The descriptions of Scripture, (1 Kings 6:9,15; 7:3; 2 Chronicles 3:5,9; Jeremiah 22:14; Haggai 1:4) and of Josephus, show that the ceilings of the temple and the palaces of the Jewish kings were formed of cedar planks applied to the beams or joists crossing from wall to wall. "Oriental houses seem to have been the reverse of ours, the ceiling being of wood, richly ornamented, and the floor of plaster or tiles."
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Smith, William, Dr. "Entry for 'Ceiling'". "Smith's Bible Dictionary".