his history both in Greek and Hebrew (B. J. Preface 1) is parallel.
The great proof of Matthew's authorship of the Greek is that the Hebrew has left no trace of it except that which may exist in the Nazarene Gospel, whereas our Greek Matthew is quoted as authentic by the apostolic fathers (Polycarp, Ep. ii. 7; Ignatius, ad Smyr. 6; Clemens Romans i. 46; Barnabas, Ep. 4) and earliest Christians. Paul in writing to the Hebrew, Peter to the Jews of the dispersion, and James to the twelve tribes, write in Greek not Hebrew. How unlikely that Matthew's name should be substituted for the lost name of the unknown translator, and this in apostolic times; for John lived to see the completion of the canon; he never would have sanctioned as the authentic Gospel of Matthew a fragmentary compilation "in arrangement and selection of events not such as would have proceeded from an apostle and eye witness" (Alford). The Hebraisms accord with the Jewish character of Matthew's Gospel, and suit the earliest period of the church. At a later date it would have been less applicable to the existing state.
Early Christian writers quote the Greek, not the Hebrew, with implicit confidence in its authority as Matthew's work. The original Hebrew of which Papias, etc., speak none of them ever saw. If it had not been so, heretics would have gladly used such a handle against it, which they do not. The Syriac version of the second century is demonstrably made, not from its kindred tongue the Hebrew, but from the Greek Matthew; this to too in the country next Judea where Matthew wrote, and with which there was the freest communication. The Hebrew Matthew having served its local and temporary use was laid aside, just as Paul's temporary epistles (Colossians 4:16; 1 Corinthians 5:9) have not been transmitted to us, the Holy Spirit designing them to serve but for a time. Our Greek Matthew has few, if any, traces of being a translation; it has the general marks of being an independent work.
A translator would not have presumed to alter Matthew's original so as to have the air of originality which it has; if he had, his compilation would never have been accepted as the authentic Gospel of the inspired apostle Matthew by the churches which had within them men possessing the gift of "discerning spirits" (1 Corinthians 12:10). As Mark's name designates his Gospel, not that of Peter his apostolic guide, and Luke's name his Gospel not Paul's name, so if a translator had modified Matthew's Hebrew, his name not Matthew's would have designated it. All is clear if we suppose that, after inaccurate translations of his Hebrew by others such as Papias (above) notices, Matthew himself at a later date wrote, or dictated, in Greek for Greek speaking Jews the Gospel in fuller form than the Hebrew. His omission of the ascension (as included in the resurrection of which it is the complement) was just what we should expect if he wrote while the event was fresh in men's memory and the witnesses still at Jerusalem. If he had written at a later date he would have surely recorded it.
AIM. There is a lack in it of the vivid details found in the others, his aim being to give prominence to the Lord's discourses. Jesus' human aspect as the ROYAL. Son of David is mainly dwelt, on; but His divine aspect as Lord of David is also presented in Matthew 22:45; Matthew 16:16; proving that Matthew's view accords with that of John, who makes prominent Jesus' divine claims. From the beginning Matthew introduces Jesus as "Son of David," but Mark 1:1 as "the Son of God," Luke as "the Son of Adam, the son of God" (Luke 3:38), John as "the Word" who "was God" (John 1:4). In the earlier part, down to the Baptist's death, he groups facts and discourses according to the subjects, not according to the times, whereas Mark arranges according to the times, in the places where they differ. Papias' description of the Hebrew Matthew as a studied arrangement (suntaxis) of our Lord's "discourses" accords with this view.
STYLE. The Greek of Matthew is the most Hebraic of the New Testament Hellenistic writers (Hellenistic is Hebrew in idiom and thoughts, Greek in words): for instance matheteuein, tafos sumboulion lambanein, distazein, katapontizesthai, metairein, proskunein with the dative (not the accusative as in Mark and Luke), sunairein logon, omnuoo eis or en of the thing or person sworn by; akousoo for akousomai; pas hostis (but Luke pas hos); brechein to rain (but in Luke to moisten); sunteleia tou aionos (elsewhere only in Hebrews 9:26, both Scriptures being for Jews); basileta ton ouranon (in the rest of the New Testament basileia tou THeou); the phrase "that it might be fulfilled" (Matthew 2:15; Matthew 1:22) implies that the prophetic word necessitated the fulfillment (Matthew 24:35); "that which was spoken" (to rethen, errethee) is the form of quotation 20 times, suitable to the Hebrew mode (Mark 13:14, the only other instance, is omitted in the two oldest manuscripts, Sinaiticus and Vaticanus), compare Hebrews 2:2.
Three peculiar terms are common to Matthew and Mark, angareusei, fragelloosas, and koloboosai. So also HIerosoluma (but HIerousaleem in Luke mostly). If Mark adopted them from Matthew the Greek Matthew must be authentic for it must then have been written in Matthew's lifetime, when none durst have brought out a free translation of the Hebrew as Matthew's Gospel. The independence in the mode of Old Testament quotations is inconsistent with the notion of a mere translated "The Son of David" is eight times in Matthew, three times each in Mark and Luke. Jerusalem is "the holy city" (Matthew 4:5; Matthew 27:53), which it ceased to be regarded as by the time that subsequent New Testament writers wrote, when the Jews had continued to harden themselves against the truth.
CANONICAL AUTHORITY. Justin Martyr, the epistle to Diognetus, Irenaeus, Tartan, Origen, etc., quote Matthew as of undisputed authority. The genuineness of the first two chapters, disputed by some, is established by their presence in the oldest manuscripts and versions. The genealogy was necessary in a Gospel for Jews, to show that Jesus' claim to Messiahship accorded with His descent through king David from Abraham, to both of whom the promise of Messiah was given; while its insertion is proof of early date.
DESIGN. For the Jews; to show Jewish, readers (to whom were committed the Old Testament "oracles of God") that Jesus is the Messiah of the Old Testament, fulfilling Old Testament prophecies, as born of a virgin in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:6); fleeing to Egypt and called out of it; heralded by John Baptist (Matthew 3:3); laboring in Galilee of the Gentiles (Matthew 4:14-16); healing (Matthew 8:17); teaching in parables (Matthew 13:14 ff). Matthew has 65 Old Testament quotations, of which 43 are verbal; Luke has 43, of which only 19 are verbal. Matthew takes for granted that his readers, as Jews, know Jewish customs and places; Mark for Gentile readers describes these (Matthew 15:1-2 with Mark 7:1-4, "with defiled, that is, unwashed hands," Matthew 27:62 with Mark 15:42, "the preparation, that is the day before the sabbath," Luke 23:54; John 19:14; John 19:31; John 19:42).
The interpretations of Immanueel, Eloi, lama sabachthani, Akeldama (Matthew 1:23; Matthew 27:8; Matthew 27:46) were designed for Greek speakers. In contrast with Judaic traditions and servility to the dead letter, the law is unfolded in its spirit (Matthew 5; 23). The epistle of James answers closely to the Sermon on the Mount (which Matthew alone gives fully) in its spiritual development of the law (James 5:12; James 1:25; James 1:2); the relation of the gospel to the law is the aspect which Matthew, like James, presents. (See JAMES.) What James is among the apostolic epistles that Matthew is among the evangelists. It is the Gospel of Judaeo-Christianity, setting forth the law in its deep spirituality brought to view by Jesus its fulfiller.
Mere Judaic privileges will not avail, for unbelief shall cast the children of the kingdom into outer darkness, while the saved shall come from every quarter to sit down with Abraham through faith (Matthew 8:10-12). Records found only in Matthew.
Christ's genealogy from Abraham to Joseph through the male line; the succession to the throne, from Abraham through king David to Joseph, 42 generations, with omissions. (See GENEALOGY.) Matthew 1: Joseph's dreams. Matthew 2: Christ worshipped by the wise men, Herod's massacre of the children at Bethlehem, Herod's death, and Christ's return to Nazareth. Matthew 5-7: the Sermon on the Mount in full. Matthew 9: healing of two blind men. Matthew 11: call to the heavy laden. Matthew 13: parables of the hidden treasure, the pearl, and the drag-net. Matthew 16: Peter's confession of Christ, and Christ's confirmation of Peter's name (compare at an early time John 1:42). Matthew 17: Christ's paying the tribute with money from a fish. Matthew 20: cures two blind men while going from Jericho. Matthew 22: parable of the wedding garment. Matthew 25: parables of the ten virgins, talents, and sheep and goats at the judgment. Matthew 27: dream of Pilate's wife, appearance of many saints after the crucifixion. Matthew 28: soldiers bribed to say that Christ's disciples had stolen His body.
QUOTATIONS IN MATTHEW Matthew 1:23 "Behold, a virgin" Isaiah 7:14 Matthew 2:6 "Thou Bethlehem" Micah 5:2 Matthew 2:15 "Out of Egypt" Hosea 11:1 Matthew 2:18 "In Rama a voice" Jeremiah 31:15 Matthew 3:3 "The voice of one crying" Isaiah 40:3 Matthew 4:4 "Man shall not live by bread" Deuteronomy 8:3 Matthew 4:6 "He shall give His angels charge" Psalm 91:11-12 Matthew 4:7 "Thou shalt not tempt " Deuteronomy 6:16 Matthew 4:10 "Thou shalt worship the Lord" Deuteronomy 6:13 Matthew 4:15-16 "The land of Zabulon" Isaiah 9:1-2 Matthew 5:5 "Blessed are the meek: they shall Psalm 37:11 inherit the earth" Matthew 5:21 "Thou shalt not kill" Exodus 20:13 Matthew 5:27 "Thou shalt not commit adultery" Exodus 20:14 Matthew 5:31 "Give her a writing of divorcement" Deuteronomy 24:1 Matthew 5:33 "Thou shalt not forswear"
Deuteronomy 23:23; Leviticus 19:12 Matthew 5:38 "An eye for an eye" Exodus 21:24 Matthew 5:43 "Love thy neighbor ... hate thine enemy" Leviticus 19:18; Deuteronomy 23:6 Matthew 8:4 "Offer the gift ... Moses commanded" Leviticus 14:2 Matthew 8:17 "Himself took our infirmities" Isaiah 53:4 Matthew 9:13 "I will have mercy" Hosea 6:6 Matthew 10:35-36 "A man's foes ... of his own household" Micah 7:5-6 Matthew 11:5 "Blind receive sight" Isaiah 35:5 Matthew 11:10 "Behold, I send My messenger" Malachi 3:1 Matthew 11:14 "Elias, which was for to come " Malachi 4:5 Matthew 12:3 "Have ye not read what David did?" 1 Samuel 21:1-6 Matthew 12:5 "Priests profane sabbath" Numbers 28:9 Matthew 12:7 "Mercy, not sacrifice" Hosea 6:6 Matthew 12:18-21 "Behold My Servant" Isaiah 42:1-4 Matthew 12:40 "Jonas three days in whale's belly"
Jonah 1:17 Matthew 12:42 "Queen of the south came" 1 Kings 10:1 Matthew 13:14-15 "Hearing ye shall hear" Isaiah 6:9-10 Matthew 13:35 "I will open my mouth in parables" Psalm 78:2-3 Matthew 15:8 "This people draweth nigh ... with ... lips" Isaiah 29:13 Matthew 15:34 "Honor thy father" Exodus 20:12 Matthew 17:2 "Transfigured" Exodus 34:29 Matthew 17:11 "Elias shall first come" Malachi 3:1; Malachi 4:5 Matthew 18:15 "If thy brother trespass ... Leviticus 19:17 tell him his fault" Matthew 19:4 "He which made them at the beginning Genesis 1:27 made male and female" Matthew 19:5 "For this cause shall a man leave his father" Genesis 2:24 Matthew 19:7 "Divorcement" Deuteronomy 24:1 Matthew 19:18 "Do no murder" Exodus 20:13 Matthew 21:5 "Behold, thy King cometh" Zechariah 9:9 Matthew 21:9 "Blessed is he that cometh in the Psalm 118:25-26 name of the Lord, Hosanna"
Matthew 21:13 "My house the house of prayer" Isaiah 56:7 Matthew 21:16 "Out of the mouth of babes" Psalm 8:2 Matthew 21:42 "The stone which the builders rejected" Psalm 118:22-23 Matthew 21:44 "Whosoever shall fall on this stone Isaiah 8:14 shall be broken" Matthew 22:24 "Moses said, If a man die" Deuteronomy 25:5 Matthew 22:32 "I am the God of Abraham" Exodus 3:6 Matthew 22:37 "Thou shalt love the Lord" Deuteronomy 6:5 Matthew 22:39 "Thou shalt love thy neighbor" Leviticus 19:18 Matthew 22:45 "Sit thou on My right hand" Psalm 110:1 Matthew 23:35 "Blood of Abel" Genesis 4:8 Matthew 23:38 "Your house is left desolate" Psalm 69:25 Matthew 23:39 "Blessed is he that cometh in the Psalm 118:26 name of the Lord"
Matthew 24:15 "The abomination of desolation" Daniel 9:27 Matthew 24:29 "Sun ... darkened" Isaiah 13:10 Matthew 24:37 "The days of Noe" Genesis 6:11 Matthew 26:31 "I will smite the shepherd" Zechariah 13:7 Matthew 26:52 "They that take the sword shall Genesis 9:6 perish with the sword" Matthew 26:64 "Son of man ... in the clouds" Daniel 7:13 Matthew 27:9 "The thirty pieces of silver ... Zechariah 11:13 potter's field" Matthew 27:35 "They parted my garments" Psalm 22:18 Matthew 27:43 "He trusted in God" Psalm 22:8 Matthew 27:46 "My God, My God, why" Psalm 22:1.
DIVISIONS. Introduction; Christ's genealogy, birth; visit of the wise men; flight to Egypt; return to Nazareth; John the Baptist's preparatory ministry; Christ's baptism and consecration to His office by the Holy Spirit, with the Father's declared approval (Matthew 1-3). Temptation; ministry in Galilee; call of disciples (Matthew 4). Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7). Events in order, proving His claim to Messiahship by miracles (Matthew 8-9). Appointment of apostles; doubts of John's disciples; cavils of the Pharisees; on the other hand His loving invitations, miracles, series of parables on the kingdom; effects of His ministry on Herod and various classes; prophecy to His disciples of His coming death (Matthew 10 - 18:35). Ministry in Judea and Jerusalem (Matthew 19-20). Passion week: entry into Jerusalem; opposition to Him by Herodians, Sadducees, Pharisees; silences them all; denunciation of the Pharisees (Matthew 21-23_. Last discourses: His coming as Lord and Judge (Matthew 24-25). Passion and resurrection (Matthew 26-28).