The reign of Jehovah, its nature and blessedness, 1,2. He is fearful to the wicked, 3-4. Idolaters shall be destroyed, 7. The blessedness of the righteous, 8-12.
NOTES ON PSALM XCVII
This Psalm has no title either in the Hebrew or Chaldee; and in fourteen of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS. it is written as a part of the preceding. In the Vulgate it is thus entitled, Psalmus David, quando terra ejus restituta est. "A Psalm of David when his land was restored;" the meaning of which I suppose to be, after he had obtained possession of the kingdom of Israel and Judah, and became king over all the tribes; or perhaps, after he had gained possession of all those countries which were originally granted to the Israelites in the Divine promise. See 1 Chronicles 18:1,2. The Septuagint is nearly to the same purpose, οτιηγηαυτου καθισταται, "when his land was established:" so the AEthiopic and Arabic. The Syriac has, "A Psalm of David, in which he predicts the advent of Christ, (i.e., in the flesh,) and through it his last appearing, (i.e., to judgment.") The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, Hebrews 1:6, quotes a part of the seventh verse of this Psalm, and applies it to Christ. Who the author was is uncertain: it is much in the spirit of David's finest compositions; and yet many learned men suppose it was written to celebrate the Lord's power and goodness in the restoration of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity.
The Lord reigneth
Here is a simple proposition, which is a self-evident axiom, and requires no proof: JEHOVAH is infinite and eternal; is possessed of unlimited power and unerring wisdom; as he is the Maker, so he must be the Governor, of all things. His authority is absolute, and his government therefore universal. In all places, on all occasions, and in all times, Jehovah reigns.
But this supreme King is not only called YEHOVAH, which signifies his infinite and eternal being, unlimited power, and unerring wisdom; and, as Creator, his universal government; but he is also ADONAI, the Director and Judge. He directs human actions by his word, Spirit, and Providence. Hence are his laws and revelation in general; for the governed should know their governor, and should be acquainted with his laws, and the reasons on which obedience is founded. As Adonai or Director, he shows them the difference between good and evil; and their duty to their God, their neighbours, and themselves: and he finally becomes the Judge of their actions. But as his law is holy, and his commandment holy, just, and good, and man is in a fallen, sinful state; hence he reveals himself as; ELOHIM, God, entering into a gracious covenant with mankind, to enlighten his darkness, and help his infirmities; that he may see what is just, and be able to do it. But as this will not cancel the sins already committed, hence the necessity of a Saviour, an atonement; and hence the incarnation, passion, death, and resurrection of our Lord Jesus. This is the provision made by the great God for the more effectual administration of his kingdom upon earth. Jehovah, Adonai, Elohim reigneth; et his animadversis, and these points considered, it is no wonder that the psalmist should add,
Let the earth rejoice; let the multitude of isles be glad
The earth, the terraqueous globe; especially, here, the vast continents, over every part of which God's dominion extends. But it is not confined to them; it takes in the islands of the sea; all the multitude of those islands, even to the smallest inhabited rock; which are as much the objects of his care, the number of their inhabitants considered, as the vastest continents on which are founded the mightiest empires. All this government springs from his holiness, righteousness, and benignity; and is exercised in what we call providence, from pro, for, before, and video, to see, which word is well defined and applied by CICERO: Providentia est, per quam futurism aliquid videtur, antequam factum sit. "Providence is that by which any thing future is seen before it takes place." De Invent. c. 53. And, in reference to a Divine providence, he took up the general opinion, viz., Esse deos, et eorum providentia mundum administrari. De Divinat. c. 51, ad finem. "There are gods; and by their providence the affairs of the world are administered."
This providence is not only general, taking in the earth and its inhabitants, en masse; giving and establishing laws by which all things shall be governed; but it is also particular; it takes in the multitudes of the isles, as well as the vast continents; the different species as well as the genera; the individual, as well as the family. As every whole is composed of its parts, without the smallest of which it could not be a whole; so all generals are composed of particulars. And by the particular providence of God, the general providence is formed; he takes care of each individual; and, consequently, he takes care of the whole. Therefore, on the particular providence of God, the general providence is built; and the general providence could not exist without the particular, any more than a whole could subsist independently of its parts. It is by this particular providence that God governs the multitude of the isles, notices the fall of a sparrow, bottles the tears of the mourner, and numbers the hairs of his followers. Now, as God is an infinitely wise and good Being, and governs the world in wisdom and goodness, the earth may well rejoice, and the multitude of the isles be glad.
Clouds and darkness are round about him
It is granted that this is a subject which cannot be comprehended. And why? Because God is infinite; he acts from his own counsels, which are infinite; in reference to ends which are also infinite: therefore, the reasons of his government cannot be comprehended by the feeble, limited powers of man. There must be clouds and darkness-an impenetrable obscurity, round about him; and we can no more comprehend him in what is called aeternitas a parte ante-the eternity that passed before time commenced, than we can in the aeternitas a parte post-the eternity that is to come, when time shall be no more. Yet such a Being cannot but see all things clearly, and do all things well; therefore the psalmist properly asserts,-
Righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne.
Righteousness, tsedek, the principle that acts according to justice and equity; that gives to all their due, and ever holds in all things an even balance. And judgment, mishpat, the principle that discerns, orders, directs, and determines every thing according to truth and justice: these form the habitation of his throne; that is, his government and management of the world are according to these; and though we cannot see the springs, the secret counsels, and the times, which this omniscient and almighty FATHER must ever have in his own power, yet we may rest assured that all his administration is wise, just, holy, good, and kind. For, although his counsels be inscrutable, and the dispensations of his providence be sometimes apparently unequal, yet righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne.
In this most sublime description, the psalmist, by the figure termed prosopopoeia, or personification, gives vitality and thought to all the subjects he employs; here, the very throne of God is animated; righteousness and judgment are two intellectual beings who support it. The fire, the lightnings, the earth, the heavens themselves, are all intellectual beings, which either accompany, go before him, or proclaim his majesty.
A fire goeth before him
Literally, this and the following verse may refer to the electric fluid, or to manifestations of the Divine displeasure, in which, by means of ethereal fire, God consumed his enemies. But fire is generally represented as an accompaniment of the appearances of the Supreme Being. He appeared on Mount Sinai in the midst of fire, thunder, and lightnings, Exodus 19:16-18. Daniel, ; Daniel 7:9,10, represents the Sovereign Judge as being on a throne which was a fiery flame, and the wheels of his chariot like burning fire; and a fiery stream issuing from it, and coming forth from before him. St. Paul tells us 1:8) that the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire; and St. Peter, 3:7,10,11 ,) that when the Lord shall come to judgment the heavens and the earth shall be destroyed by fire, the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, the elements melt with fervent heat, and the earth and its works be burnt up. Here then, will appear,-
"Our God in grandeur, and our world on fire."
Burneth up his enemies round about.
The fire is his pioneer which destroys all the hinderances in his way, and makes him a plain passage.
His lightnings enlightened the world
Though this be no more than a majestic description of the coming of the Lord, to confound his enemies and succour his followers, yet some spiritualize the passage, and say, the lightnings signify the apostles, who enlightened the world by their heavenly doctrine.
The earth saw, and trembled.
The earth is represented as a sentient being. It saw the terrible majesty of God; and trembled through terror, fearing it should be destroyed on account of the wickedness of its inhabitants.
The hills melted like wax
The fire of God seized on and liquefied them, so that they no longer opposed his march; and the mountains before him became a plain.
The Lord of the whole earth.
adon col haarets, the Director, Stay, and Support of the whole earth. The universal Governor, whose jurisdiction is not confined to any one place; but who, having created all, governs all that he has made.
The heavens declare his righteousness
They also, in this poetic description, become intelligent beings, and proclaim the majesty and the mercy of the Most High. Metaphorically, they may be said to declare his glory. Their magnitude, number, revolutions, order, influence, and harmony, proclaim the wondrous skill, matchless wisdom, and unlimited power of the Sovereign of the universe. See Clarke on Psalms 19:1.
And all the people see his glory.
Whatsoever God has made proclaims his eternal power and Godhead; and who, from a contemplation of the work of his hands, can be ignorant of his being and providence?
Confounded be all they
Rather, They shall be confounded that boast themselves in idols. There is a remarkable play on the letters here, hammithhalelim, who move like madmen; referring to the violent gestures practised in idolatrous rites.
baelilim, in vanities, emptinesses; who "make much ado about nothing," and take a mad and painful pleasure in ridiculous and unprofitable ceremonies of religion.
WHO? JESUS: says the apostle, Hebrews 1:6. Who will dare to dispute his authority?
All ye gods.
οιαγγελοιαυτου, his angels: so the Septuagint and the apostle: "Let all the angels of God worship him:" and the words are most certainly applied to the Saviour of the world by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews; see the note there. The Chaldee says: "All nations who worship idols shall adore him."
Zion heard, and was glad
All the land of Israel, long desolated, heard of the judgments which God had shown among the enemies of his people.
And the daughters of Judah
All the villages of the land-Zion as the mother, and all the villages in the country as her daughters, rejoice in the deliverance of God's people.
For thou, Lord, art high
Thou art infinitely exalted above men and angels.
Ye that love the Lord hate evil
Because it is inconsistent with his love to you, as well as your love to him.
He preserveth the souls of his saints
The saints, chasidaiv, his merciful people: their souls-lives, are precious in his sight. He preserves them; keeps them from every evil, and every enemy.
Out of the hand of the wicked.
From his power and influence.
Light is sown for the righteous
The Divine light in the soul of man is a seed which takes root, and springs up and increases thirty, sixty, and a hundred fold. Gladness is also a seed: it is sown, and, if carefully improved and cultivated, will also multiply itself into thousands. Every grace of God is a seed, which he intends should produce a thousand fold in the hearts of genuine believers. We do not so much require more grace from God, as the cultivation of what we have received. God will not give more, unless we improve what we have got. Remember the parable of the talents. Let the light and gladness be faithfully cultivated, and they will multiply themselves till the whole body shall be full of light, and the whole soul full of happiness. But it is the righteous only for whom the light is sown; and the upright in heart alone for whom the gladness is sown.
The words may also signify that, however distressed or persecuted the righteous and the upright may be, it shall not be always so. As surely as the grain that is sown in the earth shall vegetate, and bring forth its proper fruit in its season, so surely shall light-prosperity, and gladness-comfort and peace, be communicated to them. They also will spring up in due time.
Rejoice in the Lord, ye righteous
It is your privilege to be happy. Exult in him through whom ye have received the atonement. Rejoice; but let it be in the Lord. All other joy is the mirth of fools, which is as the crackling of thorns under a pot-it is a luminous blaze for a moment, and leaves nothing but smoke and ashes behind.
At the remembrance of his holiness.
But why should you give thanks at the remembrance that God is holy? Because he has said, Be ye holy; for I am holy: and in holiness alone true happiness is to be found. As he, therefore, who hath called you is holy; so be ye holy in all manner of conversation. False Christians hate the doctrine of Christian holiness; they are willing to be holy in another, but not holy in themselves. There is too much cross-bearing and self-denial in the doctrine of holiness for them. A perfect heart they neither expect nor wish.
The analysis considers the whole Psalm as relating to Jesus Christ and the last judgment: so it was understood by several of the ancient fathers. The reader may take it in either sense.
ANALYSIS OF THE NINETY-SEVENTH PSALM
There are three parts in this Psalm, if we interpret it as referring to our blessed Lord:-
I. A prophetical description of his power and glory, especially at the day of judgment, Psalms 97:1-6.
II. A manifest difference between the states of idolaters and the people of God, Psalms 97:7-9.
III. An exhortation to love God and hate evil; and the reason on which it is founded: a two-fold gracious reward, Psalms 97:10-12.
I. The psalmist begins with a solemn acclamation: "The Lord reigneth." He is the supreme King; and he will use his kingly power both now and in the day of judgment. 1. For the good of his subjects. 2. For the confusion of his enemies.
1. For "clouds and darkness are round about him," as when he gave the law on Mount Sinai. 2. "Righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne;" and therefore a just sentence shall come forth against his enemies, and in behalf of his friends, Psalms 97:2-5. 3. His appearance shall be very glorious; for the "heavens shall declare it, and all people shall see it," Psalms 97:6.
II. The difference between the state of idolaters and the people of God.
1. Confusion and a curse shall fall upon the former: "They shall be confounded," Psalms 97:7.
2. He exhorts all in power, men-magistrates, excel in strength-angels, to worship him: "Worship him, all ye gods," Psalms 97:7. All confidence should be reposed in him.
3. God's people rejoice when they find that it is their own Lord who is coming to judgment: "Zion heard, and was glad; the daughters of Judah rejoiced," Psalms 97:8.
4. And they rejoiced chiefly in knowing that their God "was high above all the earth, and exalted far above all gods," Psalms 97:9.
III. The expostulation, which gives us the character by which God's people may be known. He exhorts them to love God, and to hate evil. Hence we see that the true followers of God, 1. Love him; 2. Haste evil, as the infallible consequence of loving him, Psalms 97:10.
He shows them the gracious reward which God promises.
1. "He preserveth the souls of his saints." Often their lives, in an especial manner, are preserved by him; but always their souls. The accuser of the brethren shall not hurt them.
2. "He delivereth them out of the hands of the wicked." Sometimes out of their hand, that they fall not into it; and sometimes out of their hand, when they are in it. This is their first reward, Psalms 97:10.
A second reward is in the next verse: that in their miseries they shall be filled with spiritual happiness, when perhaps they little expect it: "Light is sown for the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart," Psalms 97:11.
1. By light we may understand a peculiar manifestation of God's favour; comfort, peace, and joy; or deliverance from their spiritual and temporal oppressors.
2. This is sown as a seed. For the light of comfort, of peace of conscience, and joy in the Holy Spirit, though it may be clouded in times of heaviness, through manifold temptations, yet it will spring forth again, like the corn, which, after it is sown, lies hidden for some time, under the clods of the earth; yet all that time it is vegetating and coming forth to public view. And deliverance from their enemies, though slow, will come; though the rod of the wicked come into the lot of the just, it shall not rest there.
3. From these premises the psalmist draws this conclusion: Since God is preparing those blessings for you that fear and love him, then, 1. "Rejoice in the Lord;" glory in him as the Fountain of your blessedness. 2. "Give thanks at the remembrance of his holiness." Remember the good he has done you, the grace he has bestowed on you, and the holiness you may yet receive from him; and rejoice in the encouragement, and give thanks. Rejoice that ye may be holy, for in that your happiness consists.