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The Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon

 Strong's Number:  8738Stem and Mood
Word Stem

  1. Niphal is the "passive" of Qal - see 08851

    he saw he was seen, he appeared
    he saw the angelthe angel was seen
    he senthe was sent
    he created it was created

  2. Niphal sometimes expresses a "reflexive" action.

    he guarded he was guarded, also
    he guarded himself

  3. Several verbs use Niphal, although they express simple action and are active in English. Common examples are:

    he fought, he remained, he swore, he entered

    This form accounts for 6.0% of the verbs parsed.

Word Mood

The Perfect expresses a completed action.

  1. In reference to time, such an action may be:

    1. one just completed from the standpoint of the present

      "I have come" to tell you the news

    2. one completed in the more or less distant past

      in the beginning God "created"
      "I was (once) young" and "I have (now) grown old" but
      "I have not seen" a righteous man forsaken

    3. one already completed from the point of view of another past act

      God saw everything that "he had made"

    4. one completed from the point of view of another action yet future

      I will draw for thy camels also until "they have done" drinking

  2. The perfect is often used where the present is employed in English.

    1. in the case of general truths or actions of frequent occurrence -- truths or actions which have been often experienced or observed

      the grass "withereth"
      the sparrow "findeth" a house

    2. an action or attitude of the past may be continued into the present

      "I stretch out" my hands to thee
      "thou never forsakest" those who seek thee

    3. the perfect of intransitive verbs is used where English uses the present; The perfect in Hebrew in such a case emphasises a condition which has come into "complete existence" and realisation

      "I know" thou wilt be king
      "I hate" all workers of iniquity

    4. Sometimes in Hebrew, future events are conceived so vividly and so realistically that they are regarded as having virtually taken place and are described by the perfect.

      1. in promises, threats and language of contracts

        the field "give I" thee
        and if not, "I will take it"

      2. prophetic language

        my people "is gone into captivity"
        (i.e. shall assuredly go)

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Bibliography Information
Brown, Driver, Briggs and Gesenius. "Hebrew Lexicon entry for ". "The Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon".


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