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The Adam Clarke Commentary

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 Chapter 77
Chapter 79
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An enumeration of the principal effects of the goodness of God to his people, 1-16; of their rebellions and punishment, 17-33; their feigned repentance, 34-37; God's compassion towards them, 38,39; their backsliding, and forgetfulness of his mercy, 40-42; the plagues which he brought upon the Egyptians, 43-51; the deliverance of his own people, and their repeated ingratitude and disobedience, 52-58; their punishment, 59-64; God's wrath against their adversaries, 65,66; his rejection of the tribes of Israel and his choice of the tribe of Judah, and of David to be king over his people, 67-72.


The title, Maschil of Asaph; or, according to the margin, A Psalm for Asaph to give instruction; contains nothing particular. The Arabic has, "A sermon from Asaph to the people." The Psalm was probably not written by David, but after the separation of the ten tribes of Israel, and after the days of Rehoboam, and before the Babylonish captivity, for the temple was still standing, Psalms 78:69. Calmet supposes that it was written in the days of Asa, who had gained, by the aid of the Syrians, a great victory over the Israelites; and brought back to the pure worship of God many out of the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Simeon. See 2 Chronicles 15:16-16:14.

Verse 1. Give ear, O my people
This is the exordium of this very pathetic and instructive discourse.

Verse 2. In a parable
Or, I will give you instruction by numerous examples; see Psalms 49:1-4, which bears a great similarity to this; and see the notes there. The term parable, in its various acceptations, has already been sufficiently explained; but mashal may here mean example, as opposed to torah, law or precept, Psalms 78:1.

Verse 3. Which we have heard and known
We have heard the law, and known the facts.

Verse 4. We will not hide them
In those ancient times there was very little reading, because books were exceedingly scarce; tradition was therefore the only, or nearly the only, means of preserving the memory of past events. They were handed down from father to son by parables or pithy sayings, and by chronological poems. This very Psalm is of this kind, and must have been very useful to the Israelites, as giving instructions concerning their ancient history, and recounting the wonderful deeds of the Almighty in their behalf.

Verse 5. A testimony in Jacob
This may signify the various ordinances, rites, and ceremonies prescribed by the law; and the word law may mean the moral law, or system of religious instruction, teaching them their duty to God, to their neighbour, and to themselves. These were commanded to the fathers-the patriarchs and primitive Hebrews, that they should make them known to their children, who should make them known to the generation that was to come, whose children should also be instructed that they might declare them to their children; to the end that their hope might be in God, that they might not forget his works, and might keep his commandments: that they might not be as their fathers, but have their heart right and their spirit steadfast with God, Psalms 78:6-8. Five generations appear to be mentioned above: 1. Fathers; 2. Their children; 3. The generation to come; 4. And their children; 5. And their children. They were never to lose sight of their history throughout all their generations. Some think the testimony here may mean the tabernacle.

Verse 9. The children of Ephraim-turned back
This refers to some defeat of the Ephraimites; and some think to that by the men of Gath, mentioned 1 Chronicles 7:21. R. D. Kimchi says this defeat of the Ephraimites was in the desert; and although the story be not mentioned in the law, yet it is written in the Books of the Chronicles, where we read, on the occasion of "Zabad the Ephraimite, and Shuthelah, men of Gath, who were born in the land, slew; and Ephraim their father mourned many days, and his brethren came to comfort him," 1 Chronicles 7:20-22: but to what defeat of the Ephraimites this refers is not certainly known; probably the Israelites after the division of the two kingdoms are intended.

Verse 10. They kept not the covenant of God
They abandoned his worship, both moral and ritual. They acted like the Ephraimites in the above case, who threw down their bows and arrows, and ran away.

Verse 12. The field of Zoan.
"In campo Taneos," Vulgate. Tanis was the capital of Pharaoh, where Moses wrought so many miracles. It was situated in the Delta, on one of the most easterly branches of the Nile. It was afterwards called Thanis; and from it the district was called the Thanitic Canton. See Calmet. Dr. Shaw thinks Zoan was intended to signify Egypt in general.

Verse 13. He divided the sea, and caused them to pass through
The reader is requested to consult the notes on the parallel passages marked in the margin on this verse and Psalms 78:14-17, where all these miracles are largely explained.

Verse 18. By asking meat for their lust.
lenaphsham, "for their souls," i.e., for their lives; for they said in their hearts that the light bread, the manna, was not sufficient to sustain their natural force, and preserve their lives. It seems, however, from the expression, that they were wholly carnal; that they had no spirituality of mind; they were earthly, animal, and devilish.

Verse 22. They believed not in God
After all the miracles they had seen, they were not convinced that there was a Supreme Being! and, consequently, they did not trust in his salvation-did not expect the glorious rest which he had promised them. Their descendants in the present day are precisely in this state. Multitudes of them disbelieve the Divine origin of their law, and have given up all hopes of a Messiah.

Verse 24. The corn of heaven.
The manna. It fell about their camp in the form of seeds; and as it appeared to come down from the clouds, it was not improperly termed heavenly corn, or heavenly grain, degan shamayim. The word shamayim is frequently taken to express the atmosphere.

Verse 25. Man did eat angels' food
lechem abbirim achal ish, "Man did eat the bread of the mighty ones;" or, each person ate, at the tables of the rich and great; the best, the most delicate food. How little did this gross people know of the sublime excellence of that which they called light bread, and which they said their soul loathed; Numbers 21:5! It was a type of Jesus Christ, for so says St. Paul: "They all ate the same spiritual meat, and drank the same spiritual drink," 1 Corinthians 10:3,4. And our Lord calls himself "the bread that came down from heaven, that giveth life unto the world," John 6:31-35: but a Jew sees nothing but with the eyes of flesh. It is true their doctors or rabbins are full of allegories, mysteries, and conceits; but they are, in general, such as would disgrace the Cabinet des Fees, and would not be tolerated in the nursery. O, how thick a veil hangs over their gross and hardened hearts.

Verse 26. He caused an east wind to blow
See Clarke on Numbers 11:31.

Verse 32. For all this they sinned still
How astonishing is this! They were neither drawn by mercies, nor awed by judgments! But we shall cease to wonder at this, if we have a thorough acquaintance with our own hearts.

Verse 33. Their days did he consume in vanity
By causing them to wander forty years in the wilderness, vainly expecting an end to their labour, and the enjoyment of the promised rest, which, by their rebellions, they had forfeited.

Verse 34. When he slew them
While his judgments were upon them, then they began to humble themselves, and deprecate his wrath. When they saw some fall, the rest began to tremble.

Verse 35. That God was their rock
They recollected in their affliction that Jehovah was their Creator, and their Father; the Rock, the Source, not only of their being, but of all their blessings; or, that he was their sole Protector.

And the high God their Redeemer.
veel elyon goalam, "And the strong God the Most High, their kinsman." That one who possessed the right of redemption; the nearest akin to him who had forfeited his inheritance; so the word originally means, and hence it is often used for a redeemer. The Hebrew word goel answers to the Greek σωτηρ, a saviour; and is given to the Lord Jesus Christ, the strong God, the Most High, the Redeemer of a lost world. After this verse there is the following Masoretic note: chatsi hassepher, "The middle of the book." And thus the reader has arrived at the middle of the Psalter, a book for excellence unparalleled.

Verse 36. Nevertheless they did flatter him with their mouth
What idea could such people have of God, whom they supposed they could thus deceive? They promised well, they called him their God, and their fathers' God; and told him how good, and kind, and merciful he had been to them. Thus, their mouth flattered him. And they said that, whatever the Lord their God commanded them to do, they would perform.

And they lied unto him.
I think the Vulgate gives the true sense of the Hebrew: Dilexerunt eum in ore suo; et lingua sua mentiti sunt ei,-"They loved him with their mouth; and they lied unto him with their tongue." "That is," says the old Psalter, "thai sayde thai lufed God, bot thai lighed, als thair dedes schewes; for thai do noght als thai hight; for when God ceses to make men rad; than cese thai to do wele."

Verse 37. Their heart was not right
When the heart is wrong, the life is wrong; and because their heart was not right with God, therefore they were not faithful in his covenant.

Verse 38. But he, being full of compassion
Feeling for them as a father for his children.

Forgave their iniquity
yechapper, made an atonement for their iniquity.

And did not stir up all his wrath.
Though they often grieved his Spirit, and rebelled against him, yet he seldom punished them; and when he did chastise them, it was as a tender and merciful Father. He did not stir up all his wrath-the punishment was much less than the iniquity deserved.

Verse 39. He remembered that they were but flesh
Weak mortals. He took their feeble perishing state always into consideration, and knew how much they needed the whole of their state of probation; and therefore he bore with them to the uttermost. How merciful is God!

A wind that passeth away, and cometh not again.
I believe this to be a bad translation, and may be productive of error; as if when a man dies his being were ended, and death were an eternal sleep. The original is, ruach holech velo yashub: and the translation should be, "The spirit goeth away, and it doth not return." The present life is the state of probation; when therefore the flesh-the body, fails, the spirit goeth away into the eternal world, and returneth not hither again. Now God, being full of compassion, spared them, that their salvation might be accomplished before they went into that state where there is no change; where the pure are pure still, and the defiled are defiled still. All the Versions are right; but the polyglot translator of the Syriac, {Syriac} rocho, has falsely put ventus, wind, instead of spiritus, soul or spirit. The Arabic takes away all ambiguity: {---Arabic---} "He remembered that they were flesh; and a spirit which, when it departs, does not again return." The human being is composed of flesh and spirit, or body and soul; these are easily separated, and, when separated, the body turns to dust, and the spirit returns no more to animate it in a state of probation. Homer has a saying very like that of the psalmist:-

ανδροςδεψυχηπαλινελθεινουτεληιστη ουθελετηεπειαρκεναμειψεταιερκοςοδοντων IL. ix., ver., 408.

"But the soul of man returns no more; nor can it be acquired nor caught after it has passed over the barrier of the teeth."

Pope has scarcely given the passage its genuine meaning:-

"But from our lips the vital spirit fled Returns no more to wake the silent dead."

And the Ossian-like version of Macpherson is but little better: "But the life of man returns no more; nor acquired nor regained is the soul which once takes its flight on the wind." What has the wind to do with the ερκοςοδοντων of the Greek poet?

Several similar sayings may be found among the Greek poets; but they all suppose the materiality of the soul.

Verse 41. Limited the Holy One of Israel.
The Chaldee translates, "And the Holy One of Israel they signed with a sign." The Hebrew word hithvu is supposed to come from the root tavah, which signifies to mark; and hence the letter tau, which in the ancient Hebrew character had the form of a cross X, had its name probably because it was used as a mark. Mr. Bate observes that in hithpael it signifies to challenge or accuse; as one who gives his mark or pledge upon a trial, and causes his adversary to do the same. Here it most obviously means an insult offered to God.

Verse 44. Turned their rivers into blood
See on Exodus 7:20.

Verse 45. He sent-flies-and frogs
See on Exodus 8:6,24.

Verse 46. The caterpillar and-the locust.
See on Exodus 10:13.

Verse 47. He destroyed their vines with hail
Though the vine was never plentiful in Egypt, yet they have some; and the wine made in that country is among the most delicious. The leaf of the vine is often used by the Egyptians of the present day for wrapping up their mince-meat, which they lay leaf upon leaf, season it after their fashion, and so cook it, making it a most exquisite sort of food, according to Mr. Maillet.

And their sycamore-trees
This tree was very useful to the ancient Egyptians, as all their coffins are made of this wood; and to the modern, as their barques are made of it. Besides, it produces a kind of fig, on which the common people in general live; and Mr. Norden observes that "they think themselves well regaled when they have a piece of bread, a couple of sycamore figs, and a pitcher of water from the Nile." The loss therefore of their vines and sycamore-trees must have been very distressing to the Egyptians.

Verse 48. He gave up their cattle
See on Exodus 9:23.

Verse 49. By sending evil angels
This is the first mention we have of evil angels. There is no mention of them in the account we have of the plagues of Egypt in the Book of Exodus, and what they were we cannot tell: but by what the psalmist says here of their operations, they were the sorest plague that God had sent; they were marks of the fierceness of his anger, wrath, indignation, and trouble. Some think the destroying angel that slew all the first-born is what is here intended; but this is distinctly mentioned in Psalms 78:51. An angel or messenger may be either animate or inanimate; a disembodied spirit or human being; any thing or being that is an instrument sent of God for the punishment or support of mankind.

Verse 54. The border of his sanctuary
kodsho, "of his holy place," that is, the land of Canaan, called afterwards the mountain which his right hand had purchased; because it was a mountainous country, widely differing from Egypt, which was a long, continued, and almost perfect level.

Verse 57. They were turned aside like a deceitful bow.
The eastern bow, which when at rest is in the form of a {curved figure 'C'}, must be recurved, or turned the contrary way, in order to be what is called bent and strung. If a person who is unskilful or weak attempt to recurve and string one of these bows, if he take not great heed it will spring back and regain its quiescent position, and perhaps break his arm. And sometimes I have known it, when bent, to start aside, and regain its quiescent position, to no small danger, and in one or two cases to my injury. This image is frequently used in the sacred writings; but no person has understood it, not being acquainted with the eastern bow {curved figure 'C'}, which must be recurved, or bent the contrary way, {figure ''} in order to be proper for use. If not well made, they will fly back in discharging the arrow. It is said of the bow of Jonathan, it turned not back, 2 Samuel 1:22, lo nasog achor, "did not twist itself backward." It was a good bow, one on which he could depend. Hosea, Hosea 7:16, compares the unfaithful Israelites to a deceitful bow; one that, when bent, would suddenly start aside and recover its former position. We may find the same passage in Jeremiah 9:3. And this is precisely the kind of bow mentioned by Homer, Odyss. xxi., which none of Penelope's suitors could bend, called καμπυλατοξα and αγκυλατοξα, the crooked bow in the state of rest; but τοξονπαλιντονον, the recurred bow when prepared for use. And of this trial of strength and skill in the bending of the bow of Ulysses, none of the critics and commentators have been able to make any thing, because they knew not the instrument in question. On the τοξου θησις of Homer, I have written a dissertation elsewhere. The image is very correct; these Israelites, when brought out of their natural bent, soon recoiled, and relapsed into their former state.

Verse 60. He forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh
The Lord, offended with the people, and principally with the priests, who had profaned his holy worship, gave up his ark into the hands of the Philistines. And true it is that he forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh, that he never returned to it again. See 1 Samuel 6:1; 2 Samuel 6:2-17; ; 1 Kings 8:1; where the several removals of the ark are spoken of, and which explain the remaining part of this Psalm. Because God suffered the Philistines to take the ark, it is said, Psalms 78:61: "He delivered his strength into captivity, and his glory into the enemy's hand;" and Psalms 78:67, that "he refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and chose not the tribe of Ephraim;" for Shiloh was in the tribe of Ephraim the son of Joseph; and God did not suffer his ark to return thither, but to go to Kirjath-jearim, which was in the tribe of Benjamin; from thence to the house of Obed-edom: and so to Zion in the tribe of Judah, as it follows, Psalms 78:68.

The tabernacle which Moses had constructed in the wilderness remained at Shiloh even after the ark was taken by the Philistines and afterwards sent to Kirjath-jearim. From Shiloh it was transported to Nob; afterwards to Gibeon, apparently under the reign of Saul; and it was there at the commencement of Solomon's reign, for this prince went thither to offer sacrifices, 1 Kings 3:4. From the time in which the temple was built, we know not what became of the tabernacle of Moses: it was probably laid up in some of the chambers of the temple. See Calmet.

Verse 63. Their maidens were not given to marriage.
hullalu, were not celebrated with marriage songs. It is considered a calamity in the east if a maiden arrives at the age of twelve years without being sought or given in marriage.

Verse 64. Their priests fell by the sword
Hophni and Phinehas, who were slain in that unfortunate battle against the Philistines in which the ark of the Lord was taken, 1 Samuel 4:11.

A Chaldee Targum on this passage says, "In the time in which the ark of the Lord was taken by the Philistines, Hophni and Phinehas, the two priests, fell by the sword at Shiloh; and when the news was brought, their wives made no lamentation, for they both died the same day."

Verse 65. Then the Lord awaked
He seemed as if he had totally disregarded what was done to his people, and the reproach that seemed to fall on himself and his worship by the capture of the ark.

Like a mighty man
kegibbor, like a hero that shouteth by reason of wine. One who, going forth to meet his enemy, having taken a sufficiency of wine to refresh himself, and become a proper stimulus to his animal spirits, shouts-gives the war-signal for the onset; impatient to meet the foe, and sure of victory. The idea is not taken from the case of a drunken man. A person in such a state would be very unfit to meet his enemy, and could have little prospect of conquest.

Verse 66. He smote his enemies in the hinder part
This refers to the hemorrhoids with which he afflicted the Philistines. See the note on 1 Samuel 5:6-10.

Verse 67. He refused the tabernacle of Joseph
See Clarke on Psalms 78:60.

Verse 69. He built his sanctuary like high palaces
kemo ramim, which several of the Versions understand of the monoceros or rhinoceros. The temple of God at Jerusalem was the only one in the land, and stood as prominent on Mount Zion as the horn of the unicorn or rhinoceros does upon his snout. And there he established his ark, to go no more out as long as the temple should last. Before this time it was frequently in a migratory state, not only in the wilderness, but afterwards in the promised land. See Clarke on Psalms 78:60.

Verse 70. He chose David
See the account, Clarke, "1Sa 16:11",

Verse 71. From following the ewes
Instances of this kind are not unfrequent in the ancient Greek and Roman history. Croesus said that Gyges, who was the first of his race, was a slave, and rose to sovereignty, succeeding his predecessor, of whose sheep he had been the pastor.

Verse 72. So he fed them
Here David is mentioned as having terminated his reign. He had fed the people, according to the integrity of his heart, for that was ever disposed to do the will of God in the administration of the kingdom: and his hand being skilful in war, he always led them out to victory against their enemies.


The psalmist, considering that it is God's command that his works be not forgotten, but that the father should deliver his former doings to posterity, that they might be to them both comfort and instruction, deter them from sin, and persuade them to fear God, gives in this Psalm a long catalogue of God's dealings with his people, even from their coming out of Egypt to the conclusion of the reign of David.

There are three principal parts in this Psalm:-

I. A preface, in which the psalmist exhorts men to learn and declare the way of God, Psalms 78:1-9.

II. A continued narrative of God's administration among the people, and their stubbornness, disobedience, and contumacy; together with the punishments which God inflicted upon them, Psalms 78:9-67.

III. His mercy, manifested in the midst of judgment; that he did not cut them off, but, after the rejection of Ephraim, (Israel,) made choice of Judah, Zion, and David.

I. In the PREFACE or exordium he labours to gain attention: "Give ear, O my people," Psalms 78:1.

1. Shows that he is about to deliver doctrines and precepts from heaven. It is God's law, and it should be heard: 1. For its excellence, Psalms 78:2. 2. For its certainty, ; 78:3.

2. He shows the end, which is another argument for attention. 1. It must not be hidden from their children, that God might be praised, Psalms 78:4. 2. And his power magnified; and 3. His people edified, Psalms 78:5.

Then follow the duties of their children, which are three: 1. That they might know God, his law, his works, Psalms 78:6. 2. That they might trust in him, Psalms 78:7. 3. That they might be obedient, Psalms 78:8.

II. The NARRATION. Their fathers were stubborn and rebellious, of which he gives several examples:-

1. In Ephraim: "They turned back in the day of battle," Psalms 78:9.

2. They kept not the covenant of God, Psalms 78:10.

3. They forgat his works in Egypt, Psalms 78:11.

The psalmist extends this narrative, and shows, 1. God's goodness; 2. Israel's obstinacy; 3. Their punishment.

I. His goodness in bringing them out of Egypt in such a marvellous way, Psalms 78:12. 1. He divided the Red Sea, ; 78:13. 2. He made the waters to stand on a heap, Psalms 78:13.

1. His care in guiding them: 1. In the daytime by a cloud, Psalms 78:14. 2. In the night by fire, Psalms 78:14.

2. His love in providing for them. 1. He clave the rock that they might have water, Psalms 78:15. 2. He caused these waters to follow them as rivers, Psalms 78:16. 3. And thus they had an abundant supply, Psalms 78:16.

II. Israel's obstinacy. 1. They sinned. 2. More and more. 3. Provoked the Holy One of Israel, Psalms 78:17,18.

They were incredulous.

1. They tempted God by desiring other supplies than his providence had designed. He gave them manna; they would have flesh.

2. They questioned his power, Psalms 78:19.

3. They were foolishly impatient, and must have immediately whatever they thought proper, else they murmured. They said, 1. He smote the rock, and the water gushed out. 2. But can he give bread also? Psalms 78:20.

III. Their punishment. 1. The Lord was wroth, Psalms 78:21. 2. A fire was kindled. 3. Because they believed him not, nor trusted in his salvation, Psalms 78:22.

He provided manna for them; an especial blessing, on various considerations.

1. It came from heaven, Psalms 78:23.

2. It came abundantly. He "rained it down," Psalms 78:24.

3. It was most excellent: "Man did eat angels' food," Psalms 78:25.

Weary of this, they desired flesh. In this also God heard them. 1. He brought quails. 2, In abundance. 3. Brought them to and about the camp, so that they had no labour to find them, Psalms 78:25,26,28. 4. They were all gratified with them, Psalms 78:29.

See God's justice in their punishment, and the cause of it. 1. They were "not estranged from their lust," Psalms 78:30. 2. His wrath came upon them. 3. It came suddenly. 4. It slew them. 5. Even the chief of them, Psalms 78:31.

See their sin notwithstanding. 1. For all this, they sinned yet more. 2. They were incredulous, Psalms 78:32. 3. He caused them to consume their days in vanity. 4. And their years (forty long years) in trouble, Psalms 78:33.

They began apparently to relent. 1. They sought him. 2. They returned. 3. They sought after God. 4. They remembered that he was their Rock. 5. And the Most High their Redeemer, Psalms 78:34,35.

But in this, their apparent amendment, they were guilty-1. Of hypocrisy, Psalms 78:36. 2. Of insincerity, Psalms 78:37. 3. Of instability: "They were not steadfast in his covenant," Psalms 78:37.

On a review of this, the prophet extols the goodness of God that bore with such a people.

1. He opened to them the fountain of mercy: "He being full of compassion."

2. He displayed an act of this mercy: "He forgave their iniquity."

3. Though he punished in a measure, yet he restrained his vindictive justice, and destroyed them not, Psalms 78:38.

His motives for this tenderness: 1. He remembered that they were but flesh. 2. That, their probation once ended, their state was fixed for ever, Psalms 78:39. See the note. See Clarke on Psalms ; 78:39.

He proceeds with the story of their rebellions. 1. They provoked him often in the wilderness. 2. They grieved him in the desert, Psalms 78:40. 3. They returned to sin, tempted him. 4. Insulted him. 5. And forgat all his past mercies, Psalms 78:41-43. More particularly, 1. They remembered not his hand, Psalms 78:42. 2. Nor his signs in Egypt, Psalms 78:44.

The wonders which he wrought in Egypt. Five of the plagues mentioned:-

First plague. He turned their rivers into blood, Psalms 78:44.

Fourth plague. He sent divers flies, Psalms 78:45.

Second plague. The frogs destroyed them, Psalms 78:45.

Eighth plague. The locusts, Psalms 78:46.

Seventh plague. Their vines, Psalms 78:47.

1. He cast upon them the fierceness of his wrath. 2. Sent evil angels among them. 3. And made a path for his anger, Psalms 78:49.

The first plague. He gave their life to the pestilence, Psalms 78:50.

The last plague. He slew their first-born, Psalms 78:51.

He now gives a recital of God's mercy in the following particulars:

1. He brought his people through the Red Sea, Psalms 78:52.

2. He guided them as a flock.

3. He kept them in safety, Psalms 78:53.

4. He did not suffer them still to wander, but brought them,-1. To the border of his sanctuary. 2. Even to Mount Zion. 3. Cast out the heathen before them. 4. And divided them an inheritance by lot, Psalms 78:54,55.

Yet still, 1. "They tempted and provoked him." 2. "Kept not his testimonies." 3. "Turned aside" from his worship. 4. Were unfaithful. 5. And idolatrous, Psalms 78:55-58.

For this,-1. God's wrath grows more hot against the people. 2. He greatly abhorred Israel. 3. Forsook the tabernacle. 4. Delivered up the ark. 5. Gave the people to the sword. 6. Gave up the priests to death. 7. And brought upon them general desolation, Psalms 78:59-64.

Once more, God-1. Remembers them in mercy. 2. Fixes his tabernacle among them. 3. Chooses David to be their king. 4. During the whole of whose days they had prosperity in all things, Psalms 78:65-72.

Behold here the goodness and severity of God. Reader, learn wisdom by what those have suffered.

Copyright Statement
The Adam Clarke Commentary is a derivative of an electronic edition prepared by

Bibliography Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Psalm 78". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". <>. 1832.  


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