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Barnes' Notes on the New Testament

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Chapter 2
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Little is certainly known concerning the time and place of writing this Gospel, or concerning the author. The first time we have any mention of the author is in his own history, Acts 16:10,11. He was then the companion of Paul in his travel, and it is evident that he often attended Paul in his journeys, comp. Acts 16:11-17;; 21:1-6. In each of these places the author of "the Acts" speaks of his being in company with Paul. That the same person was the writer of this Gospel is also clear from Acts 1:1.

From this circumstance the ancients regarded this Gospel as in fact the Gospel which Paul had preached. They affirm that Luke recorded what the apostle preached. Thus Irenaeus says,

"Luke, the companion of Paul, put down in a book the gospel preached by him."

He also says,

"Luke was not only a companion, but also a fellow-labourer of the apostles, especially of Paul."

Origen, speaking of the Gospels, says,

"The third is that according to Luke, the gospel commended by Paul, published for the sake of the Gentile converts."

The testimony of the fathers is uniform that it was written by Luke, the companion of Paul, and was therefore regarded by them as really the gospel which Paul preached.

It is not known where it was written. Jerome says it was composed in Achaia. There seems to be some probability that it was written to persons that were well acquainted with Jewish manners, as the author does not stop to explain the peculiar customs of the Jews, as some of the other evangelists have done. Respecting the time when it was written nothing very definite is known. All that can with certainty be ascertained is that it was written before the death of Paul (A.D. 65), for it was written before the Acts (Acts 1:1), and that book only brings down the life of Paul to his imprisonment at Rome, and previous to his going into Spain.

It has been made a matter of inquiry whether Luke was a Gentile or a Jew. On this subject there is no positive testimony. Jerome and others of the fathers say that he was a Syrian, and born at Antioch. The most probable opinion seems to be that he was a proselyte to the Jewish religion, though descended from Gentile parents. For this opinion two reasons may be assigned of some weight. 1st. He was intimately acquainted, as appears by the Gospel and the Acts, with the Jewish rites, customs, opinions, and prejudices; and he wrote in their dialect, that is, with much of the Hebrew phraseology, in a style similar to the other evangelists, from which it appears that he was accustomed to the Jewish religion, and was, therefore, probably a proselyte. Yet the preface to his Gospel, as critics have remarked, is pure classic Greek, unlike the Greek that was used by native Jews; from which it seems not improbable that he was by birth and education a Gentile.

2nd. In Acts 21:27, it is said that the Asiatic Jews excited the multitude against Paul because he had introduced Gentiles into the temple, thus defiling it. In Acts 21:28 it is said that the Gentile to whom they had reference was Trophimus, an Ephesian. Yet Luke was also at that time with Paul. If he had been regarded as a Gentile it is probable that they would have made complaint respecting him as well as Trophimus; from which it is supposed that he was a Jewish proselyte.

But again, in the Epistle to the Colossians, 4:9-11, we find Paul saying that Aristarchus, and Marcus, and Barnabas, and Justus saluted them, "who are," he adds, "of the circumcision," that is, Jews by birth. In 4:14 he says that Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas also saluted them; from which it is inferred that they were not of the circumcision, but were by birth Gentiles.

Most writers suppose that Luke, the writer of this Gospel, was intended in the above place in Colossians. If so, his profession was that of a physician; and it has been remarked that his descriptions of diseases are more accurate and circumstantial, and have more of technical correctness than those of the other evangelists.

Luke does not profess to have been an eye-witness of what he recorded. See Luke 1:2,3. It is clear, therefore, that he was not one of the seventy disciples, nor one of the two who went to Emmaus, as has been sometimes supposed. Nor was he an apostle. By the fathers he is uniformly called the companion of the apostles, and especially of Paul.

If he was not one of the apostles, and if he was not one of those expressly commissioned by our Lord to whom the promise of the infallible teaching of the Holy Ghost was given, the question arises by what authority his Gospel and the Acts have a place in the sacred canon, or what evidence is there that he was divinely inspired?

In regard to this question the following considerations may give satisfaction:

1st. They were received by all the churches on the same footing as the first three Gospels. There is not a dissenting voice in regard to their authenticity and authority. The value of this argument is this--that if they had been spurious, or without authority, the fathers were the proper persons to know it.

2nd. They were published during the lives of the apostles Peter, Paul, and John, and were received during their lives as books of sacred authority. If the writings of Luke were not inspired, and had no authority, those apostles could easily have destroyed their credit, and we have reason to think it would have been done.

3rd. It is the united testimony of the fathers that this Gospel was submitted to Paul, and received his express approbation. It was regarded as the substance of his preaching, and if it received his approbation it comes to us on the authority of his name. Indeed, if this be the case, it rests on the same authority as the epistles of Paul himself.

4th. It bears the same marks of inspiration as the other books. It is simple, pure, yet sublime; there is nothing unworthy of God; and it is elevated far above the writings of any uninspired man.

5th. If he was not inspired--if, as we suppose, he was a Gentile by birth--and if, as is most clear, he was not an eyewitness witness of what he records, it is inconceivable that he did not contradict the other evangelists. That he did not borrow from them is clear. Nor is it possible to conceive that he could write a book varying in the order of its arrangement so much, and adding so many new facts, and repeating so many recorded also by the others, without often having contradicted what was written by them. Let any man compare this Gospel with the spurious gospels of the following centuries, and he will be struck with the force of this remark.

6th. If it be objected that, not being an apostle, he did not come within the promise of inspiration (John 14:26; 16:13,14) made to the apostles, it may be replied that this was also the case with Paul; yet no small part of the New Testament is composed of his writings. The evidence of the inspiration of the writings of Luke and Paul is to be judged, not only by that promise, but by the early reception of the churches; by the testimony of the fathers as to the judgment of inspired men when living, and by the internal character of the works. Luke has all these equally with the other evangelists.



Verse 1. Forasmuch as many. It has been doubted who are referred to here by the word many. It seems clear that it could not be the other evangelists, for the gospel by John was not yet written, and the word many denotes clearly more than two. Besides, it is said that they undertook to record what the eye-witnesses had delivered to them, so that the writers did not pretend to be eye-witnesses themselves. It is clear, therefore, that other writings are meant than the gospels which we now have, but what they were is a matter of conjecture. What are now known as spurious gospels were written long after Luke wrote his. It is probable that Luke refers to fragments of history, or to narratives of detached sayings, acts, or parables of our Lord, which had been made and circulated among the disciples and others. His doctrines were original, bold, pure, and authoritative. His miracles had been extraordinary, clear, and awful. His life and death had been peculiar; and it is not improbable--indeed it is highly probable--that such broken accounts and narratives of detached facts would be preserved. That this is what Luke means appears farther from Luke 1:3 where he professes to give a regular, full, and systematic account from the very beginning--

"having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first."

The records of the others --the "many"--were broken and incomplete. His were to be regular and full.

Taken in hand. Undertaken, attempted.

To set forth in order. To compose a narrative. It does not refer to the order or arrangement, but means simply to give a narrative. The word rendered here in order is different from that in the third verse, which has reference to order, or to a full and fair arrangement of the principal facts, &c., in the history of our Lord.

A declaration. A narrative -- an account of.

Which are most surely believed among us. Among Christians -- among all the Christians then living. Here we may remark -- 1st. That Christians of that day had the best of all opportunities for knowing whether those things were true. Many had seen them, and all others had had the account from those who had witnessed them.

2nd. That infidels now cannot possibly be as good judges in the matter as those who lived at the time, and who were thus competent to determine whether these things were true or false.

3rd. That all Christians do most surely believe the truth of the gospel. It is their life, their hope, their all. Nor can they doubt that their Saviour lived, bled, died, rose, and still lives; that he was their atoning sacrifice, and that he is God over all, blessed for ever.

Verse 2. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 3. It seemed good. I thought it best; or, I have also determined. It seemed to be called for that there should be a full, authentic, and accurate account of these matters.

Having had perfect understanding, &c. The literal translation of the original here would be,

"having exactly traced everything from the first;"


"having, by diligent and careful investigation, followed up everything to the source, to obtain an accurate account of the matter."

This much better expresses the idea. Luke did not profess to have seen these things, and this expression is designed to show how he acquired his information. It was by tracing up every account till he became satisfied of its truth. Here observe, 1st. That in religion God does not set aside our natural faculties. He calls us to look at evidence; to examine accounts; to make up our own minds. Nor will any man be convinced of the truth of religion who does not make investigation and set himself seriously to the task.

2nd. We see the nature of Luke's inspiration. It was consistent with his using his natural faculties or his own powers of mind in investigating the truth. God, by his Holy Spirit, presided over his faculties, directed them, and kept him from error.

In order. {c} This word does not indicate that the exact order of time would be observed, for that is not the way in which he writes; but it means distinctly, particularly, in opposition to the confused and broken accounts to which he had referred before.

Most excellent Theophilus. {d} The word Theophilus means a friend of God, or a pious man; and it has been supposed by some that Luke did not refer to any particular individual, but to any man that loved God; but there is no reason for this opinion. Significant names were very common, and there is no good reason to doubt that this was some individual known to Luke. The application of the title "most excellent" farther proves it. It would not be given to an unknown man. The title most excellent has by some been supposed to be given to express his character, but it is rather to be considered as denoting rank or office. It occurs only in three other places in the New Testament, and is there given to men in office -- to Felix and Festus, Acts 23:26;; 24:3;; 26:25. These titles express no quality of the men, but belong to the office; and we may hence learn that it is not improper for Christians, in giving honour to whom honour is due, to address men in office by their customary titles, even if their moral character be altogether unworthy of it. Who Theophilus was is unknown. It is probable that he was some distinguished Roman or Greek who had been converted, who was a friend of Luke, and who had requested an account of these things. It is possible that this preface might have been sent to him as a private letter with the gospel, and Theophilus chose to have them published together.

{c} Acts 11:4
{d} Acts 1:1

Verse 4. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 5. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 6. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 7. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 8.

Verse 9. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 10. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 15. Shall be great. {q} Shall be eminent, or distinguished as a preacher.

In the sight of the Lord. Greek, before the Lord. That is, shall be really or truly great. God shall regard him as such.

Shall drink neither wine. The kind of wine commonly used in Judea was a light wine, often not stronger than cider in this country. It was the common drink of all classes of the people. See Barnes "John 2:11". The use of wine was forbidden only to the Nazarite, Numbers 6:3. It was because John sustained this character that he abstained from the use of wine.

Strong drink. {r} It is not easy to ascertain precisely what is meant by this word, but we are certain that it does not mean strong drink in our sense of the term. Distilled spirits were not then known. The art of distilling was discovered by an Arabian chemist in the ninth or tenth century; but distilled liquors are not used by Arabians. They banished them at once, as if sensible of their pernicious influence; nor are they used in Eastern nations at all. Europe and America have been the places where this poison has been most extensively used, and there it has beggared and ruined millions, and is yearly sweeping thousands unprepared into a wretched eternity. The strong drink among the Jews was probably nothing more than fermented liquors, or a drink obtained from fermented dates, figs, and the juice of the palm, or the lees of wine, mingled with sugar, and having the property of producing intoxication. Many of the Jewish writers say that by the word here translated strong drink was meant nothing more than old wine, which probably had the power of producing intoxication. See Barnes "Isaiah 5:11".

Shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, {s} &c. Shall be divinely designated or appointed to this office, and qualified for it by all needful communications of the Holy Spirit. To be filled with the Holy Spirit is to be illuminated, sanctified, and guided by his influence. In this place it refers --

1st. To the divine intention that he should be set apart to this work, as God designed that Paul should be an apostle from his mother's womb, Galatians 1:15.

2nd. It refers to an actual fitting for the work from the birth by the influence of the Holy Spirit, as was the case with Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:5), and with the Messiah himself, Psalms 22:9,10.

{q} Luke 7:28
{r} Numbers 6:3
{s} Jeremiah 1:5

Verse 16. Children of Israel. Jews. Descendants of Israel or Jacob.

Shall he turn. By repentance. He shall call them from their sins, and persuade them to forsake them, and to seek the Lord their God.

Verse 17. Shall go before him. {t} Before the Messiah. The connection here leads us to suppose that the word him refers to the "Lord their God" in the previous verse. If so, then it will follow that the Messiah was the Lord God of Israel-- a character abundantly given him in other parts of the New Testament.

In the spirit and power of Elias.

See Barnes "Matthew 11:14"

To turn the hearts of the fathers to the children. In the time of John the Jews were divided into a number of different sects. See Barnes "Matthew 3:7". They were opposed violently to each other, and pursued their opposition with great animosity. It was impossible but that this opposition should find its way into families, and divide parents and children from each other. John came that he might allay these animosities and produce better feeling. By directing them all to one Master, the Messiah, he would divert their attention from the causes of their difference and bring them to union. He would restore peace to their families, and reconcile those parents and children who had chosen different sects, and who had suffered their attachment to sect to interrupt the harmony of their households. The effect of true religion on a family will always be to produce harmony. It attaches all the family to one great Master, and by attachment to him all minor causes of difference are forgotten.

And the disobedient to the wisdom of the just. The disobedient here are the unbelieving, and hence the impious, the wicked. These he would turn to the wisdom of the just, or to such wisdom as the just or pious manifest-- that is, to true wisdom.

To make ready a people {v}, &c. To prepare them for his coming by announcing that the Messiah was about to appear, and by calling them to repentance. God has always required men to be pure in a special manner when he was about to appear among them. Thus the Israelites were required to purify themselves for three days when he was about to come down on Mount Sinai, Exodus 19:14,15. And so, when God the Son was about to appear as the Redeemer, he required that men should prepare themselves for his coming. So in view of the future judgment--the second coming of the Son of man--he requires that men should repent, believe, and be pure, 1 Peter 4:7; 2 Peter 3:11,12.

{t} Malachi 4:5,6; Matthew 11:14; Mark 9:12,13
{u} Psalms 111:10

Verse 18. Whereby shall I know this? {w} The thing was improbable, and he desired evidence that it would take place. The testimony of an angel, and in such a place, should have been proof enough; but men are slow to believe the testimony of heavenly messengers. As a consequence of not believing, he was struck dumb.

{w} Genesis 17:17

Verse 19. I am Gabriel. The word Gabriel is made up of two Hebrew words, and signifies man of God. This angel is mentioned as having been deputed to inform Daniel that his prayers were heard. See Barnes "Daniel 8:16 9:21".

That stand in the presence of God. To stand in the presence of one is a phrase denoting honour or favour. To be admitted to the presence of a king, or to be with him, was a token of favour. So to stand before God signifies merely that he was honoured or favoured by God. He was permitted to come near him, and to see much of his glory. Comp. 1 Kings 10:8;; 12:6;; 17:1;; Proverbs 22:29.

And am sent, &c. The angels are "ministering spirits sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation," {y} Hebrews 1:7,14. They delight to do the will of God, and one way of doing that will is by aiding his children here, by succouring the afflicted, and by defending those who are in danger. There is no more absurdity or impropriety in supposing that angels may render such aid, than there is in supposing that good men may assist one another; and there can be no doubt that it affords high pleasure to the angels of God to be permitted to aid those who are treading the dangerous and trying path which leads to eternity. Holiness is the same as benevolence, and holy beings seek and love opportunities to do good to their fellow-creatures. In the eye of holy beings all God's creatures are parts of one great family, and whenever they can do them good they rejoice in the opportunity, at any sacrifice.

These glad tidings. This good news respecting the birth of a son.

{y} Hebrews 1:14

Verse 20. Because thou believest not {z} , &c. This was both a sign and a judgment-- a sign that he had come from God, and that the thing would be fulfilled; and a judgment for not giving credit to what he had said. There is no sin in the sight of God more aggravated than unbelief. When GOD speaks, man should believe; nor can he that will not believe escape punishment. God speaks only truth, and we should believe him. God speaks only what is for our good, and it is right that we should suffer if we do not credit what he says.

{z} Ezekiel 3:26

Verse 21. The people waited. That is, beyond the usual time.

Marvelled. Wondered. The priest, it is said, was not accustomed to remain in the temple more than half an hour commonly. Having remained on this occasion a longer time, the people became apprehensive of his safety, and wondered what had happened to him.

Verse 22. Had seen a vision. The word vision means sight, appearance, or spectre, and is commonly applied to spirits, or to beings from another world. When he came out of the temple, it is probable that they suspected that something of this nature had detained him there, and that, on inquiry of him, he signified by a nod that this was the case. He was unable to speak, and they had no way of "perceiving" it but by such a sign. On the word vision, See Barnes "Isaiah 1:1".

For he beckoned unto them. That is, by beckoning unto them, or by a sign, he informed them of what he had seen.

23. As soon as the days of his ministration, &c.

As soon as he had fulfilled the duties of the week. It might have been supposed that the extraordinary occurrence in the temple, together with his own calamity, would have induced him at once to leave this place and return home; but his duty was in the temple. His piety prompted him to remain there in the service of God. He was not unfitted for burning incense by his dumbness, and it was not proper for him to leave his post. It is the duty of ministers of religion to re- main at their work until they are unfitted for it, and unable to serve God in their profession. Then they must retire. But until that time, he that for trifling causes forsakes his post is guilty of unfaithfulness to his Master.

Verse 24. Hid herself. Did not go forth into public, and concealed her condition. This might have been done that she might spend her time more entirely. in giving praise to God for his mercies, and that she might have the fullest proof of the accomplishment of the promise before she appeared in public or spoke of the mercies of God.

Verse 25. Thus. In this merciful manner.

To take away my reproach {a}. Among the Jews, a family of children was counted a signal blessing, an evidence of the favour of God, Psalms 113:9; 128:3; Isaiah 4:1; 44:3,4; Leviticus 26:9. To be barren, therefore, or to be destitute of children, was considered a reproach or a disgrace, 1 Samuel 1:6.

{a} Genesis 30:23; 1 Samuel 1:6; Isaiah 54:1,4

Verse 26. In the sixth month. The sixth month after Elisabeth's conception.

A city of Galilee, named Nazareth.

See Barnes "Matthew 2:22,23".

Verse 27. To a virgin {b} espoused, &c. See Barnes "Matthew 1:18" See Barnes "Matthew 1:19" See Barnes "Isaiah 7:14"

House of David. Family of David, or descendants of David.

{b} Matthew 1:18

Verse 28. Hail {c} . This word of salutation is equivalent to Peace be with thee, or Joy be with thee; a form of speech implying that she was signally favoured, and expressing joy at meeting her.

Highly favoured {2}. By being the mother of the long-expected Messiah--the mother of the Redeemer of mankind. Long had he been predicted; long had the eyes of the nation been turned to him, and long had his coming been an object of intense desire. To be reckoned among his ancestors was accounted sufficient honour for even Abraham and David. But now the happy individual was designated who was to be his mother; and on Mary, a poor virgin of Nazareth, was to come this honour, which would have rendered infinitely illustrious any of the daughters of Adam--the honour of giving birth to the world's Redeemer and the Son of God.

The Lord is with thee {d} . The word is is not in the original, and the passage may be rendered either "the Lord is with thee," or "the Lord be with thee," implying the prayer of the angel that all blessings from God might descend and rest upon her.

Blessed art thou among women. This passage is equivalent to saying "thou art the most happy of women."

{c} Daniel 9:23
{2} or graciously accepted, or much graced
{d} Judges 6:12

Verse 29. Troubled at his saying. Disturbed or perplexed at what he said. It was so unexpected, so sudden, so extraordinary, and was so high an honour, that she was filled with anxious thoughts, and did not know what to make of it.

Cast in her mind. Thought, or revolved in her mind.

What manner of salutation. What this salutation could mean.

Verse 30. Fear not, Mary. Do not be alarmed at this appearance of an angel. He only comes to announce to you good tidings. Similar language was addressed by an angel to Joseph.

See Barnes "Matthew 1:20".

Thou hast found favour with God. Eminent favour or mercy in being selected to be the mother of the Messiah.

Verse 31. And, behold, {e} thou shalt conceive in thy womb.

See Barnes "Isaiah 7:14".

And shalt call his name Jesus. A Saviour.

See Barnes "Matthew 1:21".

All this was announced, also, by an angel to Joseph, after this visitation to Mary.

See Barnes "Matthew 1:20,21".

{e} Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:21

Verse 32. He shall be {f} great. There is undoubted reference in this passage to Isaiah 9:6,7. By his being great is meant he shall be distinguished or illustrious; great in power, in wisdom, in dominion, on earth and in heaven.

Shall be {g} called. This is the same as to say he shall be the Son, &c. The Hebrews often used this form of speech. Matthew 21:13.

The {h} Highest. God, who is infinitely exalted; called the Highest, because he is exalted over all his creatures on earth and in heaven. Mark 5:7.

The throne. The kingdom; or shall appoint him as the lineal successor of David in the kingdom.

His father David. David is called his father because Jesus was lineally descended from him. Matthew 1:1. The promise to David was, that there should not fail a man to sit on his throne, or that his throne should be perpetual, and the promise was fulfilled by exalting Jesus to be a Prince and a Saviour, and the perpetual King of his people.

{f} Matthew 1:21
{g} Hebrews 1:2-8
{h} 2 Samuel 7:11,12; Isaiah 9:6,7

Verse 33. Over the house of Jacob. The house of Jacob means the same thing as the family of Jacob, or the descendants of Jacob--that is, the children of Israel. This was the name by which the ancient people of God were known, and it is the same as saying that he would reign over his own church and people for ever. This he does by giving them laws, by defending them, and by guiding them; and this he will do for ever in the kingdom of his glory.

{i} Of his kingdom there shall be no end. He shall reign among his people on earth until the end of time, and be their king for ever in heaven. His is the only kingdom that shall never have an end; He the only King that shall never lay aside his diadem and robes, and that shall never die. He the only King that can defend us from all our enemies, sustain us in death, and reward us in eternity. O how important, then, to have an interest in his kingdom! and how unimportant, compared with his favour, is the favour of all earthly monarchs!

{i} Daniel 7:14,27; Micah 4:7

Verse 34. See Barnes "Luke 1:35". No material from Barnes on this particular verse.

Verse 35. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee. Matthew 1:20.

The power of the Highest, &c. This evidently means that the body of Jesus would be created by the direct power of God. It was not by ordinary generation; but, as the Messiah came to redeem sinners--to make atonement for others, and not for himself--it was necessary that his human nature should be pure, and free from the corruption of the fall. God therefore prepared him a body by direct creation that should be pure and holy. See Hebrews 10:5.

That holy thing, &c. That holy progeny or child.

Shall be called {k} the Son of God. This is spoken in reference to the human nature of Christ, and this passage proves, beyond controversy, that one reason why Jesus was called the Son of God was because he was begotten in a supernatural manner. He is also called the Son of God on account of his resurrection, Romans 1:4;; Acts 13:33; Psalms 2:7.

Verse 36. Thy cousin Elisabeth, &c. The case of Elisabeth is mentioned to inspire Mary with confidence, and to assure her that what was now promised would be fulfilled. It was almost as improbable that Elisabeth should have a child at her time of life, as it was that Mary should under the circumstances promised.

Verse 37. No Barnes text on this verse.

{l} "For with God" Matthew 19:26; Romans 4:21

Verse 38. And Mary said, Behold the handmaid {m}, &c. This was an expression of resignation to the will of God, and of faith in the promise. To be the hand-maid of the Lord is to be submissive and obedient, and is the same as saying, "I fully credit all that is said, and am perfectly ready to obey all the commands of the Lord."

{m} Psalms 116:16
{n} "according to thy word" Psalms 119:38

Verse 39. And Mary arose. The word arose here is equivalent to setting out, or starting on a journey.

The hill country. The region in the vicinity of Jerusalem, commonly called the hill country of Judea.

City of Juda. What city is meant is not known. Some have supposed it to be Jerusalem, others Hebron; but all is conjecture. It was probably a Levitical city, and the residence of Zacharias when he was not employed in the temple.

Verse 40. Saluted Elisabeth. Expressed great joy and gratification at seeing her, and used the customary tokens of affectionate salutation.

Verse 41. Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost. The meaning of this seems to be that she was filled with joy; with a disposition to praise God; with a prophetic spirit, or a knowledge of the character of the child that should be born of her. All these were produced by the Holy Ghost.

Verse 42.{p} Blessed art thou among women. She here repeated nearly the words of the angel to Mary, esteeming it to be the highest honour among mothers to be the mother of the Messiah. See Barnes "Luke 1:28"

{p} Judges 5:24; Luke 1:28

Verse 43. And whence is this to me? An expression of humility. Why is it that the mother of my Lord {q} should come to me, as if to honour me?

Mother of my Lord. The word Lord sometimes denotes divinity, and sometimes superior, master, teacher, or governor. It was given by the Jews to their expected Messiah; but whether they understood it as denoting divinity cannot now be ascertained. It is clear only that Elisabeth used it as denoting great dignity and honour.

{q} John 13:13

Verse 44. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 45. Blessed is she {3} that believed. That is, Mary, who believed what the angel spoke to her. She was blessed not only in the act of believing, but because the thing promised would certainly be fulfilled.

From these expressions of Elisabeth we may learn--

1st. That the spirit of prophecy had not entirely ceased among the Jews.

2nd. That the Holy Ghost is the source of light, comfort, and joy.

3rd. That everything about the birth of Jesus was remarkable, and that he must have been more than a mere man.

4th. That the prospect of the coming of the Messiah was one of great joy and rejoicing to ancient saints; and,

5th. That it was a high honour to be the mother of him that should redeem mankind. It is from that honour that the Roman Catholics have determined that it is right to worship the Virgin Mary and to offer prayers to her--an act of worship as idolatrous as any that could be offered to a creature. For--

1st. It is not anywhere commanded in the Bible.

2nd. It is expressly forbidden to worship any being but God, Exodus 34:14; 20:4,5; Deuteronomy 6:13,14; Isaiah 45:20.

3rd. It is idolatry to worship or pray to a creature.

4th. It is absurd to suppose that the Virgin Mary can be in all places at the same time to hear the prayers of thousands at once, or to aid them. There is no idolatry more gross, and of course more wicked, than to worship the creature more than the Creator, Romans 1:25.

{3} or, which believed that there shall be

Verse 46. {r} My soul doth magnify the Lord. To magnify means to make great, and then to extol, to praise, to celebrate. It does not mean here strictly to make great, but to increase in our estimation --that is, to praise or extol. See Psalms 34:3;; 2 Samuel 7:26.

{r} 1 Samuel 2:1; Psalms 34:2,3

Verse 47. In God my Saviour. God is called Saviour, as he saves people from sin and death. He was Mary's Saviour, as he had redeemed her soul and given her a title to eternal life; and she rejoiced {s} for that, and especially for his mercy in honouring her by her being made the mother of the Messiah.

{s} Psalms 35:9; Habakkuk 3:18

Verse 48. He hath regarded the {t} low estate of his handmaid. Literally, he has looked upon the low or humble condition of his handmaid. That is, notwithstanding her humble rank and poverty, he has shown her favour. And this example abundantly teaches what is elsewhere fully taught in the Bible, that God is not a respecter of persons; that he is not influenced, in conferring favours, by wealth, honour, or office, Romans 2:11;; 10:11,12. He seeks the humble and the contrite; he imparts his rich blessings to those who feel that they need them, and who will bless him for them, Psalms 138:6;; Isaiah 57:15.

From henceforth. Hereafter, or in consequence of this.

All generations. All men. All posterity.

{u} Call me blessed. Pronounce me highly favoured or happy in being the mother of the Messiah. It is therefore right to consider her as highly favoured or happy; but this certainly does not warrant us to worship her or to pray to her. Abraham was blessed in being the father of the faithful; Paul in being the apostle to the Gentiles; Peter in first preaching the gospel to them; but who would think of worshipping or praying to Abraham, Paul, or Peter?

{t} Psalms 136:23
{u} Malachi 3:12; Luke 11:27

Verse 49. He that is {v} mighty. God.

Hath done to me {w} great things. Hath conferred on me great favours and distinguished mercies.

And holy {x} is his name. This is an expression of Mary's feelings, desiring to bestow on God all honour and praise. As the highest honour, she declared that his name was holy--that is, that God was free from sin, injustice, and impurity. The "name" of God is often put for God himself. The proper name of God is Jehovah, a word expressive of his essential being, derived from the word to be, Exodus 3:14;; 6:3;; Psalms 83:18. That name is holy; is to be regarded as holy; and to make a common or profane use of it is solemnly forbidden, Exodus 20:7.

{v} Genesis 17:1
{w} Psalms 71:21; 126:2,3; Ephesians 3:20
{x} Psalms 111:9

Verse 50. His {y} mercy. Favour shown to the miserable and the guilty.

Is on them. Is shown or manifested to them.

That fear him. That reverence or honour him. One kind of fear is that which a servant has of a cruel master, or which a man has of a precipice, the plague, or death. This is not the fear which we ought to have toward God. It is the fear which a dutiful child has of a kind and virtuous father -- a fear of injuring his feelings; of dishonouring him by our life; of doing anything which he would disapprove. It is on those who have such fear of God that his mercy descends. This is the fear of the Lord which is the beginning of wisdom, Psalms 111:10; Job 28:28.

From generation to generation. From one age to another --that is, it is unceasing; it continues and abounds. But it means also more than this. It means that God's mercy will descend on the children and children's children of those that fear him and keep his commandments, Exodus 20:6. In this respect it is an unspeakable privilege to be descended from pious parents; to have been the subject of their prayers, and to have received their blessing. It is also a matter of vast guilt not to copy their example and to walk in their steps. If God is disposed to show mercy to thousands of generations, how heavy will be the condemnation if the children of pious parents do not avail themselves of it and early seek his favour!

{y} Genesis 17:17; Exodus 20:6; Psalms 103:17

Verse 51. {z} Hath showed strength with his arm. The arm is the symbol of strength. The expression in this and the subsequent verses has no particular reference to his mercy to Mary. From a contemplation of his goodness to her, she enlarges her views to a contemplation of his goodness and power in general, and to a celebration of the praises of God for all that he has done to all men. This is the nature of true piety. It does not terminate in thinking of God's mercy toward ourselves. It thinks of others, and praises God that others also are made partakers of his mercy, and that his goodness is manifested to all his works.

He {a} scattereth the proud. He hath often done it in time of battle and war. When the proud Assyrian, Egyptian, or Babylonian had come against the people of God, he had often scattered them and driven away their armies.

In the imagination of their hearts. Those who were lifted up or exalted in their own view. Those who thought themselves to be superior to other men.

{z} Psalms 98:1; Isaiah 51.9; 52:10; 63:5
{a} 1 Samuel 2:9; Daniel 4:37

Verse 52. Hath put down the mighty {b}. The mighty here denotes princes, kings, or conquerors. See Isaiah 14:12-14.

Their seats. Their thrones, or the places where they sat in pomp and power.

Exalted them. Raised them up, or placed them in the seats of those who had been removed.

Low degree. Low or humble birth and condition in life. This probably has reference to the case of her ancestor David. Mary was celebrating the mercies of God to herself, to her family, and of course to her ancestors. It was natural to allude to that great event in their history when Saul was overcome in battle, and when David was taken from the sheepfold and placed on the throne. The origin of illustrious families is often obscure. Men are often raised by industry, talent, and the favour of God, from very humble stations --from the farm or mechanic's shop-- to places of great trust in the church and state. They who are thus elevated, if imbued with right feelings, will not despise their former employments nor their former companions, nor will they esteem their parents or friends the less because they still remain in the same rank in life. No conduct is more odious and unchristian than to be ashamed of our birth or the humble circumstances of our friends.

{b} Job 5:11; Luke 18:14

Verse 53. He hath {c} filled the hungry with good things. This is a celebration of the general mercy of God. He hath daily fed the poor, the needy, and those who came to him with humble hearts.

The rich he hath sent, &c. While the poor come to him for a supply of their daily wants, the rich come not that their necessities should be supplied, but come with lofty hearts, and insatiable desires that their riches may be increased. When this is the case, God not unfrequently not only withholds what they ask, but he takes their riches away by fire, or flood, or disappointments, and sends them away empty, Proverbs 23:5. It is better to be poor and go to God for our daily bread, than to be rich and forget our dependence on him, and to seek only a great increase of our property.

{c} 1 Samuel 2:5

Verse 54. Hath holpen. Hath helped or assisted. The word rendered "holpen" denotes properly, to take hold of one, to help him up when he is in danger of falling, and here means that God had succoured his people when they were feeble, and were in danger of falling or being overthrown.

His servant Israel. His people the Israelites, or those who truly feared him and kept his commandments. See Isaiah 41:8,9; Hosea 11:1.

In remembrance {d} of his mercy. Or that his mercy may be remembered.

{d} Psalms 98:3

Verse 55. As he spake {e} to our fathers, &c. That is, he has dealt mercifully with the children of Israel, according as he promised Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The promise particularly here referred to is that respecting the Messiah which was now about to be fulfilled; but there is no doubt that there was also included the promises respecting all the other mercies which had been conferred on the children of Israel. See Genesis 22:17,18.

For ever. These words are to be referred to the preceding verse-- "in remembrance of his mercy for ever, to Abraham and to his seed for ever.

{e} Genesis 17:19; Psalms 132:11

Verse 56. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 57. No Barnes text on this verse.

Verse 58. No Barnes text on this verse."

{f} "rejoiced" {f} Luke 1:14

Verse 59. On the eighth day. This was the day on which it was required to circumcise children, Genesis 21:4.

And they called him Zacharias. The name of the child was commonly given at the time of the circumcision, Genesis 21:3,4. The name commonly given to the eldest son was that of the father.

Verse 60. Shall be called John. This was the name which the angel had said should be given to him, of which Zacharias had probably informed Elisabeth by writing.

Verse 61. There is none of thy kindred, &c. The Jewish tribes and families were kept distinct. To do this, and to avoid confusion in their genealogical tables, they probably gave only those names which were found among their ancestors. Another reason for this, common to all people, is the respect which is felt for honoured parents and ancestors.

Verse 62. No entry from BARNES for this verse.

Verse 63. He asked. That is, by signs.

A writing table. The table denoted by this word was usually made of wood and covered with wax. The ancients used to write on such tables, as they had not the use of paper. The instrument used for writing was an iron pen or style, by which they marked on the wax which covered the table. Sometimes the writing-table was made entirely of lead.

{g} "John" Luke 1:13

Verse 64. His mouth {h} was opened, &c. That is, he was enabled to speak. For nine months he had been dumb, and it is probable that they supposed that he had been afflicted with a paralytic affection, and that he would not recover. Hence their amazement when he spoke. For one act of disbelief all this calamity had come upon him, and it had not come without effect. With true gratitude he offered praise to God for the birth of a son, and for his restoration to the blessings of speech.

{h} Luke 1:20

Verse 65. And fear came, &c. The word fear often denotes religious reverence. The remarkable circumstances attending the birth of John, and the fact that Zacharias was suddenly restored to speech, convinced them that God was there, and filled their minds with awe and veneration.

{4} "sayings" or "things"

Verse 66. What manner of child, &c. Such were the remarkable circumstances of his birth that they apprehended that he would be distinguished as a prophet, or that great events would result from his life.

The hand {k} of the Lord was with him. The word hand is used to denote aid, protection, favour. We stretch out the hand to aid those whom we wish to help. The expression here means that God aided him, protected him, or showed him favour. Some think that these words are a part of the speech of the neighbours -- "What manner of child shall this be? God is so evidently with him!"

{i} "laid them up" Luke 2:19,51
{k} Psalms 80:17

Verse 67. Filled with the Holy Ghost. See Luke 1:15.

And prophesied. The word prophesy means --

1st. To foretell future events.

2nd. To celebrate the praises of God (see 1 Samuel 10:5,6; 1 Kings 18:29); then to,

3rd. Teach or preach the gospel, &c. See Barnes " :". This song of Zacharias partakes of all. It is principally employed in the praises of god, but it also predicts the future character and preaching of John.

Verse 68. \\Blessed\\. {l} See Barnes "Matthew 5:3".

Hath visited. The word here rendered visited means properly to look upon; then to look upon in order to know the state of anyone; then to visit for the purposed of aiding those who need aid, or alleviating misery. Comp. Matthew 25:43. In this sense it is used here. God looked upon the world-- he saw it miserable-- he came to relieve it, and brought salvation.

And redeemed. That is, was about to redeem, or had given the pledge that he would redeem. This was spoken under the belief that the Messiah, the Redeemer, was about to appear, and would certainly accomplish his work. The literal translation of this passage is, "He hath made a ransom for his people." A ransom was the price paid to deliver a captive taken in war. A is a prisoner taken in war by B. B has a right to detain him as a prisoner by the laws of war, but C offers B a price if he will release A and suffer him to go at liberty. The price which he pays, and which must be satisfactory to B--that is, be a reason to B why he should release him--is called a price or ransom. Men are sinners. They are bound over to just punishment by the law. The law is holy, and God, as a just governor, must see that the law is honoured and the wicked punished; but if anything can be done which will have the same good effect as the punishment of the sinner, or which will be an equivalent for it--that is, be of equal value to the universe--God may consistently release him. If he can show the same hatred of sin, and deter others from sinning, and secure the purity of the sinner, the sinner may be released. Whatever will accomplish this is called a ransom, because it is, in the eye of God, a sufficient reason, why the sinner should not be punished; it is an equivalent for his sufferings, and God is satisfied. The blood of Jesus -- that is, his death in the place of sinners--constitutes such a ransom. It is in their stead. It is for them. It is equivalent to their punishment. It is not itself a punishment, for that always supposes personal crime, but it is what God is pleased to accept in the place of the eternal sufferings of the sinner. The king of the Locrians made a law that an adulterer should be punished with the loss of his eyes. His son was the first offender, and the father decreed that his son should lose one eye, and he himself one also. This was the ransom. He showed his love, his regard for the honour of his law, and the determination that the guilty should not escape. So God gave his Son a ransom to show his love, his regard to justice, and his willingness to save men; and his Son, in his death, was a ransom. He is often so called in the New Testament, Matthew 20:28;; Mark 10:45;; Titus 2:14;; Hebrews 9:12. For a fuller view of the nature of a ransom, See Barnes "Romans 3:24,25".

{l} Psalms 72:18

Verse 69. And hath raised up a horn. A horn is a symbol of strength. The figure is taken from the fact that in horned animals the strength lies in the horn. Particularly, the great power of the rhinoceros or unicorn is manifested by the use of a single horn of great strength, placed on the head near the end of the nose. When the sacred writers, therefore, speak of great strength they often use the word horn, Psalms 148:14;; Deuteronomy 33:17;; Daniel 7:7,8;; 8:21. The word salvation, connected here with the word horn, means that this strength, or this mighty Redeemer, was able to save. It is possible that this whole figure may be taken from the Jewish altar. On each of the four corners of the altar there was an eminence or small projection called a horn. To this persons might flee for safety when in danger, and be safe, 1 Kings 1:50;; 2:28. Comp. See Barnes "Luke 1:11". So the Redeemer may be called the "horn of salvation," because those who flee to him are safe.

In the house. In the family, or among the descendants of David.

Verse 70. His holy prophets, &c. All the prophets are said to have referred to the Messiah, from the beginning of the world. The most striking of these were Jacob (Genesis 49:10); Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15); Isaiah (Isaiah 9:6,7; 53:1-12).

Since the world began. This is not to be taken literally, for there were no prophets immediately after the creation. It is merely a general expression, designed to denote that all the prophets had predicted the coming of the Messiah. Comp. See Barnes "Luke 24:27" See Barnes "Revelation 19:10"

{n} "spake" Jeremiah 23:5,6; Daniel 9:24

Verse 71. {o} Saved from our enemies. The enemies of man are his sins, his carnal propensities, his lusts, and the great adversary Satan and his angels, who continually seek to destroy him. From these the Messiah came to save us. Comp. Genesis 3:15;; Matthew 1:21.

The hand. The power; or to save us from them.

{o} Isaiah 54:7-17; Jeremiah 30:10,11
{p} Leviticus 26:42; Psalms 105:8-10; Ezekiel 16:60

Verse 72. To perform the mercy. To show the mercy promised. The expression in the original is, "To make mercy with our fathers "-- that is, to show kindness to our fathers; and the propriety of it is founded on the fact that mercy to children is regarded as kindness to the parent. Blessing the children was blessing the nation; was fulfilling the promises made to the fathers, and showing that he regarded them in mercy.

His holy covenant. The word covenant means compact or agreement. This is in use among men. It implies equality in the parties; freedom from constraint; freedom from previous obligation to do the thing now covenanted; and freedom from obligation to enter into a compact, unless a man chooses so to do. Such a transaction evidently can never take place between man and God, for they are not equal. Man is not at liberty to decline what God proposes, and he is under obligation to do all that God commands. When the word covenant, therefore, is used in the Bible, it means sometimes a command; sometimes a promise; sometimes a regular law -- as the covenant of the day and night; and sometimes the way in which God dispenses mercy--that is, by the old and new covenants. In the place before us it means the promise made to Abraham, as the following verses clearly show.

Verse 73. The oath {q}. This oath is recorded in Genesis 22:16,17. It was an oath in which God swore by himself (because he could swear by no greater, Hebrews 6:13,14) that he would surely bless Abraham and his posterity. That promise was now to be entirely fulfilled by the coming of the Messiah.

{q} Genesis 22:16,17

Verse 74. Might serve him. Might obey, honour, and worship him. This was regarded as a favour. This was what was promised, and for this Zacharias praised God.

Without fear. Fear of death, of spiritual enemies, or of external foes. In the sure hope of God's eternal favour beyond the grave.

{r} "might serve him without fear" Romans 6:22

Verse 75. In holiness, &c. In piety and strict justice.

Before him. In the presence of God. Performed as in his presence, and with the full consciousness that he sees the heart. The holiness was not to be merely external, but spiritual, internal, pure, such as God would see and approve.

All the days {t} of our life. To death. True religion increases and expands till death.

{t} Revelation 2:10

Verse 76. And thou, child, &c. Zacharias predicts in this and the following verses the dignity, the employment, and the success of John. He declares what would be the subject of his preaching, and what his success.

Prophet of the Highest. Prophet of God; a prophet appointed by God to declare his will, and to prepare the way for the coming of the Messiah.

The face of the Lord. The Lord Jesus, the Messiah, that was about to appear. To go before the face of one is the same as to go immediately before one, or to be immediately followed by another.

To prepare his ways. This is taken from Isaiah 40:3 See Barnes "Matthew 3:3" See Barnes "Isaiah 40:3"

{u} "go before the face" Malachi 3:1

Verse 77. To give knowledge of salvation. Knowledge of the way of salvation; that it was provided, and that the author of salvation was about to appear.

By the remission {v} of their sins. The word remission means pardon or forgiveness. It implies that God will treat the sinner as if he had not committed the sin. The idea here is, that the salvation about to be offered was that which was connected with the pardon of sin. There can be no other. God cannot treat men as his friends unless they come to him by repentance and obtain forgiveness. When that is obtained, which he is always disposed to grant, they can be treated with kindness and mercy.

{5} "by" or "for"
{v} Acts 5:31

Verse 78. Whereby the dayspring, &c. The word dayspring {7} means the morning light, the aurora, the rising of the sun. It is called the dayspring from on high because the light of the gospel shines forth from heaven. God is its author, and through his mercy it shines on men. There is here, doubtless, a reference to Isaiah 40:1,2; indeed, almost the very words of that place are quoted. Comp. also Revelation 22:16.

{6} "tender mercy" or "bowels of the mercy"
{7} "dayspring" or "sunrising" or "branch" Isaiah 11:1; Zechariah 3:8; 6:12

Verse 79. To give light {w} , &c.

See Barnes "Matthew 4:16", guide our feet, &c. The figure in these verses is taken from travellers, who, being overtaken by night, know not what to do, and who wait patiently for the morning light, that they may know which way to go. So man wandered. So he became benighted. So he sat in the shadow of death. So he knew not which way to go until the Sun of righteousness arose, and then the light shone brightly on his way, and the road was open to the promised land of rest--to heaven.

This song of Zacharias is exceedingly beautiful. It expresses with elegance the great points of the plan of redemption, and the mercy of God in providing that plan. That mercy is great. It is worthy of praise--of our highest, loftiest songs of thanksgiving; for we were in the shadow of death--sinful, wretched, wandering--and the light arose, the gospel came, and men may rejoice in hope of eternal life.

{w} Isaiah 9:2; 49:9

Verse 80. Waxed strong in spirit. That is, in courage, understanding, and purposes of good, fitting him for his future work. The word wax means to increase, to grow, from an old Saxon word.

In the deserts. In Hebron, and in the hill country where his father resided. He dwelt in obscurity, and was not known publicly by the people.

Until the day of his showing. Until he entered on his public ministry, as recorded in Matthew 3; --that is, probably, until he was about thirty years of age. See Luke 3.

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Bibliography Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 1". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". <>.  


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