(ahr tuh xuhr' xeess) Persian royal name meaning, “kingdom of righteousness,” belonging to four Persian rulers and forming a major piece of evidence in dating Ezra and Nehemiah. See Ezra; Nehemiah. 1. Son of Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I ruled Persia from 465 to 424 B.C. He was called Longimanus or “long-handed.” Most scholars place Ezra's trip to Jerusalem in the seventh year of his reign or 458 B.C. (Ezra 7:7). He had already received complaints from the inhabitants of Palestine who wanted to stop the returned exiles from rebuilding and had stopped the Jewish builders (Ezra 4:7-24). The Temple had been completed under Darius II (522-486) and thus before Artaxerxes (Ezra 6:15). Artaxerxes supported Ezra's work (Ezra 7:6-26). Nehemiah served as cupbearer to Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 2:1), and the king proved sensitive to Nehemiah's mood (Nehemiah 2:2). He granted Nehemiah's request to go to Judah (Nehemiah 2:5-6), making him governor of Judah (Nehemiah 5:14). 2. Artaxerxes II ruled Persia 404 to 359 B.C. Some Bible students identify him as ruler under whom Ezra worked. 3. Artaxerxes III ruled 358-337 B.C. 4. Ruled Persia 337-336 B.C. See Persia.
These dictionary topics are from the Holman Bible Dictionary, published by Broadman & Holman, 1991. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman & Holman.
Butler, Trent C. Editor.. "Entry for 'ARTAXERXES'". "Holman Bible Dictionary".