(zay' dahk) Personal name meaning, “righteous,” a short form of Zedekiah, “the Lord is righteous.” See Zedekiah.
1. Son of Ahitub and father of Ahimaaz, descended from Aaron through Eleazar and was a priest in the time of David (2 Samuel 8:17;
1 Chronicles 6:3-8). He is named in company with Abiathar, who was descended from Aaron through Ithamar (1 Chronicles 24:3). See Abiathar. Zadok was loyal to David when Adonijah rebelled in his father's old age (1 Kings 1:1). As a consequence, he continued as a priest in Solomon's day. Abiathar was soon removed in accordance with the prophecy to Eli (1 Samuel 2:31-33;
1 Kings 2:26-27). The genealogy of Zadok is given in
1 Chronicles 6:3-15 from Aaron through Eleazar on down to Jehozadak of postexilic times (compare
Zechariah 6:11). The genealogy mentions a second Zadok seven generations later of whom we know little, but his name emphasizes the fact that standard names do reappear in genealogical lists.
In a touching scene Zadok with Abiathar carried the ark to go with David in his flight from Absalom (2 Samuel 15:24). David sent them back to carry on their worship in Jerusalem and be spies for him. Zadok's son Ahimaaz was the go-between and was also the first to bring David news of Absalom's defeat (2 Samuel 18:27). David then appealed to Zadok and Abiathar to arrange a welcome for him to come back to Jerusalem.
In later days Ezekiel declared that the priests who were sons of Zadok were the only faithful ones at the time of the Exile, and that they only would be allowed to serve in the ideal future Temple. This statement agrees with the genealogies of Chronicles which list only two families as far as the captivity—David of Judah and Zadok the descendant of Aaron through Eleazar. The returning priests, including Joshua son of Jehozadak (1 Chronicles 6:15) and Ezra (1 Chronicles 7:1-7), were of the line of Zadok which lasted long into the intertestamental period. The line of Ithamar after the removal of Eli's family was of less importance. The Zadokites to a degree lived up to their name as righteous priests of the Lord.
2. Grandfather of Jotham, king of Judah (2 Kings 15:33). 3.-4. Men who helped Nehemiah rebuild the Jerusalem wall (Nehemiah 3:4,Nehemiah 3:29). 5. Leader who signed Nehemiah's covenant (Nehemiah 10:21). 6. A faithful scribe whom Nehemiah appointed as a treasurer (Nehemiah 13:13).
R. Laird Harris